Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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J.C. Villasboas Bisneto, MD
Rochester, MN

Are you looking for a regimen, such as CHOP, but can't find it here? It is possible that we've moved it to the historical regimens page. If you still can't find it, please let us know so we can add it!

81 regimens on this page
127 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ESMO

NCCN

Untreated, pre-phase

Vincristine & Prednisone

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Variant #1, PO vincristine

Study Evidence
Peyrade et al. 2016 (LYSA LNH09-7B) Phase II

Chemotherapy

7-day course

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, IV vincristine

Study Evidence
Pfreundschuh et al. 2004 (NHL-B1) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Pfreundschuh et al. 2004 (NHL-B2) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Pfreundschuh et al. 2008 (RICOVER-60) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Pfreundschuh et al. 2014 (SMARTE-R-CHOP-14) Phase II

Recommended in NHL-B1 and NHL-B2 "to improve the performance status of patients and to ameliorate side-effects of the first chemotherapy cycle." Mandated in RICOVER-60 and SMARTE-R-CHOP-14. Note: NHL-B1 gave the option of a 5 to 7 day course of prednisone.

Chemotherapy

7-day course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NHL-B1: Pfreundschuh M, Trümper L, Kloess M, Schmits R, Feller AC, Rudolph C, Reiser M, Hossfeld DK, Metzner B, Hasenclever D, Schmitz N, Glass B, Rübe C, Loeffler M; German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group. Two-weekly or 3-weekly CHOP chemotherapy with or without etoposide for the treatment of young patients with good-prognosis (normal LDH) aggressive lymphomas: results of the NHL-B1 trial of the DSHNHL. Blood. 2004 Aug 1;104(3):626-33. Epub 2004 Feb 24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. NHL-B2: Pfreundschuh M, Trümper L, Kloess M, Schmits R, Feller AC, Rübe C, Rudolph C, Reiser M, Hossfeld DK, Eimermacher H, Hasenclever D, Schmitz N, Loeffler M; German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group. Two-weekly or 3-weekly CHOP chemotherapy with or without etoposide for the treatment of elderly patients with aggressive lymphomas: results of the NHL-B2 trial of the DSHNHL. Blood. 2004 Aug 1;104(3):634-41. Epub 2004 Mar 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. RICOVER-60: Pfreundschuh M, Schubert J, Ziepert M, Schmits R, Mohren M, Lengfelder E, Reiser M, Nickenig C, Clemens M, Peter N, Bokemeyer C, Eimermacher H, Ho A, Hoffmann M, Mertelsmann R, Trümper L, Balleisen L, Liersch R, Metzner B, Hartmann F, Glass B, Poeschel V, Schmitz N, Ruebe C, Feller AC, Loeffler M; German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Six versus eight cycles of bi-weekly CHOP-14 with or without rituximab in elderly patients with aggressive CD20+ B-cell lymphomas: a randomised controlled trial (RICOVER-60). Lancet Oncol. 2008 Feb;9(2):105-16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. SMARTE-R-CHOP-14: Pfreundschuh M, Poeschel V, Zeynalova S, Hänel M, Held G, Schmitz N, Viardot A, Dreyling MH, Hallek M, Mueller C, Wiesen MH, Witzens-Harig M, Truemper L, Keller U, Rixecker T, Zwick C, Murawski N. Optimization of rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (II): extended rituximab exposure time in the SMARTE-R-CHOP-14 trial of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 20;32(36):4127-33. Epub 2014 Nov 17. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jun 10;33(17):1991. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. LYSA LNH09-7B: Peyrade F, Bologna S, Delwail V, Emile JF, Pascal L, Fermé C, Schiano JM, Coiffier B, Corront B, Farhat H, Fruchart C, Ghesquieres H, Macro M, Tilly H, Choufi B, Delarue R, Fitoussi O, Gabarre J, Haioun C, Jardin F. Combination of ofatumumab and reduced-dose CHOP for diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in patients aged 80 years or older: an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial from the LYSA group. Lancet Haematol. 2017 Jan;4(1):e46-e55. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Untreated, randomized data

ACVBP-R

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ACVBP-R: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Vindesine, Bleomycin, Prednisone, Rituximab
R-ACVBP: Rituximab, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Vindesine, Bleomycin, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Récher et al. 2011 (LNH03-2B) Phase III R-CHOP Superior OS Increased toxicity
Ketterer et al. 2013 (LNH03-1B) Phase III ACVBP Seems to have superior PFS Similar toxicity

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

Supportive medications

  • Filgrastim (Neupogen) 300 mcg (for patients less than 75 kg) or 480 mcg (for patients greater than or equal to 75 kg) SC once per day on days 6 to 13

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. LNH03-2B: Récher C, Coiffier B, Haioun C, Molina TJ, Fermé C, Casasnovas O, Thiéblemont C, Bosly A, Laurent G, Morschhauser F, Ghesquières H, Jardin F, Bologna S, Fruchart C, Corront B, Gabarre J, Bonnet C, Janvier M, Canioni D, Jais JP, Salles G, Tilly H; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. Intensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab versus standard CHOP plus rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-2B): an open-label randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Nov 26;378(9806):1858-67. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. LNH03-1B: Ketterer N, Coiffier B, Thieblemont C, Fermé C, Brière J, Casasnovas O, Bologna S, Christian B, Connerotte T, Récher C, Bordessoule D, Fruchart C, Delarue R, Bonnet C, Morschhauser F, Anglaret B, Soussain C, Fabiani B, Tilly H, Haioun C. Phase III study of ACVBP versus ACVBP plus rituximab for patients with localized low-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-1B). Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr;24(4):1032-7. Epub 2012 Dec 12. link to original article PubMed

DA-R-EPOCH

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DA-R-EPOCH: Dose Adjusted Rituximab, Etoposide, Prednisone, Oncovin (Vincristine), Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin)
DA-EPOCH-R

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
García-Suárez et al. 2007 Phase II
Wilson et al. 2008 Phase II
Wilson et al. 2012 Phase II
Purroy et al. 2014 Phase II
Wilson et al. 2016 (CALGB 50303) Phase III R-CHOP Seems not superior Increased toxicity

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

Dose modifications

  • Start cycle 1 as described above.
  • Obtain CBCs twice per week for nadir measurements.
  • If nadir ANC greater than 500/uL, increase etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide by 20% compared to previous cycle.
  • If nadir ANC less than 500/uL on 1 or 2 measurements, use same doses as last cycle.
  • If nadir ANC less than 500/uL on at least 3 measurements, decrease etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide by 20% compared to previous cycle.
  • And/or if nadir platelet count less than 25 × 109/L on at least 1 measurement, decrease etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide by 20% compared to previous cycle.
  • Dose adjustments below the cycle 1 starting dose only applies to cyclophosphamide. The lowest etoposide and doxorubicin would be dosed at is the original cycle 1 dose.
  • Can start new cycle every 21 days if ANC greater than 1000/uL and platelets greater than 100 × 109/L. If counts are below those levels, check daily CBC and continue growth factor support until counts are adequate and next cycle can start.

References

  1. García-Suárez J, Bañas H, Arribas I, De Miguel D, Pascual T, Burgaleta C. Dose-adjusted EPOCH plus rituximab is an effective regimen in patients with poor-prognostic untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results from a prospective observational study. Br J Haematol. 2007 Jan;136(2):276-85. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Wilson WH, Dunleavy K, Pittaluga S, Hegde U, Grant N, Steinberg SM, Raffeld M, Gutierrez M, Chabner BA, Staudt L, Jaffe ES, Janik JE. Phase II study of dose-adjusted EPOCH and rituximab in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with analysis of germinal center and post-germinal center biomarkers. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 1;26(16):2717-24. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Wilson WH, Jung SH, Porcu P, Hurd D, Johnson J, Martin SE, Czuczman M, Lai R, Said J, Chadburn A, Jones D, Dunleavy K, Canellos G, Zelenetz AD, Cheson BD, Hsi ED; Cancer Leukemia Group B. A Cancer and Leukemia Group B multi-center study of DA-EPOCH-rituximab in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with analysis of outcome by molecular subtype. Haematologica. 2012 May;97(5):758-65. Epub 2011 Dec 1. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Purroy N, Bergua J, Gallur L, Prieto J, Lopez LA, Sancho JM, García-Marco JA, Castellví J, Montes-Moreno S, Batlle A, de Villambrosia SG, Carnicero F, Ferrando-Lamana L, Piris MA, Lopez A. Long-term follow-up of dose-adjusted EPOCH plus rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) in untreated patients with poor prognosis large B-cell lymphoma: a phase II study conducted by the Spanish PETHEMA group. Br J Haematol. 2015 Apr;169(2):188-98. Epub 2014 Dec 18. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Retrospective: Howlett C, Snedecor SJ, Landsburg DJ, Svoboda J, Chong EA, Schuster SJ, Nasta SD, Feldman T, Rago A, Walsh KM, Weber S, Goy A, Mato A. Front-line, dose-escalated immunochemotherapy is associated with a significant progression-free survival advantage in patients with double-hit lymphomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Haematol. 2015 Aug;170(4):504-14. Epub 2015 Apr 24. link to original article PubMed
  6. Abstract: Wyndham H. Wilson, MD, PhD, Jung sin-Ho, Brandelyn Nicole Pitcher, MS, Eric D Hsi, MD, Jonathan Friedberg, MD, Bruce Cheson, MD, Nancy L Bartlett, MD, Scott Smith, Nina Wagner Johnston, MD, Brad S Kahl, Louis M. Staudt, MD, PhD, Kristie Blum, MD, Jeremy Abramson, Oliver W Press, MD, PhD, Richard I. Fisher, MD, Kristy L. Richards, PhD, MD, Heiko Schoder, MD, Julie E Chang, Andrew D. Zelenetz and John P. Leonard, MD. Phase III Randomized Study of R-CHOP Versus DA-EPOCH-R and Molecular Analysis of Untreated Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: CALGB/Alliance 50303. ASH 2016 Abstract 469 link to abstract

R-CHOEP-14

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R-CHOEP-14: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Etoposide, Prednisone, 14-day cycles

Variant #1, flat-dose vincristine

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Schmitz et al. 2012 (DSHNHL 2002-1) Phase III R-MegaCHOEP Seems not superior Decreased toxicity

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • "Mandatory" for patients with bulky disease (any mass greater than 7.5cm in diameter, or extranodal involvement): RT x 36 Gy

Variant #2, capped vincristine, with CNS prophylaxis

Study Evidence
Holte et al. 2013 Phase II

Note: Consolidative radiotherapy "given at the discretion of the individual centers (36 to 45 Gy). Indications for giving radiotherapy after the completion of chemotherapy included bulky disease (greater than or equal to 10 cm) at diagnosis, localized PET-positive residual lesions, and residual disease, not eligible for biopsy at a localized site, and potentially curable by radiotherapy."

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. DSHNHL 2002-1: Schmitz N, Nickelsen M, Ziepert M, Haenel M, Borchmann P, Schmidt C, Viardot A, Bentz M, Peter N, Ehninger G, Doelken G, Ruebe C, Truemper L, Rosenwald A, Pfreundschuh M, Loeffler M, Glass B; for the German High-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Conventional chemotherapy (CHOEP-14) with rituximab or high-dose chemotherapy (MegaCHOEP) with rituximab for young, high-risk patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma: an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial (DSHNHL 2002-1). Lancet Oncol. 2012 Dec;13(12):1250-1259. Epub 2012 Nov 16. link to original article PubMed
  2. Holte H, Leppä S, Björkholm M, Fluge O, Jyrkkiö S, Delabie J, Sundström C, Karjalainen-Lindsberg ML, Erlanson M, Kolstad A, Fosså A, Ostenstad B, Löfvenberg E, Nordström M, Janes R, Pedersen LM, Anderson H, Jerkeman M, Eriksson M. Dose-densified chemoimmunotherapy followed by systemic central nervous system prophylaxis for younger high-risk diffuse large B-cell/follicular grade 3 lymphoma patients: results of a phase II Nordic Lymphoma Group study. Ann Oncol. 2013 May;24(5):1385-92. Epub 2012 Dec 17. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-CHOP

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R-CHOP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone
R-CHOP-21: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone given every 21 days
CHOP-R: Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone, Rituximab
RCHOP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone
CHOPR: Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone, Rituximab

Example orders

Note: most of the variation between regimen variants is in the dose or type of steroid.

Variant #1, prednisone 100 mg

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Merli et al. 2012 (ANZINTER3) Phase III R-miniCEOP Seems not superior
Oki et al. 2013 (MDACC 2005-0054) Randomized Phase II R-HCVAD/R-MA Seems to have inferior CRR
Vitolo et al. 2017 (GOYA) Phase III G-CHOP Seems not superior
Leonard et al. 2017 (C05013) Randomized Phase II VR-CHOP Seems not superior

Note: patients in GOYA received 8 doses of rituximab, regardless of the number of chemotherapy cycles given.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Varies per protocol
  • Prophylactic G-CSF used for persisting grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia.
  • Cotrimoxazole (dose/schedule not specified) prophylaxis.
  • Erythropoietin use was allowed for hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL.

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles (see note)

Subsequent treatment

  • Some protocols: Radiation therapy was scheduled for sites of previous bulky disease or partially responding sites

Variant #2, SC rituximab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Lugtenburg et al. 2017 (MabEase) Phase III IV R-CHOP Might have superior CR rate

Note: the details for CHOP are not available in the manuscript or supplement; we have reproduced common CHOP dosing, here. For patients achieving CR after cycle 4, the CHOP could be omitted after cycle 6.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

Variant #3, prednisolone 40 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cunningham et al. 2013 (UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21) Phase III R-CHOP-14 Seems not superior
Fridrik et al. 2016 (AGMT NHL-14) Phase III R-COMP Seems not superior

Note: Cunningham et al. 2013 states that the regimen is based on Coiffier et al. 2002, but notably it uses prednisolone instead of prednisone. AGMT NHL-14 states that R-CHOP was "given in standard doses" per LNH-98.5, but this regimen uses prednisone, whereas the title and text of Fridrik et al. 2016 implies that prednisolone was used. The authors have confirmed that prednisolone was used, due to prednisone not being available in Austria.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

Per investigator discretion, but Cunningham et al. 2013 recommended that patients who had involvement of the "bone marrow, peripheral blood, nasal or paranasal sinuses, orbit, and testis" (they probably intended to say "or testis") receive:

  • Methotrexate (MTX) 12.5 mg IT "for the first three cycles of treatment, administered as per local guidelines." No other details given.

Supportive medications

  • Described in Cunningham et al. 2013
  • Lenograstim (Granocyte) (dose/route not specified) given on days 4 to 12 at physician discretion
  • Allopurinol (Zyloprim) 300 mg PO once per day during cycle 1
  • Co-trimoxazole 80/400 mg PO BID on 3 days per week, taken throughout therapy, ending 2 weeks after chemotherapy is completed

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #4, prednisone 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Offner et al. 2015 (LYM-2034) Randomized Phase II (C) VR-CAP Seems not superior

This regimen was used for non-germinal center B-cell (non-GCB) DLBCL.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #5, prednisone 40 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Coiffier et al. 2002 (LNH-98.5) Phase III (E) CHOP Superior OS
Delarue et al. 2013 (LNH03-6B) Phase III R-CHOP-14 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

As described in Delarue et al. 2013 (LNH03-6B):

Supportive medications

  • Filgrastim (Neupogen) used for later cycles if patients developed grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #6, prednisone 60 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Récher et al. 2011 (LNH03-2B) Phase III ACVBP-R Inferior OS Decreased toxicity

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #7, prednisone 100 mg, flat-dose vincristine

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Pfreundschuh et al. 2006 (NCIC CTG LY.9) Phase III (E) CHOP
CHOEP-21
MACOP-B
PMitCEBO
Superior EFS Similar toxicity

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Radiation therapy 30 to 40 Gy given to sites of primary bulky disease; 30 to 40 Gy to primary extranodal disease at physician discretion

Variant #8, rituximab lead-in

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Habermann et al. 2006 (ECOG 4494/CALGB 9793) Phase III (E) CHOP Seems to have superior FFS

Note: an advantage for maintenance was only seen in the group receiving CHOP upfront, which is no longer standard of care.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #9, short-course for early stage DLBCL

Study Evidence
Persky et al. 2008 (SWOG S0014) Phase II

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • IFRT to begin 3 weeks after last cycle of R-CHOP

Variant #10, primary testicular DLBCL

Study Evidence
Vitolo et al. 2011 (IELSG-10) Phase II

This regimen is for primary testicular lymphoma, and is a component of a sequential treatment protocol. All patients had a diagnostic orchiectomy prior to starting chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

21-day cycle for 6 cycles (up to 8 cycles for stage II patients)

Subsequent treatent

Variant #11, 2 cycles with response adaptation

Study Evidence
Witzig et al. 2015 (ECOG E3402) Phase II

This regimen is intended for stage I-II DLBCL based on CT (not PET-CT) imaging.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. LNH 98.5: Coiffier B, Lepage E, Briere J, Herbrecht R, Tilly H, Bouabdallah R, Morel P, Van Den Neste E, Salles G, Gaulard P, Reyes F, Lederlin P, Gisselbrecht C. CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 24;346(4):235-42. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Feugier P, Van Hoof A, Sebban C, Solal-Celigny P, Bouabdallah R, Fermé C, Christian B, Lepage E, Tilly H, Morschhauser F, Gaulard P, Salles G, Bosly A, Gisselbrecht C, Reyes F, Coiffier B. Long-term results of the R-CHOP study in the treatment of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a study by the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 20;23(18):4117-26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    2. Update: Coiffier B, Thieblemont C, Van Den Neste E, Lepeu G, Plantier I, Castaigne S, Lefort S, Marit G, Macro M, Sebban C, Belhadj K, Bordessoule D, Fermé C, Tilly H. Long-term outcome of patients in the LNH-98.5 trial, the first randomized study comparing rituximab-CHOP to standard CHOP chemotherapy in DLBCL patients: a study by the Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. Blood. 2010 Sep 23;116(12):2040-5. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
    3. Update: Mounier N, Heutte N, Thieblemont C, Briere J, Gaulard P, Feugier P, Ghesquieres H, Van Den Neste E, Robu D, Tilly H, Bouabdallah R, Safar V, Coiffier B; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA). Ten-year relative survival and causes of death in elderly patients treated with R-CHOP or CHOP in the GELA LNH-985 trial. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2012 Jun;12(3):151-4. Epub 2012 Feb 1. link to original article PubMed
  2. NCIC CTG LY.9: Pfreundschuh M, Trümper L, Osterborg A, Pettengell R, Trneny M, Imrie K, Ma D, Gill D, Walewski J, Zinzani PL, Stahel R, Kvaloy S, Shpilberg O, Jaeger U, Hansen M, Lehtinen T, López-Guillermo A, Corrado C, Scheliga A, Milpied N, Mendila M, Rashford M, Kuhnt E, Loeffler M; MabThera International Trial Group. CHOP-like chemotherapy plus rituximab versus CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: a randomised controlled trial by the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. Lancet Oncol. 2006 May;7(5):379-91. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Pfreundschuh M, Kuhnt E, Trümper L, Osterborg A, Trneny M, Shepherd L, Gill DS, Walewski J, Pettengell R, Jaeger U, Zinzani PL, Shpilberg O, Kvaloy S, de Nully Brown P, Stahel R, Milpied N, López-Guillermo A, Poeschel V, Grass S, Loeffler M, Murawski N; MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: 6-year results of an open-label randomised study of the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Oct;12(11):1013-22. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. ECOG 4494/CALGB 9793: Habermann TM, Weller EA, Morrison VA, Gascoyne RD, Cassileth PA, Cohn JB, Dakhil SR, Woda B, Fisher RI, Peterson BA, Horning SJ. Rituximab-CHOP versus CHOP alone or with maintenance rituximab in older patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jul 1;24(19):3121-7. Epub 2006 Jun 5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. SWOG S0014: Persky DO, Unger JM, Spier CM, Stea B, LeBlanc M, McCarty MJ, Rimsza LM, Fisher RI, Miller TP; Southwest Oncology Group. Phase II study of rituximab plus three cycles of CHOP and involved-field radiotherapy for patients with limited-stage aggressive B-cell lymphoma: Southwest Oncology Group study 0014. J Clin Oncol. 2008 May 10;26(14):2258-63. Epub 2008 Apr 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. IELSG-10: Vitolo U, Chiappella A, Ferreri AJ, Martelli M, Baldi I, Balzarotti M, Bottelli C, Conconi A, Gomez H, Lopez-Guillermo A, Martinelli G, Merli F, Novero D, Orsucci L, Pavone V, Ricardi U, Storti S, Gospodarowicz MK, Cavalli F, Sarris AH, Zucca E. First-line treatment for primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with rituximab-CHOP, CNS prophylaxis, and contralateral testis irradiation: final results of an international phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jul 10;29(20):2766-72. Epub 2011 Jun 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. ANZINTER3: Merli F, Luminari S, Rossi G, Mammi C, Marcheselli L, Tucci A, Ilariucci F, Chiappella A, Musso M, Di Rocco A, Stelitano C, Alvarez I, Baldini L, Mazza P, Salvi F, Arcari A, Fragasso A, Gobbi PG, Liberati AM, Federico M. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab versus epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, prednisone and rituximab for the initial treatment of elderly "fit" patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results from the ANZINTER3 trial of the Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012 Apr;53(4):581-8. Epub 2011 Nov 15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. LNH03-2B: Récher C, Coiffier B, Haioun C, Molina TJ, Fermé C, Casasnovas O, Thiéblemont C, Bosly A, Laurent G, Morschhauser F, Ghesquières H, Jardin F, Bologna S, Fruchart C, Corront B, Gabarre J, Bonnet C, Janvier M, Canioni D, Jais JP, Salles G, Tilly H; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. Intensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab versus standard CHOP plus rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-2B): an open-label randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Nov 26;378(9806):1858-67. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. LNH03-6B: Delarue R, Tilly H, Mounier N, Petrella T, Salles G, Thieblemont C, Bologna S, Ghesquières H, Hacini M, Fruchart C, Ysebaert L, Fermé C, Casasnovas O, Van Hoof A, Thyss A, Delmer A, Fitoussi O, Molina TJ, Haioun C, Bosly A. Dose-dense rituximab-CHOP compared with standard rituximab-CHOP in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (the LNH03-6B study): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):525-33. Epub 2013 Apr 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21: Cunningham D, Hawkes EA, Jack A, Qian W, Smith P, Mouncey P, Pocock C, Ardeshna KM, Radford JA, McMillan A, Davies J, Turner D, Kruger A, Johnson P, Gambell J, Linch D. Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3 comparison of dose intensification with 14-day versus 21-day cycles. Lancet. 2013 May 25;381(9880):1817-26. Epub 2013 Apr 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. SWOG S9704: Stiff PJ, Unger JM, Cook JR, Constine LS, Couban S, Stewart DA, Shea TC, Porcu P, Winter JN, Kahl BS, Miller TP, Tubbs RR, Marcellus D, Friedberg JW, Barton KP, Mills GM, LeBlanc M, Rimsza LM, Forman SJ, Fisher RI. Autologous transplantation as consolidation for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 31;369(18):1681-90. link to original article link to PMC article does not contain protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Puvvada SD, Stiff PJ, Leblanc M, Cook JR, Couban S, Leonard JP, Kahl B, Marcellus D, Shea TC, Winter JN, Li H, Rimsza LM, Friedberg JW, Smith SM. Outcomes of MYC-associated lymphomas after R-CHOP with and without consolidative autologous stem cell transplant: subset analysis of randomized trial intergroup SWOG S9704. Br J Haematol. 2016 Sep;174(5):686-91. Epub 2016 Apr 13. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  11. MDACC 2005-0054: Oki Y, Westin JR, Vega F, Chuang H, Fowler N, Neelapu S, Hagemeister FB, McLaughlin P, Kwak LW, Romaguera JE, Fanale M, Younes A, Rodriguez MA, Orlowski RZ, Wang M, Ouzounian ST, Samaniego F, Fayad L. Prospective phase II study of rituximab with alternating cycles of hyper-CVAD and high-dose methotrexate with cytarabine for young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2013 Dec;163(5):611-20. Epub 2013 Oct 1. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  12. MAIN: Seymour JF, Pfreundschuh M, Trnený M, Sehn LH, Catalano J, Csinady E, Moore N, Coiffier B; MAIN Study Investigators. R-CHOP with or without bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: final MAIN study outcomes. Haematologica. 2014 Aug;99(8):1343-9. Epub 2014 Jun 3. link to original article link to PMC article does not contain protocol PubMed
  13. Retrospective: Howlett C, Snedecor SJ, Landsburg DJ, Svoboda J, Chong EA, Schuster SJ, Nasta SD, Feldman T, Rago A, Walsh KM, Weber S, Goy A, Mato A. Front-line, dose-escalated immunochemotherapy is associated with a significant progression-free survival advantage in patients with double-hit lymphomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Haematol. 2015 Aug;170(4):504-14. Epub 2015 Apr 24. link to original article PubMed
  14. ECOG E3402: Witzig TE, Hong F, Micallef IN, Gascoyne RD, Dogan A, Wagner H Jr, Kahl BS, Advani RH, Horning SJ. A phase II trial of RCHOP followed by radioimmunotherapy for early stage (stages I/II) diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: ECOG3402. Br J Haematol. 2015 Sep;170(5):679-86. Epub 2015 May 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  15. LYM-2034: Offner F, Samoilova O, Osmanov E, Eom HS, Topp MS, Raposo J, Pavlov V, Ricci D, Chaturvedi S, Zhu E, van de Velde H, Enny C, Rizo A, Ferhanoglu B. Frontline rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone with bortezomib (VR-CAP) or vincristine (R-CHOP) for non-GCB DLBCL. Blood. 2015 Oct 15;126(16):1893-901. Epub 2015 Jul 31. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  16. AGMT NHL-14: Fridrik MA, Jaeger U, Petzer A, Willenbacher W, Keil F, Lang A, Andel J, Burgstaller S, Krieger O, Oberaigner W, Sihorsch K, Greil R. Cardiotoxicity with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone compared to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in frontline treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A randomised phase-III study from the Austrian Cancer Drug Therapy Working Group [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie AGMT](NHL-14). Eur J Cancer. 2016 May;58:112-21. Epub 2016 Mar 15. link to original article does not contain protocol PubMed
  17. Abstract: Wyndham H. Wilson, MD, PhD, Jung sin-Ho, Brandelyn Nicole Pitcher, MS, Eric D Hsi, MD, Jonathan Friedberg, MD, Bruce Cheson, MD, Nancy L Bartlett, MD, Scott Smith, Nina Wagner Johnston, MD, Brad S Kahl, Louis M. Staudt, MD, PhD, Kristie Blum, MD, Jeremy Abramson, Oliver W Press, MD, PhD, Richard I. Fisher, MD, Kristy L. Richards, PhD, MD, Heiko Schoder, MD, Julie E Chang, Andrew D. Zelenetz and John P. Leonard, MD. Phase III Randomized Study of R-CHOP Versus DA-EPOCH-R and Molecular Analysis of Untreated Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: CALGB/Alliance 50303. ASH 2016 Abstract 469 link to abstract
  18. CISL 12-09: Yoon DH, Sohn BS, Oh SY, Lee WS, Lee SM, Yang DH, Huh J, Suh C. Feasibility of abbreviated cycles of immunochemotherapy for completely resected limited-stage CD20+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CISL 12-09). Oncotarget. 2017 Feb 21;8(8):13367-13374. link to original article link to PMC article does not contain protocol PubMed
  19. MabEase: Lugtenburg P, Avivi I, Berenschot H, Ilhan O, Marolleau JP, Nagler A, Rueda A, Tani M, Turgut M, Osborne S, Smith R, Pfreundschuh M. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous and intravenous rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone in first-line diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the randomized MabEase study. Haematologica. 2017 Nov;102(11):1913-1922. Epub 2017 Sep 21. link to original article contains partial protocol PubMed
  20. GOYA: Vitolo U, Trněný M, Belada D, Burke JM, Carella AM, Chua N, Abrisqueta P, Demeter J, Flinn I, Hong X, Kim WS, Pinto A, Shi YK, Tatsumi Y, Oestergaard MZ, Wenger M, Fingerle-Rowson G, Catalani O, Nielsen T, Martelli M, Sehn LH. Obinutuzumab or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone in previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Nov 1;35(31):3529-3537. Epub 2017 Aug 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  21. C05013: Leonard JP, Kolibaba KS, Reeves JA, Tulpule A, Flinn IW, Kolevska T, Robles R, Flowers CR, Collins R, DiBella NJ, Papish SW, Venugopal P, Horodner A, Tabatabai A, Hajdenberg J, Park J, Neuwirth R, Mulligan G, Suryanarayan K, Esseltine DL, de Vos S. Randomized phase II study of R-CHOP with or without bortezomib in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Nov 1;35(31):3538-3546. Epub 2017 Sep 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-CHOP-14

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R-CHOP-14: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone every 14 days

Variant #1, SC rituximab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Lugtenburg et al. 2017 (MabEase) Phase III IV R-CHOP Might have superior CR rate

Note: the details for CHOP-14 are not available in the manuscript or supplement; we have reproduced common CHOP-14 dosing, here. For patients achieving CR after cycle 4, the CHOP-14 could be omitted after cycle 6.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

Variant #2, prednisone 40 mg/m2, 4 to 6 cycles

Study Evidence
Lamy et al. 2017 (LYSA/GOELAMS 02-03) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, prednisone 40 mg/m2, 8 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Delarue et al. 2013 (LNH03-6B) Phase III R-CHOP21 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #4, prednisone 100 mg

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cortelazzo et al. 2016 Phase III R-HDS Seems not superior
Chiappella et al. 2017 (DLCL04) Phase III R-MegaCHOP-14 Not reported
R-CHOP-14, then R-MAD, then BEAM, then auto HSCT
R-MegaCHOP-14, then R-MAD, then BEAM, then auto HSCT
Seems not superior

Note: in Cortelazzo et al. 2016, there is no cap on the vincristine dose, and there is also a discrepancy between the prednisone dose in the body of the manuscript and that in the appendix Figure A1; these discrepancies were clarified by the corresponding author in January 2017. In the abstract of DLCL04, there is no cap on vincristine.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #5, high-dose rituximab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pfreundschuh et al. 2014 (SEXIE-R-CHOP-14) Randomized Phase II See below TBD

Note: two arms were assessed; results are pending from this comparison. These higher doses were for males, only.

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 6 cycles (8 doses of rituximab regardless of total number of CHOP-14 cycles)

Variant #6, prednisolone 100 mg

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cunningham et al. 2013 (UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21) Phase III R-CHOP-21 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

Per investigator discretion, but Cunningham et al. 2013 recommended that patients who had involvement of the "bone marrow, peripheral blood, nasal or paranasal sinuses, orbit, and testis" (they probably intended to say "or testis") receive:

  • Methotrexate (MTX) 12.5 mg IT "for the first three cycles of treatment, administered as per local guidelines." No other details given.

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 6 cycles (8 cycles of rituximab)

Variant #7, flat dose vincristine

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pfreundschuh et al. 2008 (RICOVER-60) Phase III CHOP-14 x 6 Superior OS
CHOP-14 x 8 Not reported
R-CHOP-14 x 8 Not reported

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles (8 doses of rituximab regardless of total number of cycles)

Subsequent treatment

  • Patients with initial bulky disease ("lymphoma masses or conglomerates with a diameter greater than or equal to 7.5 cm) or extranodal involvement"): RT x 36 Gy

Variant #8, extended rituximab exposure

Study Evidence
Pfreundschuh et al. 2014 (SMARTE-R-CHOP-14) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Patients with initial bulky disease ("lymphoma masses or conglomerates with a diameter greater than or equal to 7.5 cm) or extranodal involvement"): RT x 36 Gy

References

  1. RICOVER-60: Pfreundschuh M, Schubert J, Ziepert M, Schmits R, Mohren M, Lengfelder E, Reiser M, Nickenig C, Clemens M, Peter N, Bokemeyer C, Eimermacher H, Ho A, Hoffmann M, Mertelsmann R, Trümper L, Balleisen L, Liersch R, Metzner B, Hartmann F, Glass B, Poeschel V, Schmitz N, Ruebe C, Feller AC, Loeffler M; German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Six versus eight cycles of bi-weekly CHOP-14 with or without rituximab in elderly patients with aggressive CD20+ B-cell lymphomas: a randomised controlled trial (RICOVER-60). Lancet Oncol. 2008 Feb;9(2):105-16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Abstract: S. Le Gouill, N. J. Milpied, T. Lamy, V. Delwail, R. Gressin, D. Guyotat, G. L. Damaj, C. Foussard, G. Cartron, H. Maisonneuve, E. Deconinck, F. Dreyfus, E. Gyan, L. Sutton, N. Morineau, M. Alexis, F. Perry, M. Sauvezie. First-line rituximab (R) high-dose therapy (R-HDT) versus R-CHOP14 for young adults with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Preliminary results of the GOELAMS 075 prospective multicenter randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 29, no. 15_suppl (May 2011) 8003-8003. link to abstract
  3. LNH03-6B: Delarue R, Tilly H, Mounier N, Petrella T, Salles G, Thieblemont C, Bologna S, Ghesquières H, Hacini M, Fruchart C, Ysebaert L, Fermé C, Casasnovas O, Van Hoof A, Thyss A, Delmer A, Fitoussi O, Molina TJ, Haioun C, Bosly A. Dose-dense rituximab-CHOP compared with standard rituximab-CHOP in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (the LNH03-6B study): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):525-33. Epub 2013 Apr 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21: Cunningham D, Hawkes EA, Jack A, Qian W, Smith P, Mouncey P, Pocock C, Ardeshna KM, Radford JA, McMillan A, Davies J, Turner D, Kruger A, Johnson P, Gambell J, Linch D. Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3 comparison of dose intensification with 14-day versus 21-day cycles. Lancet. 2013 May 25;381(9880):1817-26. Epub 2013 Apr 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Abstract: Michael Pfreundschuh, Gerhard Held, Samira Zeynalova, Carsten Zwick, Mathias Haenel, Lorenz Truemper, Martin H. Dreyling, Judith Dierlamm, Markus Loeffler, Norbert Schmitz, Niels Murawski, German High-Grad Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Increased rituximab (R) doses and effect on risk of elderly male patients with aggressive CD20+ B-cell lymphomas: Results from the SEXIE-R-CHOP-14 trial of the DSHNHL. J Clin Oncol 32:5s, 2014 (suppl; abstr 8501) link to original abstract
  6. SMARTE-R-CHOP-14: Pfreundschuh M, Poeschel V, Zeynalova S, Hänel M, Held G, Schmitz N, Viardot A, Dreyling MH, Hallek M, Mueller C, Wiesen MH, Witzens-Harig M, Truemper L, Keller U, Rixecker T, Zwick C, Murawski N. Optimization of rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (II): extended rituximab exposure time in the SMARTE-R-CHOP-14 trial of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 20;32(36):4127-33. Epub 2014 Nov 17. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jun 10;33(17):1991. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Cortelazzo S, Tarella C, Gianni AM, Ladetto M, Barbui AM, Rossi A, Gritti G, Corradini P, Di Nicola M, Patti C, Mulé A, Zanni M, Zoli V, Billio A, Piccin A, Negri G, Castellino C, Di Raimondo F, Ferreri AJ, Benedetti F, La Nasa G, Gini G, Trentin L, Frezzato M, Flenghi L, Falorio S, Chilosi M, Bruna R, Tabanelli V, Pileri S, Masciulli A, Delaini F, Boschini C, Rambaldi A. Randomized trial comparing R-CHOP versus high-dose sequential chemotherapy in high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Nov 20;34(33):4015-4022. Epub 2016 Oct 31. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. DLCL04: Chiappella A, Martelli M, Angelucci E, Brusamolino E, Evangelista A, Carella AM, Stelitano C, Rossi G, Balzarotti M, Merli F, Gaidano G, Pavone V, Rigacci L, Zaja F, D'Arco A, Cascavilla N, Russo E, Castellino A, Gotti M, Congiu AG, Cabras MG, Tucci A, Agostinelli C, Ciccone G, Pileri SA, Vitolo U. Rituximab-dose-dense chemotherapy with or without high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL04): final results of a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Aug;18(8):1076-1088. Epub 2017 Jun 28. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  9. MabEase: Lugtenburg P, Avivi I, Berenschot H, Ilhan O, Marolleau JP, Nagler A, Rueda A, Tani M, Turgut M, Osborne S, Smith R, Pfreundschuh M. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous and intravenous rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone in first-line diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the randomized MabEase study. Haematologica. 2017 Nov;102(11):1913-1922. Epub 2017 Sep 21. link to original article contains partial protocol PubMed
  10. Lamy T, Damaj G, Soubeyran P, Gyan E, Cartron G, Bouabdallah K, Gressin R, Cornillon J, Banos A, Le Du K, Benchalal M, Moles MP, Le Gouill S, Fleury J, Godmer P, Maisonneuve H, Deconinck E, Houot R, Laribi K, Marolleau JP, Tournilhac O, Branger B, Devillers A, Vuillez JP, Fest T, Colombat P, Costes V, Szablewski V, Béné MC, Delwail V; LYSA Group. R-CHOP 14 with or without radiotherapy in nonbulky limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2018 Jan 11;131(2):174-181. Epub 2017 Oct 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  11. PETAL: Dührsen U, Müller S, Hertenstein B, Thomssen H, Kotzerke J, Mesters R, Berdel WE, Franzius C, Kroschinsky F, Weckesser M, Kofahl-Krause D, Bengel FM, Dürig J, Matschke J, Schmitz C, Pöppel T, Ose C, Brinkmann M, La Rosée P, Freesmeyer M, Hertel A, Höffkes HG, Behringer D, Prange-Krex G, Wilop S, Krohn T, Holzinger J, Griesshammer M, Giagounidis A, Raghavachar A, Maschmeyer G, Brink I, Bernhard H, Haberkorn U, Gaska T, Kurch L, van Assema DME, Klapper W, Hoelzer D, Geworski L, Jöckel KH, Scherag A, Bockisch A, Rekowski J, Hüttmann A; PETAL Trial Investigators. Positron emission tomography-guided therapy of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas (PETAL): a multicenter, randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jul 10;36(20):2024-2034. Epub 2018 May 11. link to original article PubMed

R-Hyper-CVAD/R-MA

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R-Hyper-CVAD/R-MA: Rituximab, Hyperfractionated Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Dexamethasone alternating with Rituximab, Methotrexate, Ara-C (Cytarabine)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Oki et al. 2013 (MDACC 2005-0054) Randomized Phase II R-CHOP Seems to have increased CRR

Intended for high-risk DLBCL (IPI greater than or equal to 3). The authors report "excellent outcome" in patients less than or equal to 45 years old, however patients greater than 45 years old had "unacceptable mortality."

Chemotherapy, part A (cycles 1, 3, 5)

Supportive medications

Dose modifications

  • Vincristine (Oncovin) reduced once by 50% for NCI common toxicity criteria Grade 2+ peripheral neuropathy, omitted if Grade 2+ peripheral neuropathy persists
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) reduced by 20% in subsequent A cycles if neutropenic fever occurs, grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicity, or ANC less than 750/uL or platelet count less than 75 × 109/L on day 21

Next cycle to start once ANC is greater than or equal to 1000/uL and platelet count is greater than or equal to 100 × 109/L.

Although the protocol does not specify, it is assumed that if these thresholds are not met by day 21, the next cycle will start with the dose reductions as specified.

Chemotherapy, part B (cycles 2, 4, 6)

Supportive medications

Dose modifications

  • Methotrexate (MTX) reduced by 25% in subsequent B cycles if neutropenic fever occurs, grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicity, or ANC less than 750/uL or platelet count less than 75 × 109/L on day 21
  • Cytarabine (Cytosar) reduced by 33% in subsequent B cycles if neutropenic fever occurs, grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicity, or ANC less than 750/uL or platelet count less than 75 × 109/L on day 21

21-day cycles

CNS prophylaxis

"Recommended in patients with paraspinal disease, paranasal sinus disease, testicular disease, bone marrow disease, diffuse osseous disease or greater than or equal to 2 sites of extranodal disease. Actual administration of prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy was at the treating physician's discretion."

References

  1. Oki Y, Westin JR, Vega F, Chuang H, Fowler N, Neelapu S, Hagemeister FB, McLaughlin P, Kwak LW, Romaguera JE, Fanale M, Younes A, Rodriguez MA, Orlowski RZ, Wang M, Ouzounian ST, Samaniego F, Fayad L. Prospective phase II study of rituximab with alternating cycles of hyper-CVAD and high-dose methotrexate with cytarabine for young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2013 Dec;163(5):611-20. Epub 2013 Oct 1. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Retrospective: Howlett C, Snedecor SJ, Landsburg DJ, Svoboda J, Chong EA, Schuster SJ, Nasta SD, Feldman T, Rago A, Walsh KM, Weber S, Goy A, Mato A. Front-line, dose-escalated immunochemotherapy is associated with a significant progression-free survival advantage in patients with double-hit lymphomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Haematol. 2015 Aug;170(4):504-14. Epub 2015 Apr 24. link to original article PubMed

R-MegaCHOP-14

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R-MegaCHOP-14: Rituximab, "Mega" (high-dose) Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone every 14 days

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Chiappella et al. 2017 (DLCL04) Phase III R-CHOP-14 Not reported
R-CHOP-14, then R-MAD, then BEAM, then auto HSCT
R-MegaCHOP-14, then R-MAD, then BEAM, then auto HSCT
Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Chiappella A, Martelli M, Angelucci E, Brusamolino E, Evangelista A, Carella AM, Stelitano C, Rossi G, Balzarotti M, Merli F, Gaidano G, Pavone V, Rigacci L, Zaja F, D'Arco A, Cascavilla N, Russo E, Castellino A, Gotti M, Congiu AG, Cabras MG, Tucci A, Agostinelli C, Ciccone G, Pileri SA, Vitolo U. Rituximab-dose-dense chemotherapy with or without high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL04): final results of a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Aug;18(8):1076-1088. Epub 2017 Jun 28. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

R-miniCEOP

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R-miniCEOP: Rituximab, mini, Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin, O?? (vinblastine), Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Merli et al. 2012 (ANZINTER3) Phase III R-CHOP Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Prophylactic G-CSF used for persisting grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia.
  • Cotrimoxazole (dose/route/schedule not specified) prophylaxis.
  • Erythropoietin use was allowed for hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL.

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Patients with initial bulky disease and/or partially responding sites received radiothearpy

References

  1. ANZINTER3: Merli F, Luminari S, Rossi G, Mammi C, Marcheselli L, Tucci A, Ilariucci F, Chiappella A, Musso M, Di Rocco A, Stelitano C, Alvarez I, Baldini L, Mazza P, Salvi F, Arcari A, Fragasso A, Gobbi PG, Liberati AM, Federico M. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab versus epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, prednisone and rituximab for the initial treatment of elderly "fit" patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results from the ANZINTER3 trial of the Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012 Apr;53(4):581-8. Epub 2011 Nov 15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Untreated, non-randomized or retrospective data

BR

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BR: Bendamustine, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Park et al. 2016 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Note: the bendamustine infusion instructions are for the Treanda formulation, which was discontinued on 3/31/2016.

  • Bendamustine 120 mg/m2 IV over 60 minutes once per day on days 1 & 2
    • Patients with ECOG PS = 3 at baseline received 90 mg/m2 IV over 60 minutes once per day on days 1 & 2
      • Dose increased to 120 mg/m2 if ECOG PS improved to less than or equal to 2 after 3 cycles
  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1, given after bendamustine

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Park SI, Grover NS, Olajide O, Asch AS, Wall JG, Richards KL, Sobol AL, Deal AM, Ivanova A, Foster MC, Muss HB, Shea TC. A phase II trial of bendamustine in combination with rituximab in older patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2016 Oct;175(2):281-289. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

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Regimen

This regimen is intended for the treatment of gastric DLBCL only; H. pylori eradication would not be an appropriate treatment for systemic DLBCL.

Before 1996:

After 1996:

References

  1. Kuo SH, Yeh KH, Wu MS, Lin CW, Hsu PN, Wang HP, Chen LT, Cheng AL. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is effective in the treatment of early-stage H pylori-positive gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Blood. 2012 May 24;119(21):4838-44; quiz 5057. Epub 2012 Mar 7. link to original article PubMed

O-miniCHOP

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O-miniCHOP: Ofatumumab, reduced-dose (mini) Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Peyrade et al. 2017 (LYSA LNH09-7B) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Peyrade F, Bologna S, Delwail V, Emile JF, Pascal L, Fermé C, Schiano JM, Coiffier B, Corront B, Farhat H, Fruchart C, Ghesquieres H, Macro M, Tilly H, Choufi B, Delarue R, Fitoussi O, Gabarre J, Haioun C, Jardin F. Combination of ofatumumab and reduced-dose CHOP for diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in patients aged 80 years or older: an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial from the LYSA group. Lancet Haematol. 2017 Jan;4(1):e46-e55. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

R-BL

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R-BL: Rituximab, Bendamustine, Lenalidomide

Regimen

Study Evidence ORR
Hitz et al. 2016 (SAKK 38/08) Phase II, <20 pts in subgroup 61% (95% CI 45-76%)

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Hitz F, Zucca E, Pabst T, Fischer N, Cairoli A, Samaras P, Caspar CB, Mach N, Krasniqi F, Schmidt A, Rothermundt C, Enoiu M, Eckhardt K, Berardi Vilei S, Rondeau S, Mey U. Rituximab, bendamustine and lenalidomide in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma not eligible for anthracycline-based therapy or intensive salvage chemotherapy - SAKK 38/08. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jul;174(2):255-63. Epub 2016 Mar 28. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

R-CDOP

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R-CDOP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxil (Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone
DRCOP: Doxil (Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin), Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone

Variant #1

Study Evidence
Oki et al. 2014 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

OR

Dose modifications

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Zaja et al. 2006 Phase II

Only the dose of liposomal doxorubicin and number of cycles used was specified in the abstract. The doses of the other medications and schedule are provided based on the standard R-CHOP regimen, whose references can be found on this page.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Zaja F, Tomadini V, Zaccaria A, Lenoci M, Battista M, Molinari AL, Fabbri A, Battista R, Cabras MG, Gallamini A, Fanin R. CHOP-rituximab with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for the treatment of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006 Oct;47(10):2174-80. link to original article PubMed
  2. Oki Y, Ewer MS, Lenihan DJ, Fisch MJ, Hagemeister FB, Fanale M, Romaguera J, Pro B, Fowler N, Younes A, Astrow AB, Huang X, Kwak LW, Samaniego F, McLaughlin P, Neelapu SS, Wang M, Fayad LE, Durand JB, Rodriguez MA. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin replacing conventional doxorubicin in standard R-CHOP chemotherapy for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an open label, single arm, phase II trial. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2015 Mar;15(3):152-8. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

R-CEOP90 (Epirubicin)

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R-CEOP90: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin (90 mg/m2 dosing), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone

Variant #1, 4 cycles

Study Evidence
Cai et al. 2014 Phase II

This regimen is intended to reduce cardiotoxicity and was not just for patients with contraindicated doxorubicin. Note that the cycle length is not explicitly defined in the paper but was reported as a median of 21 days (range 21 to 33 days).

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Patients with stage IA or IIA disease with bulky disease and extranodal and residual masses: IFRT, 30 to 45 Gy

Variant #2, 6 cycles

Study Evidence
Cai et al. 2014 Phase II

This regimen is intended to reduce cardiotoxicity and was not just for patients with contraindicated doxorubicin. Note that the cycle length is not explicitly defined in the paper but was reported as a median of 21 days (range 21 to 33 days).

Chemotherapy

'21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Cai QC, Gao Y, Wang XX, Cai QQ, Lin ZX, Bai B, Guo Y, Huang HQ. Long-term results of the R-CEOP90 in the treatment of young patients with chemotherapy-naïve diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a phase II study. Leuk Lymphoma. 2014 Oct;55(10):2387-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-CEOP (Etoposide)

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R-CEOP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Moccia et al. 2009 Retrospective

This regimen is intended for patients with a contraindication to anthracyclines. Only the dose of etoposide and number of cycles used was specified in the abstract. The doses of the other medications and schedule are provided based on the standard R-CHOP regimen, whose references can be found on this page.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 to 4 cycles +/- radiation therapy for patients with limited stage disease; 6 cycles for patients with advanced stage disease

References

  1. Retrospective: Abstract: Moccia, Alden A., Schaff, Kimberly, Hoskins, Paul, Klasa, Richard, Savage, Kerry J., Shenkier, Tamara, Gascoyne, Randy D., Connors, Joseph M., Sehn, Laurie H. R-CHOP with Etoposide Substituted for Doxorubicin (R-CEOP): Excellent Outcome in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma for Patients with a Contraindication to Anthracyclines. ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts 2009 114: 408 link to abstract

R-CHMP

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R-CHMP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Marqibo (Vincristine liposomal), Prednisone

Variant #1, 3 cycles

Study Evidence
Hagemeister et al. 2013 Phase II

This regimen was intended for stage I patients with no LN greater than 5 cm.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 6 cycles

Study Evidence
Hagemeister et al. 2013 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Hagemeister F, Rodriguez MA, Deitcher SR, Younes A, Fayad L, Goy A, Dang NH, Forman A, McLaughlin P, Medeiros LJ, Pro B, Romaguera J, Samaniego F, Silverman JA, Sarris A, Cabanillas F. Long term results of a phase 2 study of vincristine sulfate liposome injection (Marqibo(®) ) substituted for non-liposomal vincristine in cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone with or without rituximab for patients with untreated aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Br J Haematol. 2013 Sep;162(5):631-8. Epub 2013 Jun 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-GCVP

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R-GCVP: Rituximab, Gemcitabine, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisolone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Fields et al. 2013 Phase II

Intended for use in patients unlikely to tolerate anthracyclines due to cardiac comorbidity.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) 12.5 mg IT x 3 cycles (timing not specified) for patients at high risk of CNS relapse

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Fields PA, Townsend W, Webb A, Counsell N, Pocock C, Smith P, Jack A, El-Mehidi N, Johnson PW, Radford J, Linch DC, Cunnningham D. De novo treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, gemcitabine, and prednisolone in patients with cardiac comorbidity: a United kingdom national cancer research institute trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 1;32(4):282-7. Epub 2013 Nov 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-MegaCHOP

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R-MegaCHOP: Rituximab, Mega, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Pardal et al. 2014 (GELTAMO-2006) Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Negative PET-CT after 3 cycles: another 3 cycles of R-MegaCHOP for a total of 6 cycles
  • Positive PET-CT after 3 cycles: R-IFE

References

  1. GELTAMO-2006: Pardal E, Coronado M, Martín A, Grande C, Marín-Niebla A, Panizo C, Bello JL, Conde E, Hernández MT, Arranz R, Bargay J, González-Barca E, Pérez-Ceballos E, Montes-Moreno S, Caballero MD. Intensification treatment based on early FDG-PET in patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase II GELTAMO trial. Br J Haematol. 2014 Nov;167(3):327-36. Epub 2014 Jul 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-miniCHOP

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R-miniCHOP: Rituximab, reduced-dose (mini) Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Peyrade et al. 2011 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) 400 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) 25 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Vincristine (Oncovin) 1 mg IV once on day 1
  • Prednisone (Sterapred) 40 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 5
    • No dose adjustments for hematologic toxicity. If needed, the subsequent R-miniCHOP cycle was postponed until ANC was greater than or equal to 1000/uL and platelet count was greater than or equal to 100 x 109/L, with a maximum of 28 days between cycles. Treatment was stopped if patients' counts were not adequate within 28 days.

Supportive medications

  • "Prevention of tumour lysis syndrome by alkalinisation or hypouricaemic drugs was done if necessary."
  • Serotonin (5-HT3) antagonist given every cycle.
  • Prophylactic G-CSF or erythropoietin was left to treating physician's discretion.
    • Patients with severe neutropenia or neutropenic fever received G-CSF (dose not specified) SC on days 6 to 13 of the subsequent cycle until ANC is greater than or equal to 1000/uL.

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Peyrade F, Jardin F, Thieblemont C, Thyss A, Emile JF, Castaigne S, Coiffier B, Haioun C, Bologna S, Fitoussi O, Lepeu G, Fruchart C, Bordessoule D, Blanc M, Delarue R, Janvier M, Salles B, André M, Fournier M, Gaulard P, Tilly H; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA) investigators. Attenuated immunochemotherapy regimen (R-miniCHOP) in elderly patients older than 80 years with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 May;12(5):460-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R2CHOP

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R2CHOP: Rituximab, Revlimid (Lenalidomide), Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone
LR-CHOP-21: Lenalidomide, Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone given every 21 days

Variant #1, len 15 mg/d for 14 d/cycle

Study Evidence Efficacy
Vitolo et al. 2014 (REAL07) Phase II ORR: 92% (95% CI 81–97)

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #2, len 25 mg/d for 10 d/cycle

Study Evidence Efficacy
Nowakowski et al. 2014 (Mayo Clinic MC078E) Phase II ORR: 98%

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Phase 1: Nowakowski GS, LaPlant B, Habermann TM, Rivera CE, Macon WR, Inwards DJ, Micallef IN, Johnston PB, Porrata LF, Ansell SM, Klebig RR, Reeder CB, Witzig TE. Lenalidomide can be safely combined with R-CHOP (R2CHOP) in the initial chemotherapy for aggressive B-cell lymphomas: phase I study. Leukemia. 2011 Dec;25(12):1877-81. Epub 2011 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Phase 1: Chiappella A, Tucci A, Castellino A, Pavone V, Baldi I, Carella AM, Orsucci L, Zanni M, Salvi F, Liberati AM, Gaidano G, Bottelli C, Rossini B, Perticone S, De Masi P, Ladetto M, Ciccone G, Palumbo A, Rossi G, Vitolo U. Lenalidomide plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab is safe and effective in untreated elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients: phase I study by the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi. Haematologica. 2013 Nov;98(11):1732-8. Epub 2013 Jun 28. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. REAL07: Vitolo U, Chiappella A, Franceschetti S, Carella AM, Baldi I, Inghirami G, Spina M, Pavone V, Ladetto M, Liberati AM, Molinari AL, Zinzani P, Salvi F, Fattori PP, Zaccaria A, Dreyling M, Botto B, Castellino A, Congiu A, Gaudiano M, Zanni M, Ciccone G, Gaidano G, Rossi G; on behalf of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi. Lenalidomide plus R-CHOP21 in elderly patients with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of the REAL07 open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Jun;15(7):730-7. Epub 2014 May 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Mayo Clinic MC078E: Nowakowski GS, LaPlant B, Macon WR, Reeder CB, Foran JM, Nelson GD, Thompson CA, Rivera CE, Inwards DJ, Micallef IN, Johnston PB, Porrata LF, Ansell SM, Gascoyne RD, Habermann TM, Witzig TE. Lenalidomide combined with R-CHOP overcomes negative prognostic impact of non-germinal center B-cell phenotype in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 20;33(3):251-7. Epub 2014 Aug 18. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Consolidation after upfront therapy

CBV, then auto HSCT

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stiff et al. 2013 (SWOG S9704) Phase III R-CHOP x 8 Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Stem cells re-infused on day 0


References

  1. Stiff PJ, Unger JM, Cook JR, Constine LS, Couban S, Stewart DA, Shea TC, Porcu P, Winter JN, Kahl BS, Miller TP, Tubbs RR, Marcellus D, Friedberg JW, Barton KP, Mills GM, LeBlanc M, Rimsza LM, Forman SJ, Fisher RI. Autologous transplantation as consolidation for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 31;369(18):1681-90. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Puvvada SD, Stiff PJ, Leblanc M, Cook JR, Couban S, Leonard JP, Kahl B, Marcellus D, Shea TC, Winter JN, Li H, Rimsza LM, Friedberg JW, Smith SM. Outcomes of MYC-associated lymphomas after R-CHOP with and without consolidative autologous stem cell transplant: subset analysis of randomized trial intergroup SWOG S9704. Br J Haematol. 2016 Sep;174(5):686-91. Epub 2016 Apr 13. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

CBVM, then auto HSCT

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Haioun et al. 2009 (LNH 98-3) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Stem cells reinfused afterwards (unclear which day)

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. LNH 98-3: Haioun C, Mounier N, Emile JF, Ranta D, Coiffier B, Tilly H, Récher C, Fermé C, Gabarre J, Herbrecht R, Morchhauser F, Gisselbrecht C. Rituximab versus observation after high-dose consolidative first-line chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2009 Dec;20(12):1985-92. Epub 2009 Jun 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cytarabine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Récher et al. 2011 (LNH03-2B) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Ketterer et al. 2013 (LNH03-1B) Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 2 cycles

References

  1. LNH03-2B: Récher C, Coiffier B, Haioun C, Molina TJ, Fermé C, Casasnovas O, Thiéblemont C, Bosly A, Laurent G, Morschhauser F, Ghesquières H, Jardin F, Bologna S, Fruchart C, Corront B, Gabarre J, Bonnet C, Janvier M, Canioni D, Jais JP, Salles G, Tilly H; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. Intensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab versus standard CHOP plus rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-2B): an open-label randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Nov 26;378(9806):1858-67. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. LNH03-1B: Ketterer N, Coiffier B, Thieblemont C, Fermé C, Brière J, Casasnovas O, Bologna S, Christian B, Connerotte T, Récher C, Bordessoule D, Fruchart C, Delarue R, Bonnet C, Morschhauser F, Anglaret B, Soussain C, Fabiani B, Tilly H, Haioun C. Phase III study of ACVBP versus ACVBP plus rituximab for patients with localized low-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-1B). Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr;24(4):1032-7. Epub 2012 Dec 12. link to original article PubMed

Ibritumomab tiuxetan monotherapy

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Variant #1, no cap

Study Evidence
Witzig et al. 2015 (ECOG3402) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Radioimmunotherapy

One course

Subsequent treatment

  • Patients with CT or PET positive disease 12 weeks after radioimmunotherapy: 30 Gy of IFRT

Variant #2, capped dose

Study Evidence
Persky et al. 2014 (SWOG S0313) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Radioimmunotherapy

References

  1. SWOG S0313: Persky DO, Miller TP, Unger JM, Spier CM, Puvvada S, Stea BD, Press OW, Constine LS, Barton KP, Friedberg JW, LeBlanc M, Fisher RI. Ibritumomab consolidation after 3 cycles of CHOP plus radiotherapy in high-risk limited-stage aggressive B-cell lymphoma: SWOG S0313. Blood. 2015 Jan 8;125(2):236-41. Epub 2014 Nov 13. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. ECOG E3402: Witzig TE, Hong F, Micallef IN, Gascoyne RD, Dogan A, Wagner H Jr, Kahl BS, Advani RH, Horning SJ. A phase II trial of RCHOP followed by radioimmunotherapy for early stage (stages I/II) diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: ECOG3402. Br J Haematol. 2015 Sep;170(5):679-86. Epub 2015 May 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Methotrexate monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Récher et al. 2011 (LNH03-2B) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Ketterer et al. 2013 (LNH03-1B) Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. LNH03-2B: Récher C, Coiffier B, Haioun C, Molina TJ, Fermé C, Casasnovas O, Thiéblemont C, Bosly A, Laurent G, Morschhauser F, Ghesquières H, Jardin F, Bologna S, Fruchart C, Corront B, Gabarre J, Bonnet C, Janvier M, Canioni D, Jais JP, Salles G, Tilly H; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. Intensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab versus standard CHOP plus rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-2B): an open-label randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Nov 26;378(9806):1858-67. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. LNH03-1B: Ketterer N, Coiffier B, Thieblemont C, Fermé C, Brière J, Casasnovas O, Bologna S, Christian B, Connerotte T, Récher C, Bordessoule D, Fruchart C, Delarue R, Bonnet C, Morschhauser F, Anglaret B, Soussain C, Fabiani B, Tilly H, Haioun C. Phase III study of ACVBP versus ACVBP plus rituximab for patients with localized low-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-1B). Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr;24(4):1032-7. Epub 2012 Dec 12. link to original article PubMed

Observation

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Horning et al. 2004 (ECOG E1484) Phase III (C) IFRT Seems to have inferior DFS
Habermann et al. 2006 (ECOG 4494/CALGB 9793) Phase III (C) Rituximab See note
Bonnet et al. 2007 Phase III (E) IFRT Seems not superior
Haioun et al. 2009 (LNH 98-3) Phase III (C) Rituximab Might have inferior EFS
Jaeger et al. 2015 (NHL13) Phase III (C) Rituximab Seems not superior
Witzens-Harig et al. 2015 (HD2002) Phase III (C) Rituximab Inferior OS in males
Witzig et al. 2016 (PILLAR-2) Phase III (C) Everolimus Seems not superior
Crump et al. 2016 (PRELUDE) Phase III (C) Enzastaurin Seems not superior
Thieblemont et al. 2017 (REMARC) Phase III (C) Lenalidomide Seems to have inferior PFS
Lamy et al. 2017 (LYSA/GOELAMS 02-03) Phase III (C) IFRT Non-inferior EFS

No further treatment, also variously termed "observation" and "watchful waiting". Note: in ECOG 4994/CALGB 9793, a disadvantage to observation was only seen in the group receiving CHOP induction, which is no longer standard of care.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. ECOG E1484: Horning SJ, Weller E, Kim K, Earle JD, O'Connell MJ, Habermann TM, Glick JH. Chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy in limited-stage diffuse aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study 1484. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Aug 1;22(15):3032-8. Epub 2004 Jun 21. link to original article PubMed
  2. ECOG 4494/CALGB 9793: Habermann TM, Weller EA, Morrison VA, Gascoyne RD, Cassileth PA, Cohn JB, Dakhil SR, Woda B, Fisher RI, Peterson BA, Horning SJ. Rituximab-CHOP versus CHOP alone or with maintenance rituximab in older patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jul 1;24(19):3121-7. Epub 2006 Jun 5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Bonnet C, Fillet G, Mounier N, Ganem G, Molina TJ, Thiéblemont C, Fermé C, Quesnel B, Martin C, Gisselbrecht C, Tilly H, Reyes F; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. CHOP alone compared with CHOP plus radiotherapy for localized aggressive lymphoma in elderly patients: a study by the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Mar 1;25(7):787-92. Epub 2007 Jan 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. LNH 98-3: Haioun C, Mounier N, Emile JF, Ranta D, Coiffier B, Tilly H, Récher C, Fermé C, Gabarre J, Herbrecht R, Morchhauser F, Gisselbrecht C. Rituximab versus observation after high-dose consolidative first-line chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2009 Dec;20(12):1985-92. Epub 2009 Jun 30. link to original article PubMed
  5. NHL13: Jaeger U, Trneny M, Melzer H, Praxmarer M, Nawarawong W, Ben Yehuda D, Goldstein D, Mihaljevic B, Ilhan O, Ballova V, Hedenus M, Hsiao LT, Au WY, Burgstaller S, Weidinger G, Keil F, Dittrich C, Skrabs C, Klingler A, Chott A, Fridrik MA, Greil R. Rituximab maintenance for patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma in first remission: results of the randomized NHL13 trial. Haematologica. 2015 Jul;100(7):955-63. Epub 2015 Apr 24. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  6. HD2002: Witzens-Harig M, Benner A, McClanahan F, Klemmer J, Brandt J, Brants E, Rieger M, Meissner J, Hensel M, Neben K, Dreger P, Lengfelder E, Schmidt-Wolf I, Krämer A, Ho AD. Rituximab maintenance improves survival in male patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of the HD2002 prospective multicentre randomized phase III trial. Br J Haematol. 2015 Dec;171(5):710-9. Epub 2015 Oct 9. link to original article PubMed
  7. Abstract: Thomas E. Witzig, Kensei Tobinai, Luigi Rigacci, Tongyu Lin, Takashi Ikeda, Anna Vanazzi, Masayuki Hino, Yuankai Shi, Jiri Mayer, Luciano J Costa, Carlos Daniel Bermudez, Jun Zhu, David Belada, Kamal Bouabdallah, Joseph Gergi Kattan, Cassandra Wu, Jenna Fan, Anne-Laure Louveau, Maurizio Voi, and Franco Cavalli. PILLAR-2: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study of adjuvant everolimus (EVE) in patients (pts) with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Journal of Clinical Oncology 2016 34:15_suppl, 7506-7506 link to abstract
  8. PRELUDE: Crump M, Leppä S, Fayad L, Lee JJ, Di Rocco A, Ogura M, Hagberg H, Schnell F, Rifkin R, Mackensen A, Offner F, Pinter-Brown L, Smith S, Tobinai K, Yeh SP, Hsi ED, Nguyen T, Shi P, Hahka-Kemppinen M, Thornton D, Lin B, Kahl B, Schmitz N, Savage KJ, Habermann T. Randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of enzastaurin versus placebo in patients achieving remission after first-line therapy for high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jul 20;34(21):2484-92. Epub 2016 May 23. link to original article PubMed
  9. REMARC: Thieblemont C, Tilly H, Gomes da Silva M, Casasnovas RO, Fruchart C, Morschhauser F, Haioun C, Lazarovici J, Grosicka A, Perrot A, Trotman J, Sebban C, Caballero D, Greil R, van Eygen K, Cohen AM, Gonzalez H, Bouabdallah R, Oberic L, Corront B, Choufi B, Lopez-Guillermo A, Catalano J, Van Hoof A, Briere J, Cabeçadas J, Salles G, Gaulard P, Bosly A, Coiffier B. Lenalidomide maintenance compared with placebo in responding elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with first-line rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 1;35(22):2473-2481. Epub 2017 Apr 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. LYSA/GOELAMS 02-03: Lamy T, Damaj G, Soubeyran P, Gyan E, Cartron G, Bouabdallah K, Gressin R, Cornillon J, Banos A, Le Du K, Benchalal M, Moles MP, Le Gouill S, Fleury J, Godmer P, Maisonneuve H, Deconinck E, Houot R, Laribi K, Marolleau JP, Tournilhac O, Branger B, Devillers A, Vuillez JP, Fest T, Colombat P, Costes V, Szablewski V, Béné MC, Delwail V; LYSA Group. R-CHOP 14 with or without radiotherapy in nonbulky limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2018 Jan 11;131(2):174-181. Epub 2017 Oct 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Radiation therapy

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Variant #1, testicular irradiation

Study Evidence
Vitolo et al. 2011 (IELSG-10) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Radiotherapy

  • External beam radiotherapy 25 to 30 Gy to the contralateral testis. For patients with stage II disease, involved-field radiation therapy was added; see paper for details.

Variant #2, IFRT x 30 Gy

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Horning et al. 2004 (ECOG E1484) Phase III (E) Observation Seems to have superior DFS

Preceding treatment

  • ECOG E1484: CHOP x 8, with CR

Radiotherapy

Variant #3, 36 Gy

Study Evidence
Pfreundschuh et al. 2004 (NHL-B2) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Pfreundschuh et al. 2008 (RICOVER-60) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Schmitz et al. 2012 (DSHNHL 2002-1) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Pfreundschuh et al. 2014 (SMARTE-R-CHOP-14) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Radiotherapy

Variant #4, IFRT x 40 Gy

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Horning et al. 2004 (ECOG E1484) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Bonnet et al. 2007 Phase III (C) Observation Seems not superior
Persky et al. 2014 (SWOG S0313) Phase II
Lamy et al. 2017 (LYSA/GOELAMS 02-03) Phase III Observation Non-inferior EFS

Preceding treatment

  • ECOG E1484: CHOP x 8, with PR
  • SWOG S0313: CHOP x 3, with CR
  • Bonnet et al. 2007: CHOP x 4
  • LYSA/GOELAMS 02-03: R-CHOP-14 x 4 to 6

Radiotherapy

Subsequent treatment

Variant #5, IFRT x 40 to 55 Gy

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Miller et al. 1998 (SWOG S8736) Phase III See link See link
Pfreundschuh et al. 2006 (NCIC CTG LY.9) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Persky et al. 2008 (SWOG S0014) Phase II
Persky et al. 2014 (SWOG S0313) Phase II

Note: these studies did not specify an exact dose; see papers for details.

Preceding treatment

  • SWOG S8736 and SWOG S0014: CHOP x 3
  • NCIC CTG LY.9: CHOP-like therapy x 6 versus R-CHOP-like therapy x 6
  • SWOG S0313: CHOP x 3, with PR

Radiotherapy

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. SWOG S8736: Miller TP, Dahlberg S, Cassady JR, Adelstein DJ, Spier CM, Grogan TM, LeBlanc M, Carlin S, Chase E, Fisher RI. Chemotherapy alone compared with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for localized intermediate- and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul 2;339(1):21-6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Stephens DM, Li H, LeBlanc ML, Puvvada SD, Persky D, Friedberg JW, Smith SM. Continued risk of relapse independent of treatment modality in limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Final and long-term analysis of Southwest Oncology Group study S8736. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep 1;34(25):2997-3004. Epub 2016 Jul 5. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. NHL-B2: Pfreundschuh M, Trümper L, Kloess M, Schmits R, Feller AC, Rübe C, Rudolph C, Reiser M, Hossfeld DK, Eimermacher H, Hasenclever D, Schmitz N, Loeffler M; German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group. Two-weekly or 3-weekly CHOP chemotherapy with or without etoposide for the treatment of elderly patients with aggressive lymphomas: results of the NHL-B2 trial of the DSHNHL. Blood. 2004 Aug 1;104(3):634-41. Epub 2004 Mar 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. ECOG E1484: Horning SJ, Weller E, Kim K, Earle JD, O'Connell MJ, Habermann TM, Glick JH. Chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy in limited-stage diffuse aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study 1484. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Aug 1;22(15):3032-8. Epub 2004 Jun 21. link to original article PubMed
  4. LNH 93-01: Reyes F, Lepage E, Ganem G, Molina TJ, Brice P, Coiffier B, Morel P, Ferme C, Bosly A, Lederlin P, Laurent G, Tilly H; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA). ACVBP versus CHOP plus radiotherapy for localized aggressive lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 24;352(12):1197-205. link to original article PubMed
  5. NCIC CTG LY.9: Pfreundschuh M, Trümper L, Osterborg A, Pettengell R, Trneny M, Imrie K, Ma D, Gill D, Walewski J, Zinzani PL, Stahel R, Kvaloy S, Shpilberg O, Jaeger U, Hansen M, Lehtinen T, López-Guillermo A, Corrado C, Scheliga A, Milpied N, Mendila M, Rashford M, Kuhnt E, Loeffler M; MabThera International Trial Group. CHOP-like chemotherapy plus rituximab versus CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: a randomised controlled trial by the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. Lancet Oncol. 2006 May;7(5):379-91. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Pfreundschuh M, Kuhnt E, Trümper L, Osterborg A, Trneny M, Shepherd L, Gill DS, Walewski J, Pettengell R, Jaeger U, Zinzani PL, Shpilberg O, Kvaloy S, de Nully Brown P, Stahel R, Milpied N, López-Guillermo A, Poeschel V, Grass S, Loeffler M, Murawski N; MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: 6-year results of an open-label randomised study of the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Oct;12(11):1013-22. link to original article PubMed
  6. Bonnet C, Fillet G, Mounier N, Ganem G, Molina TJ, Thiéblemont C, Fermé C, Quesnel B, Martin C, Gisselbrecht C, Tilly H, Reyes F; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. CHOP alone compared with CHOP plus radiotherapy for localized aggressive lymphoma in elderly patients: a study by the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Mar 1;25(7):787-92. Epub 2007 Jan 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. RICOVER-60: Pfreundschuh M, Schubert J, Ziepert M, Schmits R, Mohren M, Lengfelder E, Reiser M, Nickenig C, Clemens M, Peter N, Bokemeyer C, Eimermacher H, Ho A, Hoffmann M, Mertelsmann R, Trümper L, Balleisen L, Liersch R, Metzner B, Hartmann F, Glass B, Poeschel V, Schmitz N, Ruebe C, Feller AC, Loeffler M; German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Six versus eight cycles of bi-weekly CHOP-14 with or without rituximab in elderly patients with aggressive CD20+ B-cell lymphomas: a randomised controlled trial (RICOVER-60). Lancet Oncol. 2008 Feb;9(2):105-16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. SWOG S0014: Persky DO, Unger JM, Spier CM, Stea B, LeBlanc M, McCarty MJ, Rimsza LM, Fisher RI, Miller TP; Southwest Oncology Group. Phase II study of rituximab plus three cycles of CHOP and involved-field radiotherapy for patients with limited-stage aggressive B-cell lymphoma: Southwest Oncology Group study 0014. J Clin Oncol. 2008 May 10;26(14):2258-63. Epub 2008 Apr 14. link to original article does not contain protocol PubMed
  9. IELSG-10: Vitolo U, Chiappella A, Ferreri AJ, Martelli M, Baldi I, Balzarotti M, Bottelli C, Conconi A, Gomez H, Lopez-Guillermo A, Martinelli G, Merli F, Novero D, Orsucci L, Pavone V, Ricardi U, Storti S, Gospodarowicz MK, Cavalli F, Sarris AH, Zucca E. First-line treatment for primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with rituximab-CHOP, CNS prophylaxis, and contralateral testis irradiation: final results of an international phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jul 10;29(20):2766-72. Epub 2011 Jun 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. DSHNHL 2002-1: Schmitz N, Nickelsen M, Ziepert M, Haenel M, Borchmann P, Schmidt C, Viardot A, Bentz M, Peter N, Ehninger G, Doelken G, Ruebe C, Truemper L, Rosenwald A, Pfreundschuh M, Loeffler M, Glass B; for the German High-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Conventional chemotherapy (CHOEP-14) with rituximab or high-dose chemotherapy (MegaCHOEP) with rituximab for young, high-risk patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma: an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial (DSHNHL 2002-1). Lancet Oncol. 2012 Dec;13(12):1250-1259. Epub 2012 Nov 16. link to original article PubMed
  11. SWOG S0313: Persky DO, Miller TP, Unger JM, Spier CM, Puvvada S, Stea BD, Press OW, Constine LS, Barton KP, Friedberg JW, LeBlanc M, Fisher RI. Ibritumomab consolidation after 3 cycles of CHOP plus radiotherapy in high-risk limited-stage aggressive B-cell lymphoma: SWOG S0313. Blood. 2015 Jan 8;125(2):236-41. Epub 2014 Nov 13. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  12. SMARTE-R-CHOP-14: Pfreundschuh M, Poeschel V, Zeynalova S, Hänel M, Held G, Schmitz N, Viardot A, Dreyling MH, Hallek M, Mueller C, Wiesen MH, Witzens-Harig M, Truemper L, Keller U, Rixecker T, Zwick C, Murawski N. Optimization of rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (II): extended rituximab exposure time in the SMARTE-R-CHOP-14 trial of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 20;32(36):4127-33. Epub 2014 Nov 17. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jun 10;33(17):1991. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  13. LYSA/GOELAMS 02-03: Lamy T, Damaj G, Soubeyran P, Gyan E, Cartron G, Bouabdallah K, Gressin R, Cornillon J, Banos A, Le Du K, Benchalal M, Moles MP, Le Gouill S, Fleury J, Godmer P, Maisonneuve H, Deconinck E, Houot R, Laribi K, Marolleau JP, Tournilhac O, Branger B, Devillers A, Vuillez JP, Fest T, Colombat P, Costes V, Szablewski V, Béné MC, Delwail V; LYSA Group. R-CHOP 14 with or without radiotherapy in nonbulky limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2018 Jan 11;131(2):174-181. Epub 2017 Oct 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-IFE

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R-IFE: Rituximab, IFosfamide, Etoposide
REI: Rituximab, Etoposide, Ifosfamide

Regimen

Study Evidence
Récher et al. 2011 (LNH03-2B) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Ketterer et al. 2013 (LNH03-1B) Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. LNH03-2B: Récher C, Coiffier B, Haioun C, Molina TJ, Fermé C, Casasnovas O, Thiéblemont C, Bosly A, Laurent G, Morschhauser F, Ghesquières H, Jardin F, Bologna S, Fruchart C, Corront B, Gabarre J, Bonnet C, Janvier M, Canioni D, Jais JP, Salles G, Tilly H; Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. Intensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab versus standard CHOP plus rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-2B): an open-label randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Nov 26;378(9806):1858-67. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. LNH03-1B: Ketterer N, Coiffier B, Thieblemont C, Fermé C, Brière J, Casasnovas O, Bologna S, Christian B, Connerotte T, Récher C, Bordessoule D, Fruchart C, Delarue R, Bonnet C, Morschhauser F, Anglaret B, Soussain C, Fabiani B, Tilly H, Haioun C. Phase III study of ACVBP versus ACVBP plus rituximab for patients with localized low-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-1B). Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr;24(4):1032-7. Epub 2012 Dec 12. link to original article PubMed

TBI, then auto HSCT

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stiff et al. 2013 (SWOG S9704) Phase III R-CHOP x 8 Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Radiotherapy

Stem cells reinfused on day 0

References

  1. Stiff PJ, Unger JM, Cook JR, Constine LS, Couban S, Stewart DA, Shea TC, Porcu P, Winter JN, Kahl BS, Miller TP, Tubbs RR, Marcellus D, Friedberg JW, Barton KP, Mills GM, LeBlanc M, Rimsza LM, Forman SJ, Fisher RI. Autologous transplantation as consolidation for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 31;369(18):1681-90. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Puvvada SD, Stiff PJ, Leblanc M, Cook JR, Couban S, Leonard JP, Kahl B, Marcellus D, Shea TC, Winter JN, Li H, Rimsza LM, Friedberg JW, Smith SM. Outcomes of MYC-associated lymphomas after R-CHOP with and without consolidative autologous stem cell transplant: subset analysis of randomized trial intergroup SWOG S9704. Br J Haematol. 2016 Sep;174(5):686-91. Epub 2016 Apr 13. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Maintenance after upfront therapy

Lenalidomide monotherapy

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Variant #1, 1 year

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Reddy et al. 2016 Randomized Phase II Lenalidomide & Rituximab Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • R-CHOP with or without radiation

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 12 cycles

Variant #2, 2 years

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Thieblemont et al. 2017 (REMARC) Phase III (E) Observation Seems to have superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 2 years

References

  1. Reddy NM, Greer JP, Morgan DS, Chen H, Park SI, Richards KL. A phase II randomized study of lenalidomide or lenalidomide and rituximab as maintenance therapy following standard chemotherapy for patients with high/high-intermediate risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leukemia. 2017 Jan;31(1):241-244. Epub 2016 Sep 22. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. REMARC: Thieblemont C, Tilly H, Gomes da Silva M, Casasnovas RO, Fruchart C, Morschhauser F, Haioun C, Lazarovici J, Grosicka A, Perrot A, Trotman J, Sebban C, Caballero D, Greil R, van Eygen K, Cohen AM, Gonzalez H, Bouabdallah R, Oberic L, Corront B, Choufi B, Lopez-Guillermo A, Catalano J, Van Hoof A, Briere J, Cabeçadas J, Salles G, Gaulard P, Bosly A, Coiffier B. Lenalidomide maintenance compared with placebo in responding elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with first-line rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 1;35(22):2473-2481. Epub 2017 Apr 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

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Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Jaeger et al. 2015 (NHL13) Phase III Observation Seems not superior

Patients required to be in CR or CRu prior to enrollment. The protocol was amended after the first 69 patients enrolled to increase length of treatment from 1 to 2 years.

Preceding treatment

  • Rituximab (375 mg/m2) x 8 and 4 to 8 cycles of CHOP-like chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

1 to 2 year course (6 to 12 doses total)

Variant #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Witzens-Harig et al. 2015 (HD2002) Phase III Observation Superior OS in males

Preceding treatment

  • "Standard treatment" which was not further described in the paper, beyond that a majority of patient received R-CHOP (see Tables)

Chemotherapy

2 year course (8 doses total)

Variant #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Haioun et al. 2009 (LNH 98-3) Phase III Observation Might have superior EFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

4-week course (4 doses total)

Variant #4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Habermann et al. 2006 (ECOG 4494/CALGB 9793) Phase III Observation See note

Note: in ECOG 4994/CALGB 9793, an advantage to rituximab was only seen in the group receiving CHOP upfront, which is no longer standard of care.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

6-month cycle for 4 cycles (16 doses total)

References

  1. ECOG 4494/CALGB 9793: Habermann TM, Weller EA, Morrison VA, Gascoyne RD, Cassileth PA, Cohn JB, Dakhil SR, Woda B, Fisher RI, Peterson BA, Horning SJ. Rituximab-CHOP versus CHOP alone or with maintenance rituximab in older patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jul 1;24(19):3121-7. Epub 2006 Jun 5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. LNH 98-3: Haioun C, Mounier N, Emile JF, Ranta D, Coiffier B, Tilly H, Récher C, Fermé C, Gabarre J, Herbrecht R, Morchhauser F, Gisselbrecht C. Rituximab versus observation after high-dose consolidative first-line chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2009 Dec;20(12):1985-92. Epub 2009 Jun 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. NHL13: Jaeger U, Trneny M, Melzer H, Praxmarer M, Nawarawong W, Ben Yehuda D, Goldstein D, Mihaljevic B, Ilhan O, Ballova V, Hedenus M, Hsiao LT, Au WY, Burgstaller S, Weidinger G, Keil F, Dittrich C, Skrabs C, Klingler A, Chott A, Fridrik MA, Greil R. Rituximab maintenance for patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma in first remission: results of the randomized NHL13 trial. Haematologica. 2015 Jul;100(7):955-63. Epub 2015 Apr 24. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. HD2002: Witzens-Harig M, Benner A, McClanahan F, Klemmer J, Brandt J, Brants E, Rieger M, Meissner J, Hensel M, Neben K, Dreger P, Lengfelder E, Schmidt-Wolf I, Krämer A, Ho AD. Rituximab maintenance improves survival in male patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of the HD2002 prospective multicentre randomized phase III trial. Br J Haematol. 2015 Dec;171(5):710-9. Epub 2015 Oct 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Relapsed or refractory, salvage therapy

O-DHAP

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O-DHAP: Ofatumumab, Dexamethasone, High-dose Ara-C (Cytarabine), Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Matasar et al. 2013 Phase II
van Imhoff et al. 2016 (ORCHARRD) Phase III R-DHAP Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Matasar MJ, Czuczman MS, Rodriguez MA, Fennessy M, Shea TC, Spitzer G, Lossos IS, Kharfan-Dabaja MA, Joyce R, Fayad L, Henkel K, Liao Q, Edvardsen K, Jewell RC, Fecteau D, Singh RP, Lisby S, Moskowitz CH. Ofatumumab in combination with ICE or DHAP chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory intermediate grade B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2013 Jul 25;122(4):499-506. Epub 2013 May 21. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. van Imhoff GW, McMillan A, Matasar MJ, Radford J, Ardeshna KM, Kuliczkowski K, Kim W, Hong X, Goerloev JS, Davies A, Barrigón MD, Ogura M, Leppä S, Fennessy M, Liao Q, van der Holt B, Lisby S, Hagenbeek A. Ofatumumab versus rituximab salvage chemoimmunotherapy in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: The ORCHARRD study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Feb 10;35(5):544-51. Epub 2016 Dec 28. link to original article link to data supplement verified protocol in supplement PubMed

O-ICE

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O-ICE: Ofatumumab, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide

Regimen

Study Evidence
Matasar et al. 2013 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent consolidation therapy was not specified.

References

  1. Matasar MJ, Czuczman MS, Rodriguez MA, Fennessy M, Shea TC, Spitzer G, Lossos IS, Kharfan-Dabaja MA, Joyce R, Fayad L, Henkel K, Liao Q, Edvardsen K, Jewell RC, Fecteau D, Singh RP, Lisby S, Moskowitz CH. Ofatumumab in combination with ICE or DHAP chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory intermediate grade B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2013 Jul 25;122(4):499-506. Epub 2013 May 21. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

R-DexaBEAM

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R-DexaBEAM: Rituximab, Dexamethasone, BiCNU (Carmustine), Etoposide, Ara-C (Cytarabine), Melphalan

Regimen

Study Evidence
Kirschey et al. 2014 Phase II

Note: the dosing in the manuscript is different than below. The below are the correct doses as verified by the authors.

Chemotherapy

3- to 4-week cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Kirschey S, Flohr T, Wolf HH, Frickhofen N, Gramatzki M, Link H, Basara N, Peter N, Meyer RG, Schmitz N, Weidmann E, Banat A, Schulz A, Kolbe K, Derigs G, Theobald M, Hess G. Rituximab combined with DexaBEAM followed by high dose therapy as salvage therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma: mature results of a phase II multicentre study. Br J Haematol. 2015 Mar;168(6):824-34. Epub 2014 Dec 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-DHAOx

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R-DHAOx: Rituximab, Dexamethasone, High-dose Ara-C (Cytarabine), Oxaliplatin
ROAD: Rituximab, Oxaliplatin, Ara-C (Cytarabine), Dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Witzig et al. 2017 (MCCRC MC0485) Phase II ORR: 71% (95% CI, 56–84)

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Most responders proceeded to high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant after 2 cycles, although this was not mandated in the protocol

References

  1. MCCRC MC0485: Witzig TE, Johnston PB, LaPlant BR, Kurtin PJ, Pederson LD, Moore DF Jr, Nabbout NH, Nikcevich DA, Rowland KM, Grothey A. Long-term follow-up of chemoimmunotherapy with rituximab, oxaliplatin, cytosine arabinoside, dexamethasone (ROAD) in patients with relapsed CD20+ B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Results of a study of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Research Consortium (MCCRC) MC0485 now known as academic and community cancer research united (ACCRU). Am J Hematol. 2017 Oct;92(10):1004-1010. Epub 2017 Aug 17. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-DHAP

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R-DHAP: Rituximab, Dexamethasone, High-dose Ara-C (Cytarabine), Platinol (Cisplatin)

Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gisselbrecht et al. 2010 (CORAL) Phase III R-ICE Seems not superior
van Imhoff et al. 2016 (ORCHARRD) Phase III O-DHAP Seems not superior

Note: CORAL makes reference to Velasquez et al. 1988 to describe this regimen, although this reference is for DHAP, not R-DHAP. The paper also contains the following regimen information:

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • CORAL: G-CSF "depending on site policy, with R-DHAP, but always after the third cycle until the end of leukaphereses"

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Crump et al. 2014 (NCIC-CTG LY.12) Phase III R-GDP Seems non-inferior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Responders: Stem-cell mobilization and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (regimen not specified)

Variant #3

Study Evidence
Mey et al. 2006 Phase II

The doses here were used after a mid-protocol amendment pertaining to the first cycle.

Chemotherapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 40 mg PO once per day on days 3 to 5
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 40 mg PO once per day on days 3 to 6
  • Cytarabine (Cytosar) as follows:
    • Cycle 1 as follows:
      • Younger than 60 years: 1000 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours Q12H x 2 doses on day 4 (total of 2 doses)
      • Older than 60 years: 500 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours Q12H x 2 doses on day 4 (total of 2 doses)
    • Cycles 2 to 4 as follows:
      • Younger than 60 years: 2000 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours Q12H x 2 doses on day 4 (total of 2 doses)
      • Older than 60 years: 1000 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours Q12H x 2 doses on day 4 (total of 2 doses)
  • Cisplatin (Platinol) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 25 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion on days 3 to 5 (total dose: 75 mg/m2)
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 25 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion on days 3 to 6 (total dose per cycle: 100 mg/m2)

21-day cycle for up to 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Patients with at least PR were allowed to undergo high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplant (regimen not specified)

References

  1. Mey UJ, Orlopp KS, Flieger D, Strehl JW, Ho AD, Hensel M, Bopp C, Gorschlüter M, Wilhelm M, Birkmann J, Kaiser U, Neubauer A, Florschütz A, Rabe C, Hahn C, Glasmacher AG, Schmidt-Wolf IG. Dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin in combination with rituximab as salvage treatment for patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Invest. 2006 Oct;24(6):593-600. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. CORAL: Gisselbrecht C, Glass B, Mounier N, Singh Gill D, Linch DC, Trneny M, Bosly A, Ketterer N, Shpilberg O, Hagberg H, Ma D, Brière J, Moskowitz CH, Schmitz N. Salvage regimens with autologous transplantation for relapsed large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 20;28(27):4184-90. Epub 2010 Jul 26. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2012 May 20;30(15):1896. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. NCIC-CTG LY.12: Crump M, Kuruvilla J, Couban S, MacDonald DA, Kukreti V, Kouroukis CT, Rubinger M, Buckstein R, Imrie KR, Federico M, Di Renzo N, Howson-Jan K, Baetz T, Kaizer L, Voralia M, Olney HJ, Turner AR, Sussman J, Hay AE, Djurfeldt MS, Meyer RM, Chen BE, Shepherd LE. Randomized comparison of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin versus dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin chemotherapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphomas: NCIC-CTG LY.12. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 1;32(31):3490-6. Epub 2014 Sep 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. ORCHARRD: van Imhoff GW, McMillan A, Matasar MJ, Radford J, Ardeshna KM, Kuliczkowski K, Kim W, Hong X, Goerloev JS, Davies A, Barrigón MD, Ogura M, Leppä S, Fennessy M, Liao Q, van der Holt B, Lisby S, Hagenbeek A. Ofatumumab versus rituximab salvage chemoimmunotherapy in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: The ORCHARRD study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Feb 10;35(5):544-51. Epub 2016 Dec 28. link to original article link to data supplement verified protocol in supplement PubMed

R-DHAP/R-VIM

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R-DHAP/R-VIM: Rituximab, Dexamethasone, High-dose Ara-C (Cytarabine), Platinol (Cisplatin) alternating with Rituximab, VP-16 (Etoposide), Ifosfamide, Methotrexate

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Vellenga et al. 2008 (HOVON-44) Phase III DHAP/VIM Superior PFS

Note: per the paper, "in case patients were non-responsive to R-DHAP but responsive to R-VIM, it was allowed to repeat the R-VIM regimen as the third cycle of reinduction chemotherapy." No statement is made as to whether Mesna is used in the VIM protocol.

Chemotherapy, R-DHAP portion

28-day cycle for 2 cycles, with VIM interposed

Chemotherapy, R-VIM portion

28-day cycle for 1 cycle, given in-between R-DHAP cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Vellenga E, van Putten WL, van 't Veer MB, Zijlstra JM, Fibbe WE, van Oers MH, Verdonck LF, Wijermans PW, van Imhoff GW, Lugtenburg PJ, Huijgens PC. Rituximab improves the treatment results of DHAP-VIM-DHAP and ASCT in relapsed/progressive aggressive CD20+ NHL: a prospective randomized HOVON trial. Blood. 2008 Jan 15;111(2):537-43. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-EPOCH

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R-EPOCH: Rituximab, Etoposide, Prednisone, Oncovin (Vincristine), Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin)

Regimen

Study Evidence
Jermann et al. 2004 Phase II

Note: this is not the dose-adjusted R-EPOCH regimen

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Patients younger than 60 who achieved at least PR: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (regimen not specified)

References

  1. Jermann M, Jost LM, Taverna Ch, Jacky E, Honegger HP, Betticher DC, Egli F, Kroner T, Stahel RA. Rituximab-EPOCH, an effective salvage therapy for relapsed, refractory or transformed B-cell lymphomas: results of a phase II study. Ann Oncol. 2004 Mar;15(3):511-6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-ESHAP

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R-ESHAP: Rituximab, Etoposide, Solumedrol (Methylprednisolone) High-dose Ara-C (Cytarabine), Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martín et al. 2008 Retrospective
Avilés et al. 2010 Phase III ESHAP Seems not superior

Regimen details are based on ESHAP paper from 1994. Per retrospective review (Martin et al. 2008), 90% of patients given R-ESHAP received rituximab on day 1, 10% on day 5.

Chemotherapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1 (or day 5)
  • Etoposide (Vepesid) 40 mg/m2 IV over 60 minutes once per day on days 1 to 4
  • Methylprednisolone (Solumedrol) 250 to 500 mg IV over 15 minutes once per day on days 1 to 5
    • In Martín et al. 2008, could either be given on days 1 to 4 or days 1 to 5, with patients receiving total doses of anywhere from 1000 mg per cycle to 2500 mg per cycle
  • Cytarabine (Cytosar) 2000 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours once on day 5
  • Cisplatin (Platinol) 25 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion over 96 hours (total dose per cycle: 100 mg/m2) on days 1 to 4

Supportive medications

21 to 28 day cycles ("after recovery of the toxic effects") x 6 to 8 cycles

References

  1. Retrospective: Martín A, Conde E, Arnan M, Canales MA, Deben G, Sancho JM, Andreu R, Salar A, García-Sanchez P, Vázquez L, Nistal S, Requena MJ, Donato EM, González JA, León A, Ruiz C, Grande C, González-Barca E, Caballero MD; Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Osea (GEL/TAMO Cooperative Group). R-ESHAP as salvage therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the influence of prior exposure to rituximab on outcome. A GEL/TAMO study. Haematologica. 2008 Dec;93(12):1829-36. Epub 2008 Oct 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Avilés A, Neri N, Huerta-Guzmán J, de Jesús Nambo M. ESHAP versus rituximab-ESHAP in frail patients with refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2010 Apr;10(2):125-8. link to original article PubMed

R-GDP

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R-GDP: Rituximab, Gemcitabine, Dexamethasone, Platinol (Cisplatin)

Variant #1, 1 day of cisplatin/cycle

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Crump et al. 2014 (NCIC-CTG LY.12) Phase III R-DHAP Seems non-inferior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Responders: Stem-cell mobilization and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (regimen not specified)

Variant #2, 3 days of cisplatin/cycle

Study Evidence
Hou et al. 2012 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Hou Y, Wang HQ, Ba Y. Rituximab, gemcitabine, cisplatin, and dexamethasone in patients with refractory or relapsed aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Med Oncol. 2012 Dec;29(4):2409-16. Epub 2012 Apr 3. link to original article PubMed
  2. Crump M, Kuruvilla J, Couban S, MacDonald DA, Kukreti V, Kouroukis CT, Rubinger M, Buckstein R, Imrie KR, Federico M, Di Renzo N, Howson-Jan K, Baetz T, Kaizer L, Voralia M, Olney HJ, Turner AR, Sussman J, Hay AE, Djurfeldt MS, Meyer RM, Chen BE, Shepherd LE. Randomized comparison of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin versus dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin chemotherapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphomas: NCIC-CTG LY.12. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 1;32(31):3490-6. Epub 2014 Sep 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-ICE

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R-ICE: Rituximab, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide
ICE-R: Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide, Rituximab

Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gisselbrecht et al. 2010 (CORAL) Phase III R-DHAP Seems not superior
Fayad et al. 2015 Randomized Phase IIb R-ICE + Dacetuzumab Seems not superior

Note: Gisselbrecht et al. 2010 refers to the non-randomized Kewalramani et al. 2004 regimen, although it has slightly different day numbering. Doses are the same.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2

Study Evidence Efficacy
Guo et al. 2014 Phase II ORR: 78%

Note: original article is in Chinese; this information is from the English abstract.

Chemotherapy

3 cycles; duration of cycles not specified in the abstract

Variant #3

Study Evidence Efficacy
Zelenetz et al. 2003 Phase II ORR: 81% (*)
Kewalramani et al. 2004 Phase II ORR: 78% (*)

Third cycle intended to be followed by peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell collection. ORR reported in Zelenetz et al. 2003 is for the subset of DLBCL patients who received R-ICE; it is unclear if these patients were exposed to rituximab previously. None of the patients in Kewalaramani et al. 2004 had previously received rituximab.

Chemotherapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
    • An additional one-time dose of 375 mg/m2 IV was given 48 hours before the beginning of cycle 1
  • Ifosfamide (Ifex) 5000 mg/m2 IV continuous infusion over 24 hours on day 4, mixed together with Mesna (Mesnex)
  • Carboplatin (Paraplatin) AUC 5 (maximum dose of 800 mg) IV bolus once on day 4
    • Carboplatin AUC calculated based on a 12-hour creatinine clearance
  • Etoposide (Vepesid) 100 mg/m2 IV bolus once per day on days 3 to 5

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 3 cycles

References

  1. Zelenetz AD, Hamlin P, Kewalramani T, Yahalom J, Nimer S, Moskowitz CH. Ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (ICE)-based second-line chemotherapy for the management of relapsed and refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2003;14 Suppl 1:i5-10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Kewalramani T, Zelenetz AD, Nimer SD, Portlock C, Straus D, Noy A, O'Connor O, Filippa DA, Teruya-Feldstein J, Gencarelli A, Qin J, Waxman A, Yahalom J, Moskowitz CH. Rituximab and ICE as second-line therapy before autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2004 May 15;103(10):3684-8. Epub 2004 Jan 22. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Gisselbrecht C, Glass B, Mounier N, Singh Gill D, Linch DC, Trneny M, Bosly A, Ketterer N, Shpilberg O, Hagberg H, Ma D, Brière J, Moskowitz CH, Schmitz N. Salvage regimens with autologous transplantation for relapsed large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 20;28(27):4184-90. Epub 2010 Jul 26. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2012 May 20;30(15):1896. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Guo Y, Chen Y, Hong X, Yu L, Ma J, Shi Y, Liu T, Jiang W, Zhu J, Jin J, Zou P, Wu D, Shen Z. [A phase II multicenter study to investigate R-ICE as a salvage therapy for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2014 Apr;35(4):314-7. Chinese. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Fayad L, Ansell SM, Advani R, Coiffier B, Stuart R, Bartlett NL, Forero-Torres A, Kuliczkowski K, Belada D, Ng E, Drachman JG. Dacetuzumab plus rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide as salvage therapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma relapsing after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. Leuk Lymphoma. 2015;56(9):2569-78. Epub 2015 Feb 26. link to original article PubMed

RICER

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RICER: Rituximab, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide, Revlimid (Lenalidomide)

Regimen

Study Evidence
Feldman et al. 2014 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Feldman T, Mato AR, Chow KF, Protomastro EA, Yannotti KM, Bhattacharyya P, Yang X, Donato ML, Rowley SD, Carini C, Valentinetti M, Smith J, Gadaleta G, Bejot C, Stives S, Timberg M, Kdiry S, Pecora AL, Beaven AW, Goy A. Addition of lenalidomide to rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (RICER) in first-relapse/primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2014 Jul;166(1):77-83. Epub 2014 Mar 25. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

R-IFE

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R-IFE: Rituximab, IFosfamide, Etoposide

Regimen

Study Evidence
Pardal et al. 2014 (GELTAMO-2006) Phase II

These were patients with PET-positive disease at interim assessment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

2 cycles (duration not specified)

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. GELTAMO-2006: Pardal E, Coronado M, Martín A, Grande C, Marín-Niebla A, Panizo C, Bello JL, Conde E, Hernández MT, Arranz R, Bargay J, González-Barca E, Pérez-Ceballos E, Montes-Moreno S, Caballero MD. Intensification treatment based on early FDG-PET in patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase II GELTAMO trial. Br J Haematol. 2014 Nov;167(3):327-36. Epub 2014 Jul 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-NIMP

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R-NIMP: Rituximab, Navelbine (Vinorelbine), Ifosfamide, Mitoxantrone, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Gyan et al. 2013 Phase II 68% (95%CI: 53–79)

BSA was capped at 2 for all dose calculations.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for 3 cycles

Responders were recommended to undergo 3 additional cycles of R-NIMP (if transplant ineligible) or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (regimen not specified).

References

  1. Gyan E, Damotte D, Courby S, Sénécal D, Quittet P, Schmidt-Tanguy A, Banos A, Le Gouill S, Lamy T, Fontan J, Maisonneuve H, Alexis M, Dreyfus F, Tournilhac O, Laribi K, Solal-Céligny P, Arakelyan N, Cartron G, Gressin R; GOELAMS Group. High response rate and acceptable toxicity of a combination of rituximab, vinorelbine, ifosfamide, mitoxantrone and prednisone for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in first relapse: results of the R-NIMP GOELAMS study. Br J Haematol. 2013 Jul;162(2):240-9. Epub 2013 May 21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Consolidation after salvage therapy

BEAC, then auto HSCT

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BEAC: Rituximab, BiCNU (Carmustine), Etoposide, Ara-C (Cytarabine), Cyclophosphamide

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Philip et al. 1991 (Parma) Prospective pilot
Philip et al. 1995 (PARMA) Phase III (E) DHAP x4 Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

DHAP x 2; radiation was also given to sites of bulky disease (>5cm)

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Mesna (Mesnex) 8.3 mg/kg IV over 30 minutes every 4 hours on days 2 to 5 (optional)

Stem cells re-infused on day 7 (48 hours after last dose of etoposide)


References

  1. Philip T, Chauvin F, Armitage J, Bron D, Hagenbeek A, Biron P, Spitzer G, Velasquez W, Weisenburger DD, Fernandez-Ranada J, Somers R, Rizzoli V, Harousseau JL, Sotto JJ, Cahn JY, Guilhot F, Biggs J, Sonneveld P, Misset JL, Manna A, Jagannath S, Guglielmi C, Chevreau C, Delmer A, Santini G, Coiffier B. Parma international protocol: pilot study of DHAP followed by involved-field radiotherapy and BEAC with autologous bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 1991 Apr 1;77(7):1587-92. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. PARMA: Philip T, Guglielmi C, Hagenbeek A, Somers R, Van der Lelie H, Bron D, Sonneveld P, Gisselbrecht C, Cahn JY, Harousseau JL, Coiffier B, Biron P, Mandelli F, Chauvin F. Autologous bone marrow transplantation as compared with salvage chemotherapy in relapses of chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 7;333(23):1540-5. link to original article PubMed

BEAM, then auto HSCT

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BEAM: Rituximab, BiCNU (Carmustine), Etoposide, Ara-C (Cytarabine), Melphalan

Variant #1

Study Evidence
Pardal et al. 2014 (GELTAMO-2006) Phase II
van Imhoff et al. 2016 (ORCHARRD) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

Stem cells reinfused on day 0

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Vellenga et al. 2008 (HOVON-44) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Gisselbrecht et al. 2010 (CORAL) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Stem cells reinfused on day 0

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. HOVON-44: Vellenga E, van Putten WL, van 't Veer MB, Zijlstra JM, Fibbe WE, van Oers MH, Verdonck LF, Wijermans PW, van Imhoff GW, Lugtenburg PJ, Huijgens PC. Rituximab improves the treatment results of DHAP-VIM-DHAP and ASCT in relapsed/progressive aggressive CD20+ NHL: a prospective randomized HOVON trial. Blood. 2008 Jan 15;111(2):537-43. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. CORAL: Gisselbrecht C, Glass B, Mounier N, Singh Gill D, Linch DC, Trneny M, Bosly A, Ketterer N, Shpilberg O, Hagberg H, Ma D, Brière J, Moskowitz CH, Schmitz N. Salvage regimens with autologous transplantation for relapsed large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 20;28(27):4184-90. Epub 2010 Jul 26. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2012 May 20;30(15):1896. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. GELTAMO-2006: Pardal E, Coronado M, Martín A, Grande C, Marín-Niebla A, Panizo C, Bello JL, Conde E, Hernández MT, Arranz R, Bargay J, González-Barca E, Pérez-Ceballos E, Montes-Moreno S, Caballero MD. Intensification treatment based on early FDG-PET in patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase II GELTAMO trial. Br J Haematol. 2014 Nov;167(3):327-36. Epub 2014 Jul 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. ORCHARRD: van Imhoff GW, McMillan A, Matasar MJ, Radford J, Ardeshna KM, Kuliczkowski K, Kim W, Hong X, Goerloev JS, Davies A, Barrigón MD, Ogura M, Leppä S, Fennessy M, Liao Q, van der Holt B, Lisby S, Hagenbeek A. Ofatumumab versus rituximab salvage chemoimmunotherapy in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: The ORCHARRD study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Feb 10;35(5):544-51. Epub 2016 Dec 28. link to original article link to data supplement verified protocol in supplement PubMed

LEED, then auto HSCT

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LEED: L-PAM (Melphalan), Endoxan (Cyclophosphamide), Etoposide, Dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence
van Imhoff et al. 2016 (ORCHARRD) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Stem cells reinfused on day 0

References

  1. van Imhoff GW, McMillan A, Matasar MJ, Radford J, Ardeshna KM, Kuliczkowski K, Kim W, Hong X, Goerloev JS, Davies A, Barrigón MD, Ogura M, Leppä S, Fennessy M, Liao Q, van der Holt B, Lisby S, Hagenbeek A. Ofatumumab versus rituximab salvage chemoimmunotherapy in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: The ORCHARRD study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Feb 10;35(5):544-51. Epub 2016 Dec 28. link to original article link to data supplement verified protocol in supplement PubMed

R-BEAM, then auto HSCT

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R-BEAM: Rituximab, BiCNU (Carmustine), Etoposide, Ara-C (Cytarabine), Melphalan

Regimen

Study Evidence
Kirschey et al. 2014 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Stem cells reinfused on day 0

References

  1. Kirschey S, Flohr T, Wolf HH, Frickhofen N, Gramatzki M, Link H, Basara N, Peter N, Meyer RG, Schmitz N, Weidmann E, Banat A, Schulz A, Kolbe K, Derigs G, Theobald M, Hess G. Rituximab combined with DexaBEAM followed by high dose therapy as salvage therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma: mature results of a phase II multicentre study. Br J Haematol. 2015 Mar;168(6):824-34. Epub 2014 Dec 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-TBI/Cy, then auto HSCT

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R-TBI/Cy: Rituximab, Total, Body, Irradiation, Cyclophosphamide

Regimen

Study Evidence
Kirschey et al. 2014 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemoradiotherapy

Stem cells reinfused on day 0

References

  1. Kirschey S, Flohr T, Wolf HH, Frickhofen N, Gramatzki M, Link H, Basara N, Peter N, Meyer RG, Schmitz N, Weidmann E, Banat A, Schulz A, Kolbe K, Derigs G, Theobald M, Hess G. Rituximab combined with DexaBEAM followed by high dose therapy as salvage therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma: mature results of a phase II multicentre study. Br J Haematol. 2015 Mar;168(6):824-34. Epub 2014 Dec 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Maintenance after salvage therapy

Lenalidomide monotherapy

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Variant #1, 25 mg 21/28 indefinitely

Study Evidence
Ferreri et al. 2017 Phase II

Preceding treatment

  • Rituximab-containing salvage chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 25 mg 21/28 for 12 months

Study Evidence
Feldman et al. 2014 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles for up to 12 months

References

  1. Feldman T, Mato AR, Chow KF, Protomastro EA, Yannotti KM, Bhattacharyya P, Yang X, Donato ML, Rowley SD, Carini C, Valentinetti M, Smith J, Gadaleta G, Bejot C, Stives S, Timberg M, Kdiry S, Pecora AL, Beaven AW, Goy A. Addition of lenalidomide to rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (RICER) in first-relapse/primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2014 Jul;166(1):77-83. Epub 2014 Mar 25. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Ferreri AJ, Sassone M, Zaja F, Re A, Spina M, Rocco AD, Fabbri A, Stelitano C, Frezzato M, Rusconi C, Zambello R, Couto S, Ren Y, Arcari A, Bertoldero G, Nonis A, Scarfò L, Calimeri T, Cecchetti C, Chiozzotto M, Govi S, Ponzoni M. Lenalidomide maintenance in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who are not eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation: an open label, single-arm, multicentre phase 2 trial. Lancet Haematol. 2017 Mar;4(3):e137-e146. Epub 2017 Feb 17. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Observation

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gisselbrecht et al. 2012 (CORAL) Phase III (C) Rituximab Seems not superior

No further treatment.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. CORAL: Gisselbrecht C, Schmitz N, Mounier N, Singh Gill D, Linch DC, Trneny M, Bosly A, Milpied NJ, Radford J, Ketterer N, Shpilberg O, Dührsen U, Hagberg H, Ma DD, Viardot A, Lowenthal R, Brière J, Salles G, Moskowitz CH, Glass B. Rituximab maintenance therapy after autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with relapsed CD20(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: final analysis of the collaborative trial in relapsed aggressive lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Dec 20;30(36):4462-9. Epub 2012 Oct 22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gisselbrecht et al. 2012 (CORAL) Phase III Observation Seems not superior

Treatment begins on day +28.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

1 year course

References

  1. Gisselbrecht C, Schmitz N, Mounier N, Singh Gill D, Linch DC, Trneny M, Bosly A, Milpied NJ, Radford J, Ketterer N, Shpilberg O, Dührsen U, Hagberg H, Ma DD, Viardot A, Lowenthal R, Brière J, Salles G, Moskowitz CH, Glass B. Rituximab maintenance therapy after autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with relapsed CD20(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: final analysis of the collaborative trial in relapsed aggressive lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Dec 20;30(36):4462-9. Epub 2012 Oct 22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Relapsed or refractory, further lines of therapy

Axicabtagene ciloleucel monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Efficacy
Nellapu et al. 2017 (ZUMA-1) Phase II ORR: 82%

Chemotherapy

Treatment followed by:

Cellular therapy

Supportive medications

One course; patients with initial response and disease progression at least 3 months later could be retreated

References

  1. Phase 1: Locke FL, Neelapu SS, Bartlett NL, Siddiqi T, Chavez JC, Hosing CM, Ghobadi A, Budde LE, Bot A, Rossi JM, Jiang Y, Xue AX, Elias M, Aycock J, Wiezorek J, Go WY. Phase 1 results of ZUMA-1: A multicenter study of KTE-C19 anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy in refractory aggressive lymphoma. Mol Ther. 2017 Jan 4;25(1):285-295. Epub 2017 Jan 4. link to original article PubMed
  2. ZUMA-1: Neelapu SS, Locke FL, Bartlett NL, Lekakis LJ, Miklos DB, Jacobson CA, Braunschweig I, Oluwole OO, Siddiqi T, Lin Y, Timmerman JM, Stiff PJ, Friedberg JW, Flinn IW, Goy A, Hill BT, Smith MR, Deol A, Farooq U, McSweeney P, Munoz J, Avivi I, Castro JE, Westin JR, Chavez JC, Ghobadi A, Komanduri KV, Levy R, Jacobsen ED, Witzig TE, Reagan P, Bot A, Rossi J, Navale L, Jiang Y, Aycock J, Elias M, Chang D, Wiezorek J, Go WY. Axicabtagene ciloleucel CAR T-cell therapy in refractory large B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Dec 28;377(26):2531-2544. Epub 2017 Dec 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Bendamustine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Weidmann et al. 2002 Phase II, <20 pts 44%

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Weidmann E, Kim SZ, Rost A, Schuppert H, Seipelt G, Hoelzer D, Mitrou PS. Bendamustine is effective in relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2002 Aug;13(8):1285-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Blinatumomab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Viardot et al. 2016 Phase II

Two dosing schemas were evaluated; this is the preferred dosing regimen, per the authors.

Chemotherapy

  • Blinatumomab (Blincyto) as follows:
    • 9 mcg/day IV continuous infusion during week 1, then
    • 28 mcg/day IV continuous infusion during week 2, then
    • 112 mcg/day IV continuous infusion for remainder of the 8-week course

Supportive medications

  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 20 mg PO 6 to 12 hours before infusion start and dose increases, 20 mg PO 1 hour before infusion start and dose increases, and 8 mg PO TID for 2 days following infusion start and dose increases
    • Patients with neurologic symptoms or cytokine release syndrome received 8 mg PO/IV Q8H for up to 3 days, with a subsequent taper over 4 days

8-week course

Responders could receive a 4-week consolidation cycle after a 4-week treatment-free period. Patients relapsing within 2 years of treatment could receive another 8-week course.

References

  1. Viardot A, Goebeler ME, Hess G, Neumann S, Pfreundschuh M, Adrian N, Zettl F, Libicher M, Sayehli C, Stieglmaier J, Zhang A, Nagorsen D, Bargou RC. Phase 2 study of the bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody blinatumomab in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2016 Mar 17;127(11):1410-6. Epub 2016 Jan 11. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

BR

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BR: Bendamustine, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Ohmachi et al. 2013 Phase II
Vacirca et al. 2013 Phase II

Note: Bendamustine was given on days 2 & 3 by Ohmachi et al. and on days 1 & 2 by Vacirca et al.

Chemotherapy

Note: the bendamustine infusion instructions are for the Treanda formulation, which was discontinued on 3/31/2016.

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Ohmachi K, Niitsu N, Uchida T, Kim SJ, Ando K, Takahashi N, Takahashi N, Uike N, Eom HS, Chae YS, Terauchi T, Tateishi U, Tatsumi M, Kim WS, Tobinai K, Suh C, Ogura M. Multicenter Phase II Study of Bendamustine Plus Rituximab in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jun 10;31(17):2103-9. Epub 2013 May 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Vacirca JL, Acs PI, Tabbara IA, Rosen PJ, Lee P, Lynam E. Bendamustine combined with rituximab for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Ann Hematol. 2014 Mar;93(3):403-9. Epub 2013 Aug 17. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Brentuximab vedotin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Bartlett et al. 2014 Phase II
Jacobsen et al. 2015 Phase II

Bartlett et al. treated patients with undetectable CD30 by visual assessment using routine IHC. Jacobsen et al. treated patients with CD30+ non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as determined by IHC.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles, given until progression or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Abstract: Nancy L. Bartlett, MD, Mitchell R. Smith, MD, Ranjana Advani, MD, Tatyana Feldman, MD, Kerry J. Savage, MD MSc, Maria Corinna Palanca-Wessels, MD, PhD and Tanya Siddiqi, MD. Brentuximab Vedotin Monotherapy in DLBCL Patients with Undetectable CD30: Preliminary Results from a Phase 2 Study. ASH Annual Meeting 2014 Abstract 629 link to abstract
  2. Jacobsen ED, Sharman JP, Oki Y, Advani RH, Winter JN, Bello CM, Spitzer G, Palanca-Wessels MC, Kennedy DA, Levine P, Yang J, Bartlett NL. Brentuximab vedotin demonstrates objective responses in a phase 2 study of relapsed/refractory DLBCL with variable CD30 expression. Blood. 2015 Feb 26;125(9):1394-402. Epub 2015 Jan 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Etoposide monotherapy

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Variant #1, IV (3 days/cycle)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #2, IV (5 days/cycle)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pettengell et al. 2012 (PIX301) Phase III, <20 pts in this arm (C) Pixantrone Seems to have inferior CR/CRu rate
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #3, PO (10 days/cycle)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #4, PO (14 days/cycle)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #5, PO (21 days/cycle)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pettengell et al. 2012 (PIX301) Phase III, <20 pts in this arm (C) Pixantrone Seems to have inferior CR/CRu rate
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. PIX301: Pettengell R, Coiffier B, Narayanan G, de Mendoza FH, Digumarti R, Gomez H, Zinzani PL, Schiller G, Rizzieri D, Boland G, Cernohous P, Wang L, Kuepfer C, Gorbatchevsky I, Singer JW. Pixantrone dimaleate versus other chemotherapeutic agents as a single-agent salvage treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):696-706. Epub 2012 May 30. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):e285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. DLC-001: Czuczman MS, Trněný M, Davies A, Rule S, Linton KM, Wagner-Johnston N, Gascoyne RD, Slack GW, Brousset P, Eberhard DA, Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Salles G, Witzig TE, Zinzani PL, Wright GW, Staudt LM, Yang Y, Williams PM, Lih CJ, Russo J, Thakurta A, Hagner P, Fustier P, Song D, Lewis ID. A phase 2/3 multicenter, randomized, open-label study to compare the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide versus investigator's choice in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 1;23(15):4127-4137. Epub 2017 Apr 5. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed

Everolimus monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Witzig et al. 2011 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • "Patients could receive white blood cell growth factors, if neutropenia developed at physician's discretion. Erythropoietin treatment for anemia was permitted per standard guidelines."

28-day cycles, given until progression or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Witzig TE, Reeder CB, LaPlant BR, Gupta M, Johnston PB, Micallef IN, Porrata LF, Ansell SM, Colgan JP, Jacobsen ED, Ghobrial IM, Habermann TM. A phase II trial of the oral mTOR inhibitor everolimus in relapsed aggressive lymphoma. Leukemia. 2011 Feb;25(2):341-7. Epub 2010 Dec 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Everolimus & Rituximab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Barnes et al. 2013 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Everolimus (Afinitor) 5 mg PO once per day on days 1 to 14, increased to 10 mg PO once per day for the remainder of cycle 1 and thereafter, if tolerated
  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once per week x 4 weeks, then once on day 1 of cycle 2 onwards

28-day cycle for 6 cycles Responders had the option of continuing everolimus for another 6 months.

References

  1. Barnes JA, Jacobsen E, Feng Y, Freedman A, Hochberg EP, LaCasce AS, Armand P, Joyce R, Sohani AR, Rodig SJ, Neuberg D, Fisher DC, Abramson JS. Everolimus in combination with rituximab induces complete responses in heavily pretreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Haematologica. 2013 Apr;98(4):615-9. Epub 2012 Nov 9. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Gemcitabine monotherapy

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Variant #1, bi-weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #2, 3 out of 4 weeks x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #3, indefinite 3 out of 4 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fosså et al. 1999 Phase II
Pettengell et al. 2012 (PIX301) Phase III, <20 pts in this arm (C) Pixantrone Seems to have inferior CR/CRu rate

Chemotherapy

  • Gemcitabine (Gemzar) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 1250 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Fosså et al. 1999, subsequent cycles (if no hematologic or nonhematologic toxicities): Optional increase to 1500 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles (PIX301) or indefinitely (Fosså et al. 1999)

References

  1. Fosså A, Santoro A, Hiddemann W, Truemper L, Niederle N, Buksmaui S, Bonadonna G, Seeber S, Nowrousian MR. Gemcitabine as a single agent in the treatment of relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Dec;17(12):3786-92. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. PIX301: Pettengell R, Coiffier B, Narayanan G, de Mendoza FH, Digumarti R, Gomez H, Zinzani PL, Schiller G, Rizzieri D, Boland G, Cernohous P, Wang L, Kuepfer C, Gorbatchevsky I, Singer JW. Pixantrone dimaleate versus other chemotherapeutic agents as a single-agent salvage treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):696-706. Epub 2012 May 30. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):e285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. DLC-001: Czuczman MS, Trněný M, Davies A, Rule S, Linton KM, Wagner-Johnston N, Gascoyne RD, Slack GW, Brousset P, Eberhard DA, Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Salles G, Witzig TE, Zinzani PL, Wright GW, Staudt LM, Yang Y, Williams PM, Lih CJ, Russo J, Thakurta A, Hagner P, Fustier P, Song D, Lewis ID. A phase 2/3 multicenter, randomized, open-label study to compare the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide versus investigator's choice in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 1;23(15):4127-4137. Epub 2017 Apr 5. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed

GVD

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GVD: Gemcitabine, Vinorelbine, Doxil (Doxorubicin liposomal)

Regimen

Study Evidence
Bai et al. 2013 Retrospective

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. Retrospective: Bai B, Huang HQ, Cai QQ, Wang XX, Cai QC, Lin ZX, Gao Y, Xia Y, Bu Q, Guo Y. Promising long-term outcome of gemcitabine, vinorelbine, liposomal doxorubicin (GVD) in 14-day schedule as salvage regimen for patients with previously heavily treated Hodgkin's lymphoma and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Med Oncol. 2013 Mar;30(1):350. Epub 2013 Jan 18. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Ibritumomab tiuxetan monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Morschhauser et al. 2007 Phase II

To be completed

Radioimmunotherapy

References

  1. Morschhauser F, Illidge T, Huglo D, Martinelli G, Paganelli G, Zinzani PL, Rule S, Liberati AM, Milpied N, Hess G, Stein H, Kalmus J, Marcus R. Efficacy and safety of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not appropriate for autologous stem-cell transplantation. Blood. 2007 Jul 1;110(1):54-8. Epub 2007 Mar 26. link to original article PubMed

Ibrutinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Wilson et al. 2012 Phase II

Clinically meaningful responses were observed in the ABC subtype, only. Further clinical trials are currently underway.

Chemotherapy

Duration not specified

References

  1. Abstract: Wyndham H. Wilson, MD, PhD, John F. Gerecitano, MD, PhD, Andre Goy, MD, Sven de Vos, MD, PhD, Vaishalee P. Kenkre, MD, Paul M. Barr, MD, Kristie A. Blum, MD, Andrei R. Shustov, MD, Ranjana H. Advani, MD, Jason Lih, PhD, Mickey Williams, PhD, Roland Schmitz, PhD, Yandan Yang, PhD, Stefania Pittaluga, MD, PhD, George Wright, PhD, Lori A. Kunkel, MD, Jesse McGreivy, MD, Sriram Balasubramanian, PhD, Mei Cheng, PhD, Davina Moussa, Joseph J. Buggy, PhD and Louis M. Staudt, MD, PhD. The Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) Inhibitor, Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), Has Preferential Activity in the ABC Subtype of Relapsed/Refractory De Novo Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL): Interim Results of a Multicenter, Open-Label, Phase 2 Study. Blood 120, a686 (2012). link to abstract

Ifosfamide monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Case et al. 1991 (CALGB 8552) Phase II
Pettengell et al. 2012 (PIX301) Phase III, <20 pts in this arm (C) Pixantrone Seems to have inferior CR/CRu rate

Dose & schedule is as given in Pettengell et al. 2012. CALGB 8552 used a different dose & schedule.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. CALGB 8552: Case DC Jr, Anderson J, Ervin TJ, Gottlieb A. Phase II trial of ifosfamide and mesna in previously treated patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 8552. Hematol Oncol. 1991 Jul-Oct;9(4-5):189-96. PubMed
  2. Review: Webb MS, Saltman DL, Connors JM, Goldie JH. A literature review of single agent treatment of multiply relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2002 May;43(5):975-82. Review. link to original article PubMed
  3. PIX301: Pettengell R, Coiffier B, Narayanan G, de Mendoza FH, Digumarti R, Gomez H, Zinzani PL, Schiller G, Rizzieri D, Boland G, Cernohous P, Wang L, Kuepfer C, Gorbatchevsky I, Singer JW. Pixantrone dimaleate versus other chemotherapeutic agents as a single-agent salvage treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):696-706. Epub 2012 May 30. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):e285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Lenalidomide monotherapy

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Variant #1, low dose

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III Investigator's choice of:
Etoposide
Gemcitabine
Oxaliplatin
Rituximab
Might have superior ORR

This dose was intended for patients with CrCl at least 30 but less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, normal dose

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Wiernik et al. 2008 (NHL-002) Phase II ORR: 35%
Witzig et al. 2011 (NHL-003) Phase II ORR: 28%
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III Investigator's choice of:
Etoposide
Gemcitabine
Oxaliplatin
Rituximab
Might have superior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. NHL-002: Wiernik PH, Lossos IS, Tuscano JM, Justice G, Vose JM, Cole CE, Lam W, McBride K, Wride K, Pietronigro D, Takeshita K, Ervin-Haynes A, Zeldis JB, Habermann TM. Lenalidomide monotherapy in relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Oct 20;26(30):4952-7. Epub 2008 Jul 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. NHL-003: Witzig TE, Vose JM, Zinzani PL, Reeder CB, Buckstein R, Polikoff JA, Bouabdallah R, Haioun C, Tilly H, Guo P, Pietronigro D, Ervin-Haynes AL, Czuczman MS. An international phase II trial of single-agent lenalidomide for relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2011 Jul;22(7):1622-7. Epub 2011 Jan 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. DLC-001: Czuczman MS, Trněný M, Davies A, Rule S, Linton KM, Wagner-Johnston N, Gascoyne RD, Slack GW, Brousset P, Eberhard DA, Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Salles G, Witzig TE, Zinzani PL, Wright GW, Staudt LM, Yang Y, Williams PM, Lih CJ, Russo J, Thakurta A, Hagner P, Fustier P, Song D, Lewis ID. A phase 2/3 multicenter, randomized, open-label study to compare the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide versus investigator's choice in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 1;23(15):4127-4137. Epub 2017 Apr 5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Lenalidomide & Rituximab

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Variant #1

Study Evidence
Wang et al. 2013 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Zinzani et al. 2011 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Zinzani PL, Pellegrini C, Gandolfi L, Stefoni V, Quirini F, Derenzini E, Broccoli A, Argnani L, Pileri S, Baccarani M. Combination of lenalidomide and rituximab in elderly patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase 2 trial. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2011 Dec;11(6):462-6. Epub 2011 May 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Zinzani PL, Pellegrini C, Derenzini E, Argnani L, Pileri S. Long-term efficacy of the combination of lenalidomide and rituximab in elderly relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Hematol Oncol. 2013 Dec;31(4):223-4. Epub 2013 Apr 26. link to original article PubMed
  2. Wang M, Fowler N, Wagner-Bartak N, Feng L, Romaguera J, Neelapu SS, Hagemeister F, Fanale M, Oki Y, Pro B, Shah J, Thomas S, Younes A, Hosing C, Zhang L, Newberry KJ, Desai M, Cheng N, Badillo M, Bejarano M, Chen Y, Young KH, Champlin R, Kwak L, Fayad L. Oral lenalidomide with rituximab in relapsed or refractory diffuse large cell, follicular and transformed lymphoma: a phase II clinical trial. Leukemia. 2013 Sep;27(9):1902-9. Epub 2013 Apr 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Mitoxantrone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Bajetta et al. 1988 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Bajetta E, Buzzoni R, Valagussa P, Bonadonna G. Mitoxantrone: an active agent in refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Am J Clin Oncol. 1988 Apr;11(2):100-3. contains protocol PubMed
  2. Pettengell R, Coiffier B, Narayanan G, de Mendoza FH, Digumarti R, Gomez H, Zinzani PL, Schiller G, Rizzieri D, Boland G, Cernohous P, Wang L, Kuepfer C, Gorbatchevsky I, Singer JW. Pixantrone dimaleate versus other chemotherapeutic agents as a single-agent salvage treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):696-706. Epub 2012 May 30. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):e285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Obinutuzumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Morschhauser et al. 2013 (GAUGUIN) Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Obinutuzumab (Gazyva) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 1600 mg (diluted to 10 mg/mL) IV once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Cycles 2 to 8: 800 mg IV once on day 1
    • Initial infusion rate is 50 mg/hour. In the absence of infusion-related reactions (IRRs), the rate is then increased by 50 mg/hour every 30 minutes, up to a maximum of 400 mg/hour.

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

References

  1. Morschhauser FA, Cartron G, Thieblemont C, Solal-Céligny P, Haioun C, Bouabdallah R, Feugier P, Bouabdallah K, Asikanius E, Lei G, Wenger M, Wassner-Fritsch E, Salles GA. Obinutuzumab (GA101) monotherapy in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or mantle-cell lymphoma: Results from the phase II GAUGUIN study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2912-9. Epub 2013 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Ofatumumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Coiffier et al. 2013 (415 Study) Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Ofatumumab (Arzerra) 300 mg IV on cycle 1 day 1, then 1000 mg IV once per week x 7 weeks (total of 8 doses)

Supportive medications

One course

References

  1. Coiffier B, Radford J, Bosly A, Martinelli G, Barca G, Davies A, Decaudin D, Gallop-Evans E, Padmanabhan-Iyer S, Van Eygen K, Wu KL, Gupta IV, Lin TS, Goldstein N, Jewell RC, Winter P, Lisby S; 415 study investigators. A multicentre, phase II trial of ofatumumab monotherapy in relapsed/progressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2013 Nov;163(3):334-42. Epub 2013 Aug 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Oxaliplatin monotherapy

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Variant #1, 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Germann et al. 1999 Phase II, <20 pts in this subgroup
Pettengell et al. 2012 (PIX301) Phase III, <20 pts in this arm (C) Pixantrone Seems to have inferior CR/CRu rate
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Germann et al. give a range of 100 to 130 mg/m2.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles (maximum of 6 cycles in PIX301 & DLC-001)

Variant #2, 130 mg/m2

Study Evidence Efficacy
Germann et al. 1999 Phase II, <20 pts in this subgroup
Oki et al. 2005 Phase II ORR: 27% (95% CI, 13–47)

Germann et al. give a range of 100 to 130 mg/m2.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Germann N, Brienza S, Rotarski M, Emile JF, Di Palma M, Musset M, Reynes M, Soulié P, Cvitkovic E, Misset JL. Preliminary results on the activity of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) in refractory/recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Ann Oncol. 1999 Mar;10(3):351-4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Review: Webb MS, Saltman DL, Connors JM, Goldie JH. A literature review of single agent treatment of multiply relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2002 May;43(5):975-82. Review. link to original article PubMed
  3. Oki Y, McLaughlin P, Pro B, Hagemeister FB, Bleyer A, Loyer E, Younes A. Phase II study of oxaliplatin in patients with recurrent or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer. 2005 Aug 15;104(4):781-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. PIX301: Pettengell R, Coiffier B, Narayanan G, de Mendoza FH, Digumarti R, Gomez H, Zinzani PL, Schiller G, Rizzieri D, Boland G, Cernohous P, Wang L, Kuepfer C, Gorbatchevsky I, Singer JW. Pixantrone dimaleate versus other chemotherapeutic agents as a single-agent salvage treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):696-706. Epub 2012 May 30. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):e285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. DLC-001: Czuczman MS, Trněný M, Davies A, Rule S, Linton KM, Wagner-Johnston N, Gascoyne RD, Slack GW, Brousset P, Eberhard DA, Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Salles G, Witzig TE, Zinzani PL, Wright GW, Staudt LM, Yang Y, Williams PM, Lih CJ, Russo J, Thakurta A, Hagner P, Fustier P, Song D, Lewis ID. A phase 2/3 multicenter, randomized, open-label study to compare the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide versus investigator's choice in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 1;23(15):4127-4137. Epub 2017 Apr 5. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed

Panobinostat monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy Comparator Comparator ORR Efficacy Pt Population
Assouline et al. 2016 Randomized Phase II 29% (95% CI 11-52%) Panobinostat & Rituximab 26% (95% CI 9-51%) Seems not superior Median of 2 prior treatments (range 1-8)

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles until progression or intolerance

References

  1. Assouline SE, Nielsen TH, Yu S, Alcaide M, Chong L, MacDonald D, Tosikyan A, Kukreti V, Kezouh A, Petrogiannis-Haliotis T, Albuquerque M, Fornika D, Alamouti S, Froment R, Greenwood CM, Oros KK, Camglioglu E, Sharma A, Christodoulopoulos R, Rousseau C, Johnson N, Crump M, Morin RD, Mann KK. Phase 2 study of panobinostat with or without rituximab in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2016 Jul 14;128(2):185-94. Epub 2016 May 10. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Panobinostat & Rituximab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy Comparator Comparator ORR Efficacy Pt Population
Assouline et al. 2016 Randomized Phase II, <20 pts 26% (95% CI 9-51%) Panobinostat 29% (95% CI 11-52%) Seems not superior Median of 3 prior treatments (range 2-9)

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles until progression or intolerance

References

  1. Assouline SE, Nielsen TH, Yu S, Alcaide M, Chong L, MacDonald D, Tosikyan A, Kukreti V, Kezouh A, Petrogiannis-Haliotis T, Albuquerque M, Fornika D, Alamouti S, Froment R, Greenwood CM, Oros KK, Camglioglu E, Sharma A, Christodoulopoulos R, Rousseau C, Johnson N, Crump M, Morin RD, Mann KK. Phase 2 study of panobinostat with or without rituximab in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2016 Jul 14;128(2):185-94. Epub 2016 May 10. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Pixantrone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pettengell et al. 2012 (PIX301) Phase III (E) Investigator's choice of:
Etoposide
Gemcitabine
Ifosfamide
Mitoxantrone
Oxaliplatin
Vinorelbine
Seems to have superior CR/CRu rate

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. PIX301: Pettengell R, Coiffier B, Narayanan G, de Mendoza FH, Digumarti R, Gomez H, Zinzani PL, Schiller G, Rizzieri D, Boland G, Cernohous P, Wang L, Kuepfer C, Gorbatchevsky I, Singer JW. Pixantrone dimaleate versus other chemotherapeutic agents as a single-agent salvage treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):696-706. Epub 2012 May 30. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):e285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Post-hoc analysis: Pettengell R, Sebban C, Zinzani PL, Derigs HG, Kravchenko S, Singer JW, Theocharous P, Wang L, Pavlyuk M, Makhloufi KM, Coiffier B. Monotherapy with pixantrone in histologically confirmed relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: post-hoc analyses from a phase III trial. Br J Haematol. 2016 Sep;174(5):692-9. Epub 2016 Apr 26. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Czuczman et al. 2017 (DLC-001) Phase II/III (C) Lenalidomide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22
    • Cycles 4, 6, 8, 10: 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1

28-day cycle for 10 cycles (8 doses total)

References

  1. DLC-001: Czuczman MS, Trněný M, Davies A, Rule S, Linton KM, Wagner-Johnston N, Gascoyne RD, Slack GW, Brousset P, Eberhard DA, Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Salles G, Witzig TE, Zinzani PL, Wright GW, Staudt LM, Yang Y, Williams PM, Lih CJ, Russo J, Thakurta A, Hagner P, Fustier P, Song D, Lewis ID. A phase 2/3 multicenter, randomized, open-label study to compare the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide versus investigator's choice in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 1;23(15):4127-4137. Epub 2017 Apr 5. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed

R-BL

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R-BL: Rituximab, Bendamustine, Lenalidomide

Regimen

Study Evidence ORR
Hitz et al. 2016 (SAKK 38/08) Phase II 61% (95% CI 45-76%)

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Hitz F, Zucca E, Pabst T, Fischer N, Cairoli A, Samaras P, Caspar CB, Mach N, Krasniqi F, Schmidt A, Rothermundt C, Enoiu M, Eckhardt K, Berardi Vilei S, Rondeau S, Mey U. Rituximab, bendamustine and lenalidomide in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma not eligible for anthracycline-based therapy or intensive salvage chemotherapy - SAKK 38/08. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jul;174(2):255-63. Epub 2016 Mar 28. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

R-CVEP

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R-CVEP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Vorinostat, Etoposide, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Straus et al. 2014 Phase II

The MTD for vorinostat was 300 mg in this phase I/II trial.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Straus DJ, Hamlin PA, Matasar MJ, Lia Palomba M, Drullinsky PR, Zelenetz AD, Gerecitano JF, Noy A, Hamilton AM, Elstrom R, Wegner B, Wortman K, Cella D. Phase I/II trial of vorinostat with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and prednisone as palliative treatment for elderly patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. Br J Haematol. 2015 Mar;168(5):663-70. Epub 2014 Oct 15. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

R-GemOx

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R-GemOx: Rituximab, Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin GEMOX-R: GEMcitabine, OXaliplatin, Rituximab

Variant #1, 14-day cycles

Study Evidence
El Gnaoui et al. 2007 Phase II
Mounier et al. 2013 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

Variant #2, 21-day cycles

Study Evidence
López et al. 2008 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

References

  1. El Gnaoui T, Dupuis J, Belhadj K, Jais JP, Rahmouni A, Copie-Bergman C, Gaillard I, Diviné M, Tabah-Fisch I, Reyes F, Haioun C. Rituximab, gemcitabine and oxaliplatin: an effective salvage regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma not candidates for high-dose therapy. Ann Oncol. 2007 Aug;18(8):1363-8. Epub 2007 May 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. López A, Gutiérrez A, Palacios A, Blancas I, Navarrete M, Morey M, Perelló A, Alarcón J, Martínez J, Rodríguez J. GEMOX-R regimen is a highly effective salvage regimen in patients with refractory/relapsing diffuse large-cell lymphoma: a phase II study. Eur J Haematol. 2008 Feb;80(2):127-32. Epub 2007 Nov 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Mounier N, El-Gnaoui T, Tilly H, Canioni D, Sebban C, Casasnovas RO, Delarue R, Sonet A, Beaussart P, Petrella T, Castaigne S, Bologna S, Salles G, Rahmouni A, Gaulard P, Haioun C. Rituximab plus gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in refractory/relapsed patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who are not candidates for high-dose therapy: a phase II Lymphoma Study Association trial. Haematologica. 2013 Nov;98(11):1726-31. Epub 2013 Jun 10. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

R-INO

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R-INO: Rituximab, INOtuzumab ozogamicin

Regimen

Study Evidence ORR
Fayad et al. 2013 Phase I/II 74%

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Fayad L, Offner F, Smith MR, Verhoef G, Johnson P, Kaufman JL, Rohatiner A, Advani A, Foran J, Hess G, Coiffier B, Czuczman M, Giné E, Durrant S, Kneissl M, Luu KT, Hua SY, Boni J, Vandendries E, Dang NH. Safety and clinical activity of a combination therapy comprising two antibody-based targeting agents for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of a phase I/II study evaluating the immunoconjugate inotuzumab ozogamicin with rituximab. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 10;31(5):573-83. Epub 2013 Jan 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

Temsirolimus monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Smith et al. 2010 Phase II ORR: 28%

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Smith SM, van Besien K, Karrison T, Dancey J, McLaughlin P, Younes A, Smith S, Stiff P, Lester E, Modi S, Doyle LA, Vokes EE, Pro B. Temsirolimus has activity in non-mantle cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes: The University of Chicago phase II consortium. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Nov 1;28(31):4740-6. Epub 2010 Sep 13. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Tisagenlecleucel monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Efficacy
Schuster et al. 2017 (CCTL019C2201) Phase II ORR: 59% (95% CI, 44‐72)

The range given is the FDA-recommended dose.

Preceding treatment

Immunotherapy

One course

References

  1. Abstract: Schuster SJ, Bishop MR, Tam C, et al. Global Pivotal Phase 2 Trial of the CD19‐Targeted Therapy CTL019 in Adult Patients with Relapsed or Refractory (R/R) Diffuse Large B‐Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)—an Interim Analysis. Hematological Oncology. 2017;35(S2):27. link to abstract

TTR

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TTR: Taxol (Paclitaxel), Topotecan, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Westin et al. 2014 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle up to a maximum of 6 cycles

References

  1. Westin JR, McLaughlin P, Romaguera J, Hagemeister FB, Pro B, Dang NH, Samaniego F, Rodriguez MA, Fayad L, Oki Y, Fanale M, Fowler N, Nastoupil L, Feng L, Loyer E, Younes A. Paclitaxel, topotecan and rituximab: long term outcomes of an effective salvage programme for relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2014 Oct;167(2):177-84. Epub 2014 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Vinorelbine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Balzarotti et al. 1996 Non-randomized, <20 pts in this subgroup
Pettengell et al. 2012 (PIX301) Phase III, <20 pts in this arm Pixantrone Seems to have inferior CR/CRu rate

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Balzarotti M, Santoro A, Tondini C, Fornier M, Bonadonna G. Activity of single agent vinorelbine in pretreated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 1996 Nov;7(9):970-2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Review: Webb MS, Saltman DL, Connors JM, Goldie JH. A literature review of single agent treatment of multiply relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2002 May;43(5):975-82. Review. link to original article PubMed
  3. PIX301: Pettengell R, Coiffier B, Narayanan G, de Mendoza FH, Digumarti R, Gomez H, Zinzani PL, Schiller G, Rizzieri D, Boland G, Cernohous P, Wang L, Kuepfer C, Gorbatchevsky I, Singer JW. Pixantrone dimaleate versus other chemotherapeutic agents as a single-agent salvage treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):696-706. Epub 2012 May 30. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):e285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Post-hoc analysis: Pettengell R, Sebban C, Zinzani PL, Derigs HG, Kravchenko S, Singer JW, Theocharous P, Wang L, Pavlyuk M, Makhloufi KM, Coiffier B. Monotherapy with pixantrone in histologically confirmed relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: post-hoc analyses from a phase III trial. Br J Haematol. 2016 Sep;174(5):692-9. Epub 2016 Apr 26. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Maintenance after further lines of therapy

Lenalidomide monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Zinzani et al. 2011 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 8 months

References

  1. Zinzani PL, Pellegrini C, Gandolfi L, Stefoni V, Quirini F, Derenzini E, Broccoli A, Argnani L, Pileri S, Baccarani M. Combination of lenalidomide and rituximab in elderly patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase 2 trial. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2011 Dec;11(6):462-6. Epub 2011 May 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Zinzani PL, Pellegrini C, Derenzini E, Argnani L, Pileri S. Long-term efficacy of the combination of lenalidomide and rituximab in elderly relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Hematol Oncol. 2013 Dec;31(4):223-4. Epub 2013 Apr 26. link to original article PubMed

Response criteria

Prognosis

IPI and age-adjusted IPI (1993)

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To be completed

  1. A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The International Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project. N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 30;329(14):987-94. link to original article PubMed

Revised International Prognostic Index, R-IPI (2007)

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To be completed

  1. Sehn LH, Berry B, Chhanabhai M, Fitzgerald C, Gill K, Hoskins P, Klasa R, Savage KJ, Shenkier T, Sutherland J, Gascoyne RD, Connors JM. The revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) is a better predictor of outcome than the standard IPI for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Blood. 2007 Mar 1;109(5):1857-61. Epub 2006 Nov 14. link to original article PubMed

CNS-IPI (2016)

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Risk factors

  • Age greater than 60 years
  • Elevated LDH
  • ECOG PS greater than 1
  • Advanced stage (III or IV)
  • Involvement of more than one extranodal site
  • Involvement of the kidney and/or adrenal glands

Risk stratification

  • Low risk: 0 or 1 risk factors (2-year rate of CNS disease less than 5%)
  • Intermediate risk: 2 or 3 risk factors (2-year rate of CNS disease less than 5%)
  • High risk: 4 to 6 risk factors (2-year rate of CNS disease greater than 10%)

References

  1. Schmitz N, Zeynalova S, Nickelsen M, Kansara R, Villa D, Sehn LH, Glass B, Scott DW, Gascoyne RD, Connors JM, Ziepert M, Pfreundschuh M, Loeffler M, Savage KJ. CNS International Prognostic Index: A Risk Model for CNS Relapse in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With R-CHOP. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep 10;34(26):3150-3156. Epub 2016 Jul 5. link to original article PubMed

Investigational agents

These are drugs under study with at least some promising results for this disease.