Breast cancer

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Hermina Fernandes, MD
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87 regimens on this page
222 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ASCO

Older

ASCO/CCO

ESMO

ESO/ESMO

Older

NCCN

St Gallen Breast Guidelines

Older

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy

AC

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AC: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) & Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 4 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1997 (NSABP B-18) Phase III (E) Adjuvant AC Superior resectability
Bear et al. 2003 (NSABP B-27) Phase III (C) See link See link
Bear et al. 2012 (NSABP B-40) Phase III (C) See link See link
Robidoux et al. 2013 (NSABP B-41) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Park et al. 2016 (I-SPY 2) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: patients in NSABP B-41 and I-SPY 2 were HER2-positive.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • NSABP B-18 & B-40: Surgery
  • NSABP B-27: T (Taxotere) x 4, then surgery versus surgery versus surgery, then T (Taxotere) x 4
  • NSABP B-41: TH versus THL versus TL, then surgery
  • I-SPY 2: Surgery

Variant #2, 5 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ellis et al. 2011 (SWOG 0012) Phase III (C) Weekly doxorubicin & daily paclitaxel Seems not superior

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 5 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NSABP B-18: Fisher B, Brown A, Mamounas E, Wieand S, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Cruz AB Jr, Fisher ER, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, DeCillis A, Hoehn JL, Lees AW, Dimitrov NV. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on local-regional disease in women with operable breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Jul;15(7):2483-93. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Bryant J, Wolmark N, Mamounas E, Brown A, Fisher ER, Wickerham DL, Begovic M, DeCillis A, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Cruz AB Jr, Hoehn JL, Lees AW, Dimitrov NV, Bear HD. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Aug;16(8):2672-85. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Wolmark N, Wang J, Mamounas E, Bryant J, Fisher B. Preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer: nine-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;(30):96-102. PubMed
    3. Pooled update: Taghian A, Jeong JH, Mamounas E, Anderson S, Bryant J, Deutsch M, Wolmark N. Patterns of locoregional failure in patients with operable breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen and without radiotherapy: results from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Nov 1;22(21):4247-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed
    4. Pooled update: Rastogi P, Anderson SJ, Bear HD, Geyer CE, Kahlenberg MS, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Hoehn JL, Vogel VG, Dakhil SR, Tamkus D, King KM, Pajon ER, Wright MJ, Robert J, Paik S, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Preoperative chemotherapy: updates of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocols B-18 and B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 10;26(5):778-85. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 1;26(16):2793. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-27: Bear HD, Anderson S, Brown A, Smith R, Mamounas EP, Fisher B, Margolese R, Theoret H, Soran A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N; National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. The effect on tumor response of adding sequential preoperative docetaxel to preoperative doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide: preliminary results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Nov 15;21(22):4165-74. Epub 2003 Oct 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Anderson S, Smith RE, Geyer CE Jr, Mamounas EP, Fisher B, Brown AM, Robidoux A, Margolese R, Kahlenberg MS, Paik S, Soran A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N. Sequential preoperative or postoperative docetaxel added to preoperative doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide for operable breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2006 May 1;24(13):2019-27. Epub 2006 Apr 10. link to original article PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Rastogi P, Anderson SJ, Bear HD, Geyer CE, Kahlenberg MS, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Hoehn JL, Vogel VG, Dakhil SR, Tamkus D, King KM, Pajon ER, Wright MJ, Robert J, Paik S, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Preoperative chemotherapy: updates of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocols B-18 and B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 10;26(5):778-85. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 1;26(16):2793. link to original article PubMed
  3. SWOG 0012: Ellis GK, Barlow WE, Gralow JR, Hortobagyi GN, Russell CA, Royce ME, Perez EA, Lew D, Livingston RB. Phase III comparison of standard doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus weekly doxorubicin and daily oral cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as neoadjuvant therapy for inflammatory and locally advanced breast cancer: SWOG 0012. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 10;29(8):1014-21. Epub 2011 Jan 10. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. NSABP B-40: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Robidoux A, Atkins JN, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):310-20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Liu Q, Robidoux A, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Paik S, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab in early breast cancer (NSABP B-40 [NRG Oncology]): secondary outcomes of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Sep;16(9):1037-1048. Epub 2015 Aug 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):e589. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-41: Robidoux A, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Azar CA, Atkins JN, Fehrenbacher L, Bear HD, Baez-Diaz L, Sarwar S, Margolese RG, Farrar WB, Brufsky AM, Shibata HR, Bandos H, Paik S, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Lapatinib as a component of neoadjuvant therapy for HER2-positive operable breast cancer (NSABP protocol B-41): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Nov;14(12):1183-92. Epub 2013 Oct 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. I-SPY 2: Park JW, Liu MC, Yee D, Yau C, van 't Veer LJ, Symmans WF, Paoloni M, Perlmutter J, Hylton NM, Hogarth M, DeMichele A, Buxton MB, Chien AJ, Wallace AM, Boughey JC, Haddad TC, Chui SY, Kemmer KA, Kaplan HG, Isaacs C, Nanda R, Tripathy D, Albain KS, Edmiston KK, Elias AD, Northfelt DW, Pusztai L, Moulder SL, Lang JE, Viscusi RK, Euhus DM, Haley BB, Khan QJ, Wood WC, Melisko M, Schwab R, Helsten T, Lyandres J, Davis SE, Hirst GL, Sanil A, Esserman LJ, Berry DA; I-SPY 2 Investigators. Adaptive randomization of neratinib in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 7;375(1):11-22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  7. ETNA: Gianni L, Mansutti M, Anton A, Calvo L, Bisagni G, Bermejo B, Semiglazov V, Thill M, Chacon JI, Chan A, Morales S, Alvarez I, Plazaola A, Zambetti M, Redfern AD, Dittrich C, Dent RA, Magazzù D, De Fato R, Valagussa P, Tusquets I. Comparing neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel both followed by anthracycline regimens in women with ERBB2/HER2-negative breast cancer-the Evaluating Treatment with Neoadjuvant Abraxane (ETNA) trial: a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Mar 1;4(3):302-308. Epub 2018 Jan 11. link to original article PubMed

AC & Bevacizumab

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AC+Bev: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bear et al. 2012 (NSABP B-40) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • T+Bev x 4 versus TX+Bev x 4 versus TG+Bev x 4

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Robidoux A, Atkins JN, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):310-20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Liu Q, Robidoux A, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Paik S, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab in early breast cancer (NSABP B-40 [NRG Oncology]): secondary outcomes of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Sep;16(9):1037-1048. Epub 2015 Aug 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):e589. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

ddAC

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ddAC: dose-dense Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) and Cyclophosphamide

Regimen

Study Evidence
Burstein et al. 2005 Non-randomized
Park et al. 2016 (I-SPY 2) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients in I-SPY 2 were HER2-positive.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Burstein HJ, Parker LM, Keshaviah A, Doherty J, Partridge AH, Schapira L, Ryan PD, Younger J, Harris LN, Moy B, Come SE, Schumer ST, Bunnell CA, Haldoupis M, Gelman R, Winer EP. Efficacy of pegfilgrastim and darbepoetin alfa as hematopoietic support for dose-dense every-2-week adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8340-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Park JW, Liu MC, Yee D, Yau C, van 't Veer LJ, Symmans WF, Paoloni M, Perlmutter J, Hylton NM, Hogarth M, DeMichele A, Buxton MB, Chien AJ, Wallace AM, Boughey JC, Haddad TC, Chui SY, Kemmer KA, Kaplan HG, Isaacs C, Nanda R, Tripathy D, Albain KS, Edmiston KK, Elias AD, Northfelt DW, Pusztai L, Moulder SL, Lang JE, Viscusi RK, Euhus DM, Haley BB, Khan QJ, Wood WC, Melisko M, Schwab R, Helsten T, Lyandres J, Davis SE, Hirst GL, Sanil A, Esserman LJ, Berry DA; I-SPY 2 Investigators. Adaptive randomization of neratinib in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 7;375(1):11-22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Docetaxel monotherapy

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D: Docetaxel
T: Taxotere (Docetaxel)

Variant #1, 75 mg/m2 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bear et al. 2012 (NSABP B-40) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • AC x 4, then surgery

Variant #2, 100 mg/m2 x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Earl et al. 2015 (ARTemis) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Seems to have inferior pCR rate

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, 100 mg/m2 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bear et al. 2003 (NSABP B-27) Phase III (E) See link See link
von Minckwitz et al. 2012 (GeparQuinto) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • NSABP B-27: AC x 4
  • GeparQuinto: EC x 4

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

References

  1. NSABP B-27: Bear HD, Anderson S, Brown A, Smith R, Mamounas EP, Fisher B, Margolese R, Theoret H, Soran A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N; National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. The effect on tumor response of adding sequential preoperative docetaxel to preoperative doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide: preliminary results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Nov 15;21(22):4165-74. Epub 2003 Oct 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Anderson S, Smith RE, Geyer CE Jr, Mamounas EP, Fisher B, Brown AM, Robidoux A, Margolese R, Kahlenberg MS, Paik S, Soran A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N. Sequential preoperative or postoperative docetaxel added to preoperative doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide for operable breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2006 May 1;24(13):2019-27. Epub 2006 Apr 10. link to original article PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Rastogi P, Anderson SJ, Bear HD, Geyer CE, Kahlenberg MS, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Hoehn JL, Vogel VG, Dakhil SR, Tamkus D, King KM, Pajon ER, Wright MJ, Robert J, Paik S, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Preoperative chemotherapy: updates of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocols B-18 and B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 10;26(5):778-85. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 1;26(16):2793. link to original article PubMed
  2. GeparQuinto: von Minckwitz G, Eidtmann H, Rezai M, Fasching PA, Tesch H, Eggemann H, Schrader I, Kittel K, Hanusch C, Kreienberg R, Solbach C, Gerber B, Jackisch C, Kunz G, Blohmer JU, Huober J, Hauschild M, Fehm T, Müller BM, Denkert C, Loibl S, Nekljudova V, Untch M; German Breast Group; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie–Breast Study Groups. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and bevacizumab for HER2-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):299-309. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. NSABP B-40: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Robidoux A, Atkins JN, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):310-20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Liu Q, Robidoux A, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Paik S, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab in early breast cancer (NSABP B-40 [NRG Oncology]): secondary outcomes of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Sep;16(9):1037-1048. Epub 2015 Aug 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):e589. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. ARTemis: Earl HM, Hiller L, Dunn JA, Blenkinsop C, Grybowicz L, Vallier AL, Abraham J, Thomas J, Provenzano E, Hughes-Davies L, Gounaris I, McAdam K, Chan S, Ahmad R, Hickish T, Houston S, Rea D, Bartlett J, Caldas C, Cameron DA, Hayward L; ARTemis Investigators. Efficacy of neoadjuvant bevacizumab added to docetaxel followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide, for women with HER2-negative early breast cancer (ARTemis): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jun;16(6):656-66. Epub 2015 May 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Docetaxel & Bevacizumab

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Bev+D: Bevacizumab & Docetaxel
T+Bev: Taxotere (Docetaxel) & Bevacizumab

Variant #1, docetaxel 75 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bear et al. 2012 (NSABP B-40) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, docetaxel 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Earl et al. 2015 (ARTemis) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Seems to have superior pCR rate

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. A total of four bevacizumab doses are given, with the fourth given with the first cycle of FEC.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NSABP B-40: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Robidoux A, Atkins JN, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):310-20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Liu Q, Robidoux A, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Paik S, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab in early breast cancer (NSABP B-40 [NRG Oncology]): secondary outcomes of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Sep;16(9):1037-1048. Epub 2015 Aug 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):e589. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. ARTemis: Earl HM, Hiller L, Dunn JA, Blenkinsop C, Grybowicz L, Vallier AL, Abraham J, Thomas J, Provenzano E, Hughes-Davies L, Gounaris I, McAdam K, Chan S, Ahmad R, Hickish T, Houston S, Rea D, Bartlett J, Caldas C, Cameron DA, Hayward L; ARTemis Investigators. Efficacy of neoadjuvant bevacizumab added to docetaxel followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide, for women with HER2-negative early breast cancer (ARTemis): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jun;16(6):656-66. Epub 2015 May 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

EC

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EC: Epirubicin & Cyclophosphamide

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2012 (GeparQuinto) Phase III (C) See link See link
Earl et al. 2013 (Neo-tAnGo) Phase III (*) See link See link
Untch et al. 2016 (GeparSepto) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • GeparQuinto: Docetaxel, then surgery
  • Neo-tAnGo (EC-taxane arms): ddT x 4 versus ddTG x 4, then surgery
  • GeparSepto: Surgery

References

  1. GeparQuinto: von Minckwitz G, Eidtmann H, Rezai M, Fasching PA, Tesch H, Eggemann H, Schrader I, Kittel K, Hanusch C, Kreienberg R, Solbach C, Gerber B, Jackisch C, Kunz G, Blohmer JU, Huober J, Hauschild M, Fehm T, Müller BM, Denkert C, Loibl S, Nekljudova V, Untch M; German Breast Group; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie–Breast Study Groups. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and bevacizumab for HER2-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):299-309. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Neo-tAnGo: Earl HM, Vallier AL, Hiller L, Fenwick N, Young J, Iddawela M, Abraham J, Hughes-Davies L, Gounaris I, McAdam K, Houston S, Hickish T, Skene A, Chan S, Dean S, Ritchie D, Laing R, Harries M, Gallagher C, Wishart G, Dunn J, Provenzano E, Caldas C; Neo-tAnGo Investigators. Effects of the addition of gemcitabine, and paclitaxel-first sequencing, in neoadjuvant sequential epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel for women with high-risk early breast cancer (Neo-tAnGo): an open-label, 2×2 factorial randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Feb;15(2):201-12. Epub 2013 Dec 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. GeparSepto: Untch M, Jackisch C, Schneeweiss A, Conrad B, Aktas B, Denkert C, Eidtmann H, Wiebringhaus H, Kümmel S, Hilfrich J, Warm M, Paepke S, Just M, Hanusch C, Hackmann J, Blohmer JU, Clemens M, Darb-Esfahani S, Schmitt WD, Dan Costa S, Gerber B, Engels K, Nekljudova V, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G; German Breast Group (GBG).; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie—Breast (AGO-B) Investigators. Nab-paclitaxel versus solvent-based paclitaxel in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (GeparSepto-GBG 69): a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. Epub 2016 Feb 8. 2016 Mar;17(3):345-56. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Furlanetto J, Jackisch C, Untch M, Schneeweiss A, Schmatloch S, Aktas B, Denkert C, Wiebringhaus H, Kümmel S, Warm M, Paepke S, Just M, Hanusch C, Hackmann J, Blohmer JU, Clemens M, Costa SD, Gerber B, Nekljudova V, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G. Efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m(2) and nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) compared to paclitaxel in early high-risk breast cancer: results from the neoadjuvant randomized GeparSepto study (GBG 69). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Jun;163(3):495-506. Epub 2017 Mar 17. link to original article PubMed
  4. ETNA: Gianni L, Mansutti M, Anton A, Calvo L, Bisagni G, Bermejo B, Semiglazov V, Thill M, Chacon JI, Chan A, Morales S, Alvarez I, Plazaola A, Zambetti M, Redfern AD, Dittrich C, Dent RA, Magazzù D, De Fato R, Valagussa P, Tusquets I. Comparing neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel both followed by anthracycline regimens in women with ERBB2/HER2-negative breast cancer-the Evaluating Treatment with Neoadjuvant Abraxane (ETNA) trial: a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Mar 1;4(3):302-308. Epub 2018 Jan 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

FAC

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FAC: Fluorouracil, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide

Regimen

Study Evidence
Green et al. 2005 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

References

  1. Green MC, Buzdar AU, Smith T, Ibrahim NK, Valero V, Rosales MF, Cristofanilli M, Booser DJ, Pusztai L, Rivera E, Theriault RL, Carter C, Frye D, Hunt KK, Symmans WF, Strom EA, Sahin AA, Sikov W, Hortobagyi GN. Weekly paclitaxel improves pathologic complete remission in operable breast cancer when compared with paclitaxel once every 3 weeks. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5983-92. Epub 2005 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

FEC

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FEC: Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 500/75/500 ("FEC-75")

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Buzdar et al. 2013 (ACOSOG Z1041) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note that patients in this trial had HER2-positive breast cancer. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 500/100/500 x 3

Study Evidence
Earl et al. 2015 (ARTemis) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note that for the patients randomized to the bevacizumab arm, a fourth dose was given with the first cycle of FEC. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

Variant #3, 500/100/500 x 4

Study Evidence
Kelly et al. 2012 Non-randomized portion of RCT

This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

Variant #4, 500/100/600 x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Schneeweiss et al. 2013 (TRYPHAENA) Randomized Phase II (C) See link Not reported

Note: patients enrolled in this trial had HER2+ disease. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • THP x 3, then surgery

Variant #4, 600/60/600

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
van der Hage et al. 2001 (EORTC 10902) Phase III (E) Adjuvant FEC Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

Variant #6, 1000/75/500 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Buzdar et al. 2005 Randomized (C) See link See link

Note that patients in this trial had HER2-positive breast cancer. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • CI paclitaxel x 4

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

References

  1. EORTC 10902: van der Hage JA, van de Velde CJ, Julien JP, Tubiana-Hulin M, Vandervelden C, Duchateau L. Preoperative chemotherapy in primary operable breast cancer: results from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 10902. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Nov 15;19(22):4224-37. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: van Nes JG, Putter H, Julien JP, Tubiana-Hulin M, van de Vijver M, Bogaerts J, de Vos M, van de Velde CJ; Cooperating Investigators of the EORTC. Preoperative chemotherapy is safe in early breast cancer, even after 10 years of follow-up; clinical and translational results from the EORTC trial 10902. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 May;115(1):101-13. Epub 2008 May 18. link to original article PubMed
  2. Buzdar AU, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Booser DJ, Thomas ES, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Arun BK, Giordano SH, Cristofanilli M, Frye DK, Smith TL, Hunt KK, Singletary SE, Sahin AA, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Berry D, Hortobagyi GN. Significantly higher pathologic complete remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and epirubicin chemotherapy: results of a randomized trial in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3676-85. Epub 2005 Feb 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Buzdar AU, Valero V, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Broglio KR, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Singletary SE, Hunt KK, Sahin AA, Esteva F, Symmans WF, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Hortobagyi GN. Neoadjuvant therapy with paclitaxel followed by 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and concurrent trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer: an update of the initial randomized study population and data of additional patients treated with the same regimen. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 1;13(1):228-33. link to original article PubMed
  3. Kelly CM, Green MC, Broglio K, Thomas ES, Brewster AM, Valero V, Ibrahim NK, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Booser DJ, Walters RS, Hunt KK, Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU. Phase III trial evaluating weekly paclitaxel versus docetaxel in combination with capecitabine in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 20;30(9):930-5. Epub 2012 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. TRYPHAENA: Schneeweiss A, Chia S, Hickish T, Harvey V, Eniu A, Hegg R, Tausch C, Seo JH, Tsai YF, Ratnayake J, McNally V, Ross G, Cortés J. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a randomized phase II cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA). Ann Oncol. 2013 Sep;24(9):2278-84. Epub 2013 May 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. ACOSOG Z1041: Buzdar AU, Suman VJ, Meric-Bernstam F, Leitch AM, Ellis MJ, Boughey JC, Unzeitig G, Royce M, McCall LM, Ewer MS, Hunt KK; American College of Surgeons Oncology Group investigators. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC-75) followed by paclitaxel plus trastuzumab versus paclitaxel plus trastuzumab followed by FEC-75 plus trastuzumab as neoadjuvant treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (Z1041): a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Dec;14(13):1317-25. Epub 2013 Nov 13. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. ARTemis: Earl HM, Hiller L, Dunn JA, Blenkinsop C, Grybowicz L, Vallier AL, Abraham J, Thomas J, Provenzano E, Hughes-Davies L, Gounaris I, McAdam K, Chan S, Ahmad R, Hickish T, Houston S, Rea D, Bartlett J, Caldas C, Cameron DA, Hayward L; ARTemis Investigators. Efficacy of neoadjuvant bevacizumab added to docetaxel followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide, for women with HER2-negative early breast cancer (ARTemis): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jun;16(6):656-66. Epub 2015 May 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. ETNA: Gianni L, Mansutti M, Anton A, Calvo L, Bisagni G, Bermejo B, Semiglazov V, Thill M, Chacon JI, Chan A, Morales S, Alvarez I, Plazaola A, Zambetti M, Redfern AD, Dittrich C, Dent RA, Magazzù D, De Fato R, Valagussa P, Tusquets I. Comparing neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel both followed by anthracycline regimens in women with ERBB2/HER2-negative breast cancer-the Evaluating Treatment with Neoadjuvant Abraxane (ETNA) trial: a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Mar 1;4(3):302-308. Epub 2018 Jan 11. link to original article PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, weekly

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T: Taxol (Paclitaxel)

Variant #1, 80 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Green et al. 2005 Phase III (E) q3wk paclitaxel Seems to have superior pCR rate
Ellis et al. 2011 (SWOG 0012) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Kelly et al. 2012 Phase III (C) XT Seems not superior
Untch et al. 2016 (GeparSepto) Phase III (C) nab-Paclitaxel Inferior pCR rate

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • SWOG 0012: AC x 5 versus weekly doxorubicin & daily cyclophosphamide

Chemotherapy

12-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • Green et al. 2005: FAC x 4, then surgery
  • SWOG 0012: Surgery
  • Kelly et al 2012: FEC x 4, then surgery
  • GeparSepto: EC x 4, then surgery

Variant #2, 90 mg/m2, 3 out of 4 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gianni et al. 2018 (ETNA) Phase III (C) nab-Paclitaxel Seems not superior

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

4-week cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Green MC, Buzdar AU, Smith T, Ibrahim NK, Valero V, Rosales MF, Cristofanilli M, Booser DJ, Pusztai L, Rivera E, Theriault RL, Carter C, Frye D, Hunt KK, Symmans WF, Strom EA, Sahin AA, Sikov W, Hortobagyi GN. Weekly paclitaxel improves pathologic complete remission in operable breast cancer when compared with paclitaxel once every 3 weeks. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5983-92. Epub 2005 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. SWOG 0012: Ellis GK, Barlow WE, Gralow JR, Hortobagyi GN, Russell CA, Royce ME, Perez EA, Lew D, Livingston RB. Phase III comparison of standard doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus weekly doxorubicin and daily oral cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as neoadjuvant therapy for inflammatory and locally advanced breast cancer: SWOG 0012. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 10;29(8):1014-21. Epub 2011 Jan 10. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Kelly CM, Green MC, Broglio K, Thomas ES, Brewster AM, Valero V, Ibrahim NK, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Booser DJ, Walters RS, Hunt KK, Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU. Phase III trial evaluating weekly paclitaxel versus docetaxel in combination with capecitabine in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 20;30(9):930-5. Epub 2012 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. GeparSepto: Untch M, Jackisch C, Schneeweiss A, Conrad B, Aktas B, Denkert C, Eidtmann H, Wiebringhaus H, Kümmel S, Hilfrich J, Warm M, Paepke S, Just M, Hanusch C, Hackmann J, Blohmer JU, Clemens M, Darb-Esfahani S, Schmitt WD, Dan Costa S, Gerber B, Engels K, Nekljudova V, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G; German Breast Group (GBG).; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie—Breast (AGO-B) Investigators. Nab-paclitaxel versus solvent-based paclitaxel in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (GeparSepto-GBG 69): a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. Epub 2016 Feb 8. 2016 Mar;17(3):345-56. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Furlanetto J, Jackisch C, Untch M, Schneeweiss A, Schmatloch S, Aktas B, Denkert C, Wiebringhaus H, Kümmel S, Warm M, Paepke S, Just M, Hanusch C, Hackmann J, Blohmer JU, Clemens M, Costa SD, Gerber B, Nekljudova V, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G. Efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m(2) and nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) compared to paclitaxel in early high-risk breast cancer: results from the neoadjuvant randomized GeparSepto study (GBG 69). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Jun;163(3):495-506. Epub 2017 Mar 17. link to original article PubMed
  5. ETNA: Gianni L, Mansutti M, Anton A, Calvo L, Bisagni G, Bermejo B, Semiglazov V, Thill M, Chacon JI, Chan A, Morales S, Alvarez I, Plazaola A, Zambetti M, Redfern AD, Dittrich C, Dent RA, Magazzù D, De Fato R, Valagussa P, Tusquets I. Comparing neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel both followed by anthracycline regimens in women with ERBB2/HER2-negative breast cancer-the Evaluating Treatment with Neoadjuvant Abraxane (ETNA) trial: a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Mar 1;4(3):302-308. Epub 2018 Jan 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, dose-dense (q2wk)

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ddT: dose-dense Taxol (Paclitaxel)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Burstein et al. 2005 Non-randomized
Earl et al. 2013 (Neo-tAnGo) Phase III (*) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Burstein et al. 2005: ddAC x 4
  • Neo-tAnGo (EC-ddT arm): EC x 4

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Burstein et al. 2005 and Neo-tAnGo (EC-ddT arm): Surgery
  • Neo-tAnGo (ddT-EC arm): EC x 4, then surgery

References

  1. Burstein HJ, Parker LM, Keshaviah A, Doherty J, Partridge AH, Schapira L, Ryan PD, Younger J, Harris LN, Moy B, Come SE, Schumer ST, Bunnell CA, Haldoupis M, Gelman R, Winer EP. Efficacy of pegfilgrastim and darbepoetin alfa as hematopoietic support for dose-dense every-2-week adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8340-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Neo-tAnGo: Earl HM, Vallier AL, Hiller L, Fenwick N, Young J, Iddawela M, Abraham J, Hughes-Davies L, Gounaris I, McAdam K, Houston S, Hickish T, Skene A, Chan S, Dean S, Ritchie D, Laing R, Harries M, Gallagher C, Wishart G, Dunn J, Provenzano E, Caldas C; Neo-tAnGo Investigators. Effects of the addition of gemcitabine, and paclitaxel-first sequencing, in neoadjuvant sequential epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel for women with high-risk early breast cancer (Neo-tAnGo): an open-label, 2×2 factorial randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Feb;15(2):201-12. Epub 2013 Dec 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Untch et al. 2016 (GeparSepto) Phase III (E) Weekly Paclitaxel Superior pCR rate

Note: this is the dose after study amendment due to increased treatment discontinuation and sensory neuropathy. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • EC x 4, then surgery

References

  1. GeparSepto: Untch M, Jackisch C, Schneeweiss A, Conrad B, Aktas B, Denkert C, Eidtmann H, Wiebringhaus H, Kümmel S, Hilfrich J, Warm M, Paepke S, Just M, Hanusch C, Hackmann J, Blohmer JU, Clemens M, Darb-Esfahani S, Schmitt WD, Dan Costa S, Gerber B, Engels K, Nekljudova V, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G; German Breast Group (GBG).; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie—Breast (AGO-B) Investigators. Nab-paclitaxel versus solvent-based paclitaxel in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (GeparSepto-GBG 69): a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. Epub 2016 Feb 8. 2016 Mar;17(3):345-56. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Furlanetto J, Jackisch C, Untch M, Schneeweiss A, Schmatloch S, Aktas B, Denkert C, Wiebringhaus H, Kümmel S, Warm M, Paepke S, Just M, Hanusch C, Hackmann J, Blohmer JU, Clemens M, Costa SD, Gerber B, Nekljudova V, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G. Efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m(2) and nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) compared to paclitaxel in early high-risk breast cancer: results from the neoadjuvant randomized GeparSepto study (GBG 69). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Jun;163(3):495-506. Epub 2017 Mar 17. link to original article PubMed
  2. ETNA: Gianni L, Mansutti M, Anton A, Calvo L, Bisagni G, Bermejo B, Semiglazov V, Thill M, Chacon JI, Chan A, Morales S, Alvarez I, Plazaola A, Zambetti M, Redfern AD, Dittrich C, Dent RA, Magazzù D, De Fato R, Valagussa P, Tusquets I. Comparing neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel both followed by anthracycline regimens in women with ERBB2/HER2-negative breast cancer-the Evaluating Treatment with Neoadjuvant Abraxane (ETNA) trial: a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Mar 1;4(3):302-308. Epub 2018 Jan 11. link to original article PubMed

TAC (Taxotere)

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TAC: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide
ATC: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Taxotere (Docetaxel), Cyclophosphamide

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Vriens et al. 2013 (INTENS) Phase III (E) AC, then T Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

References

  1. INTENS: Vriens BE, Aarts MJ, de Vries B, van Gastel SM, Wals J, Smilde TJ, van Warmerdam LJ, de Boer M, van Spronsen DJ, Borm GF, Tjan-Heijnen VC; Breast Cancer Trialists' Group of the Netherlands (BOOG). Doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide with concurrent versus sequential docetaxel as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Oct;49(15):3102-10. Epub 2013 Jul 10. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Vriens BEPJ, Vriens IJH, Aarts MJB, van Gastel SM, van den Berkmortel FWPJ, Smilde TJ, van Warmerdam LJC, van Spronsen DJ, Peer PGM, de Boer M, Tjan-Heijnen VCG; Breast Cancer Trialists’ Group of the Netherlands (BOOG). Improved survival for sequentially as opposed to concurrently delivered neoadjuvant chemotherapy in non-metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Oct;165(3):593-600. Epub 2017 Jul 3. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Neoadjuvant response criteria

Clinical response rate (cRR)

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Although fairly dated, some trials such as ACOSOG Z1031 make use of the WHO criteria for response to neoadjuvant therapy. Included here primarily for historical purposes.

References

  1. Miller AB, Hoogstraten B, Staquet M, Winkler A. Reporting results of cancer treatment. Cancer. 1981 Jan 1;47(1):207-14. link to original article PubMed

Miller-Payne scoring system

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  • Grade 1: No change or some changes to individual malignant cells, but no reduction in overall cellularity
  • Grade 2: Minor loss of tumor cells (up to 30%), but overall cellularity still high
  • Grade 3: An estimated 30 to 90% reduction in the number of tumor cells
  • Grade 4: Marked disappearance of tumor cells such that only small clusters or widely dispersed individual cells remain (loss of greater than 90% of tumor cells)
  • Grade 5: No invasive cancer cells identifiable in sections from the site of the tumor (carcinoma in situ may be present)

References

  1. Ogston KN, Miller ID, Payne S, Hutcheon AW, Sarkar TK, Smith I, Schofield A, Heys SD. A new histological grading system to assess response of breast cancers to primary chemotherapy: prognostic significance and survival. Breast. 2003 Oct;12(5):320-7. link to original article PubMed

Residual cancer burden (RCB)

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  • The RCB is calculated as follows: RCB = 1.4 (finv*dprim)0.17 + [4(1 - 0.75LN)dmet]0.17
    • where dprim is derived from the bidimensional diameters of the primary tumor bed in the resected specimen, finv is the proportion of the primary tumor bed that contains invasive carcinoma, LN is the number of axillary lymph nodes containing metastatic carcinoma, and dmet is the diameter of the largest metastasis in an axillary lymph node.
    • The cut-off points are 1.36 and 3.28.

References

  1. Symmans WF, Peintinger F, Hatzis C, Rajan R, Kuerer H, Valero V, Assad L, Poniecka A, Hennessy B, Green M, Buzdar AU, Singletary SE, Hortobagyi GN, Pusztai L. Measurement of residual breast cancer burden to predict survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 1;25(28):4414-22. Epub 2007 Sep 4. link to original article PubMed

Residual disease in breast and nodes (RDBN)

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  • Level 1: pCR in breast and nodes with or without in situ carcinoma
  • Levels 2 to 4: Residual disease, calculated as 0.2 (residual breast tumor size in cm) + index of involved nodes (0 for no positive nodes, 1 for 1 to 4 positive nodes, 2 for 5 to 7 positive nodes, and 3 for 8 positive nodes) + the Scarff–Bloom–Richardson grade (1, 2, or 3). The cut-off points are 3 and 4.3.

References

  1. Chollet P, Abrial C, Durando X, Thivat E, Tacca O, Mouret-Reynier MA, Leheurteur M, Kwiatkowski F, Dauplat J, Penault-Llorca F. A new prognostic classification after primary chemotherapy for breast cancer: residual disease in breast and nodes (RDBN). Cancer J. 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):128-32. link to original article PubMed

Sataloff's classification

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  • Breast:
    • T-A: Total or nearly total therapeutic effect
    • T-B: Greater than 50% therapeutic effect
    • T-C: Less than 50% therapeutic effect
    • T-D: No therapeutic effect
  • Lymph node:
    • N-A: Therapeutic effect but no metastasis
    • N-B: No metastasis, no therapeutic effect
    • N-C: Therapeutic effect but metastasis
    • N-D: Metastasis, no therapeutic effect

References

  1. Sataloff DM, Mason BA, Prestipino AJ, Seinige UL, Lieber CP, Baloch Z. Pathologic response to induction chemotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the breast: a determinant of outcome. J Am Coll Surg. 1995 Mar;180(3):297-306. PubMed

Tumor response ratio

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Calculated as follows: Residual breast disease observed upon pathologic examination divided by the size of the tumor on the pre-neoadjuvant therapy image.

  • TRR = 0: pathologic complete response (pCR)
  • TRR greater than 0 up to 0.4: strong partial response
  • TRR greater than 0.4 up to 1.0: weak partial response (WPR)
  • TRR greater than 1.0: tumor growth

References

  1. Miller M, Ottesen RA, Niland JC, Kruper L, Chen SL, Vito C. Tumor response ratio predicts overall survival in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014 Oct;21(10):3317-23. Epub 2014 Jul 25. link to original article PubMed

ypTNM staging

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This system is proprietary to the AJCC. Please visit their site or consult the AJCC Manual for further details.

Adjuvant chemotherapy

AC

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AC: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) and Cyclophosphamide
CA: Cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin (Doxorubicin)

Variant #1, 60/600

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1997 (NSABP B-22) Phase III (C) Intensified AC
Intensified & Increased AC
Seems not superior
Fisher et al. 1997 (NSABP B-18) Phase III (C) Neoadjuvant AC Inferior resectability
Fisher et al. 2001 (NSABP B-23) Phase III (E) CMF Seems not superior
Henderson et al. 2003 (INT 0148/CALGB 9344) Phase III (C) High-dose AC
Very-high-dose AC
Seems not superior
Citron et al. 2003 (CALGB 9741) Phase III (C) See link See link
Van Pelt et al. 2003 Phase II
Mamounas et al. 2005 (NSABP B-28) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Romond et al. 2005 (NSABP B-31/NCCTG N9831) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Jones et al. 2006 (US Oncology Trial 9735) Phase III (C) TC Seems to have inferior OS
Sparano et al. 2008 (ECOG E1199) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Muss et al. 2009 (CALGB 49907) Phase III (C) Capecitabine Seems to have superior OS
Burnell et al. 2009 (NCIC CTG MA.21) Phase III (C) See link See link
Swain et al. 2010 (NSABP B-30) Phase III (E) See link See link
Eiermann et al. 2011 (BCIRG-005) Phase III (E) See link See link
Slamon et al. 2011 (BCIRG 006) Phase III (C) See link See link
Watanabe et al. 2017 (NSAS-BC 02) Phase III (C) See link See link
Miller et al. 2018 (ECOG E5103) Phase III (C) See link See link

Patients in Van Pelt et al. 2003, NSABP B-31, NCCTG N9831, and BCIRG 006 were HER2-positive.

Preceding treatment

  • Most protocols: Surgery
  • Van Pelt et al. 2003: Neoadjuvant TH, then surgery
  • INT 0148/CALGB 9344: Surgery, within 84 days

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, with range

Study Evidence
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Patients in APHINITY had HER2-positive breast cancer. Note that ranges for AC are given in the protocol, replicated here.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NSABP B-22: Fisher B, Anderson S, Wickerham DL, DeCillis A, Dimitrov N, Mamounas E, Wolmark N, Pugh R, Atkins JN, Meyers FJ, Abramson N, Wolter J, Bornstein RS, Levy L, Romond EH, Caggiano V, Grimaldi M, Jochimsen P, Deckers P. Increased intensification and total dose of cyclophosphamide in a doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide regimen for the treatment of primary breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-22. J Clin Oncol. 1997 May;15(5):1858-69. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Taghian A, Jeong JH, Mamounas E, Anderson S, Bryant J, Deutsch M, Wolmark N. Patterns of locoregional failure in patients with operable breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen and without radiotherapy: results from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Nov 1;22(21):4247-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-18: Fisher B, Brown A, Mamounas E, Wieand S, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Cruz AB Jr, Fisher ER, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, DeCillis A, Hoehn JL, Lees AW, Dimitrov NV. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on local-regional disease in women with operable breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Jul;15(7):2483-93. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Bryant J, Wolmark N, Mamounas E, Brown A, Fisher ER, Wickerham DL, Begovic M, DeCillis A, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Cruz AB Jr, Hoehn JL, Lees AW, Dimitrov NV, Bear HD. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Aug;16(8):2672-85. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Wolmark N, Wang J, Mamounas E, Bryant J, Fisher B. Preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer: nine-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;(30):96-102. PubMed
    3. Pooled update: Taghian A, Jeong JH, Mamounas E, Anderson S, Bryant J, Deutsch M, Wolmark N. Patterns of locoregional failure in patients with operable breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen and without radiotherapy: results from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Nov 1;22(21):4247-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed
    4. Pooled update: Rastogi P, Anderson SJ, Bear HD, Geyer CE, Kahlenberg MS, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Hoehn JL, Vogel VG, Dakhil SR, Tamkus D, King KM, Pajon ER, Wright MJ, Robert J, Paik S, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Preoperative chemotherapy: updates of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocols B-18 and B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 10;26(5):778-85. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 1;26(16):2793. link to original article PubMed
  3. NSABP B-23: Fisher B, Anderson S, Tan-Chiu E, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, Dimitrov NV, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Merajver S, Romond EH, Kardinal CG, Shibata HR, Margolese RG, Farrar WB. Tamoxifen and chemotherapy for axillary node-negative, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-23. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):931-42. link to original article PubMed
  4. INT 0148/CALGB 9344: Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, Cirrincione CT, Goldstein LJ, Martino S, Ingle JN, Cooper MR, Hayes DF, Tkaczuk KH, Fleming G, Holland JF, Duggan DB, Carpenter JT, Frei E 3rd, Schilsky RL, Wood WC, Muss HB, Norton L. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):976-83. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. CALGB 9741: Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, Davidson NE, Martino S, Livingston R, Ingle JN, Perez EA, Carpenter J, Hurd D, Holland JF, Smith BL, Sartor CI, Leung EH, Abrams J, Schilsky RL, Muss HB, Norton L. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1431-9. Epub 2003 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. Van Pelt AE, Mohsin S, Elledge RM, Hilsenbeck SG, Gutierrez MC, Lucci A Jr, Kalidas M, Granchi T, Scott BG, Allred DC, Chang JC. Neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel in breast cancer: preliminary results. Clin Breast Cancer. 2003 Dec;4(5):348-53. link to original article PubMed
  7. NSABP B-28: Mamounas EP, Bryant J, Lembersky B, Fehrenbacher L, Sedlacek SM, Fisher B, Wickerham DL, Yothers G, Soran A, Wolmark N. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3686-96. Epub 2005 May 16. link to original article PubMed
  8. NSABP B-31/NCCTG N9831: Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE Jr, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, Fehrenbacher L, Kutteh LA, Vogel VG, Visscher DW, Yothers G, Jenkins RB, Brown AM, Dakhil SR, Mamounas EP, Lingle WL, Klein PM, Ingle JN, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1673-84. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Davidson NE, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Mamounas EP, Kaufman PA, Wolmark N. Four-year follow-up of trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: joint analysis of data from NCCTG N9831 and NSABP B-31. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Sep 1;29(25):3366-73. Epub 2011 Jul 18. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Gralow JR, Kaufman PA, Visscher DW, Chen B, Ingle JN, Dakhil SR, Zujewski J, Moreno-Aspitia A, Pisansky TM, Jenkins RB. Sequential versus concurrent trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4491-7. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    3. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Sledge G, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Rastogi P, Gralow J, Swain SM, Winer EP, Colon-Otero G, Davidson NE, Mamounas E, Zujewski JA, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: planned joint analysis of overall survival from NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 20;32(33):3744-52. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    4. Update and HRQoL analysis: Ganz PA, Romond EH, Cecchini RS, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Swain SM, Jeong JH, Fehrenbacher L, Gross HM, Brufsky AM, Flynn PJ, Wahl TA, Seay TE, Wade JL 3rd, Biggs DD, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Zapas JL, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Long-term follow-up of cardiac function and quality of life for patients in NSABP protocol B-31/NRG Oncology: a randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by paclitaxel with AC followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with node-positive breast cancer with tumors overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Dec 10;35(35):3942-3948. Epub 2017 Oct 26. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  9. US Oncology Trial 9735: Jones SE, Savin MA, Holmes FA, O'Shaughnessy JA, Blum JL, Vukelja S, McIntyre KJ, Pippen JE, Bordelon JH, Kirby R, Sandbach J, Hyman WJ, Khandelwal P, Negron AG, Richards DA, Anthony SP, Mennel RG, Boehm KA, Meyer WG, Asmar L. Phase III trial comparing doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide with docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant therapy for operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 1;24(34):5381-7. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2007 May 1;25(13):1819. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Jones S, Holmes FA, O'Shaughnessy J, Blum JL, Vukelja SJ, McIntyre KJ, Pippen JE, Bordelon JH, Kirby RL, Sandbach J, Hyman WJ, Richards DA, Mennel RG, Boehm KA, Meyer WG, Asmar L, Mackey D, Riedel S, Muss H, Savin MA. Docetaxel With Cyclophosphamide Is Associated With an Overall Survival Benefit Compared With Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide: 7-Year Follow-Up of US Oncology Research Trial 9735. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 10;27(8):1177-83. Epub 2009 Feb 9. link to original article PubMed
  10. BIG 02-98: Francis P, Crown J, Di Leo A, Buyse M, Balil A, Andersson M, Nordenskjöld B, Lang I, Jakesz R, Vorobiof D, Gutiérrez J, van Hazel G, Dolci S, Jamin S, Bendahmane B, Gelber RD, Goldhirsch A, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Piccart-Gebhart M; BIG 02-98 Collaborative Group. Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jan 16;100(2):121-33. Epub 2008 Jan 8. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Nov 19;100(22):1655. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Oakman C, Francis PA, Crown J, Quinaux E, Buyse M, De Azambuja E, Margeli Vila M, Andersson M, Nordenskjöld B, Jakesz R, Thürlimann B, Gutiérrez J, Harvey V, Punzalan L, Dell'orto P, Larsimont D, Steinberg I, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M, Viale G, Di Leo A. Overall survival benefit for sequential doxorubicin-docetaxel compared with concurrent doxorubicin and docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer--8-year results of the Breast International Group 02-98 phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2013 May;24(5):1203-11. Epub 2013 Jan 4. link to original article PubMed
  11. ECOG E1199: Sparano JA, Wang M, Martino S, Jones V, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Weekly paclitaxel in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 17;358(16):1663-71. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Sparano JA, Zhao F, Martino S, Ligibel JA, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Long-term follow-up of the E1199 phase III trial evaluating the role of taxane and schedule in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2353-60. Epub 2015 Jun 15. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  12. NSABP B-30: Swain SM, Jeong JH, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Rastogi P, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Land SR, Ganz PA, Wolmark N. Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 3;362(22):2053-65. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  13. CALGB 49907: Muss HB, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Theodoulou M, Mauer AM, Kornblith AB, Partridge AH, Dressler LG, Cohen HJ, Becker HP, Kartcheske PA, Wheeler JD, Perez EA, Wolff AC, Gralow JR, Burstein HJ, Mahmood AA, Magrinat G, Parker BA, Hart RD, Grenier D, Norton L, Hudis CA, Winer EP; CALGB Investigators. Adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009 May 14;360(20):2055-65. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 22;361(17):1714. Magrinat, Gutav [corrected to Magrinat, Gustav]. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  14. NCIC CTG MA.21: Burnell M, Levine MN, Chapman JA, Bramwell V, Gelmon K, Walley B, Vandenberg T, Chalchal H, Albain KS, Perez EA, Rugo H, Pritchard K, O'Brien P, Shepherd LE. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil versus dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 1;28(1):77-82. Epub 2009 Nov 9. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  15. BCIRG-005: Eiermann W, Pienkowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martín M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press M, Sauter G, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Buyse M, Drevot P, Taupin H, Mackey JR. Phase III study of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide with concomitant versus sequential docetaxel as adjuvant treatment in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-normal, node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 10;29(29):3877-84. Epub 2011 Sep 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Mackey JR, Pieńkowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martín M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press MF, Sauter G, Lindsay M, Houé V, Buyse M, Drevot P, Hitier S, Bensfia S, Eiermann W; Translational Research In Oncology (TRIO)/ Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG)-005 investigators. Long-term outcomes after adjuvant treatment of sequential versus combination docetaxel with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 randomized trial. Ann Oncol. 2016 Jun;27(6):1041-7. Epub 2016 Mar 2. link to original article PubMed
  16. BCIRG 006: Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, Pienkowski T, Martín M, Press M, Mackey J, Glaspy J, Chan A, Pawlicki M, Pinter T, Valero V, Liu MC, Sauter G, von Minckwitz G, Visco F, Bee V, Buyse M, Bendahmane B, Tabah-Fisch I, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Crown J; Breast Cancer International Research Group. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6;365(14):1273-83. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  17. NSAS-BC 02: Watanabe T, Kuranami M, Inoue K, Masuda N, Aogi K, Ohno S, Iwata H, Mukai H, Uemura Y, Ohashi Y. Comparison of an AC-taxane versus AC-free regimen and paclitaxel versus docetaxel in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer: final results of the National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer 02 trial, a randomized comparative phase 3 study. Cancer. 2017 Mar 1;123(5):759-768. Epub 2017 Jan 12. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  18. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  19. ECOG E5103: Miller KD, O'Neill A, Gradishar W, Hobday TJ, Goldstein LJ, Mayer IA, Bloom S, Brufsky AM, Tevaarwerk AJ, Sparano JA, Le-Lindqwister NA, Hendricks CB, Northfelt DW, Dang CT, Sledge GW Jr. Double-blind phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab in patients with lymph node-positive and high-risk lymph node-negative breast cancer (E5103). J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 1;36(25):2621-2629. Epub 2018 Jul 24. link to original article refers to ECOG E1199 protocol PubMed

Bevacizumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bear et al. 2012 (NSABP B-40) Phase III (E) See link See link

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 10 cycles

References

  1. Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Robidoux A, Atkins JN, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):310-20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Liu Q, Robidoux A, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Paik S, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab in early breast cancer (NSABP B-40 [NRG Oncology]): secondary outcomes of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Sep;16(9):1037-1048. Epub 2015 Aug 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):e589. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Capecitabine monotherapy

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Variant #1, 4 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martín et al. 2015 (GEICAM/2003-10) Phase III (E) See link See link
Cameron et al. 2017 (TACT2) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • GEICAM/2003-10: ET x 4
  • TACT2: ddE x 4 versus Epirubicin x 4

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #2, 6 to 8 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Muss et al. 2009 (CALGB 49907) Phase III (E) Physician's choice of:
AC x 4
CMF x 6
Seems to have inferior OS
Masuda et al. 2017 (CREATE-X) Phase III (E) Standard therapy Superior OS

Note: patients in CALGB 49907 received a maximum of 6 cycles. All patients in CREATE-X had residual disease at time of surgical resection. Concomitant endocrine therapy was allowed.

Preceding treatment

  • CALGB 49907: Surgery
  • CREATE-X: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy containing anthracycline, taxane, or both, then surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

References

  1. CALGB 49907: Muss HB, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Theodoulou M, Mauer AM, Kornblith AB, Partridge AH, Dressler LG, Cohen HJ, Becker HP, Kartcheske PA, Wheeler JD, Perez EA, Wolff AC, Gralow JR, Burstein HJ, Mahmood AA, Magrinat G, Parker BA, Hart RD, Grenier D, Norton L, Hudis CA, Winer EP; CALGB Investigators. Adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009 May 14;360(20):2055-65. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 22;361(17):1714. Magrinat, Gutav [corrected to Magrinat, Gustav]. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. GEICAM/2003-10: Martín M, Ruiz Simón A, Ruiz Borrego M, Ribelles N, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Muñoz-Mateu M, González S, Margelí Vila M, Barnadas A, Ramos M, Del Barco Berron S, Jara C, Calvo L, Martínez-Jáñez N, Mendiola Fernández C, Rodríguez CA, Martínez de Dueñas E, Andrés R, Plazaola A, de la Haba-Rodríguez J, López-Vega JM, Adrover E, Ballesteros AI, Santaballa A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Baena-Cañada JM, Casas M, del Carmen Cámara M, Carrasco EM, Lluch A. Epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel versus epirubicin plus docetaxel followed by capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for node-positive early breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-10 study. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Nov 10;33(32):3788-95. Epub 2015 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. CREATE-X: Masuda N, Lee SJ, Ohtani S, Im YH, Lee ES, Yokota I, Kuroi K, Im SA, Park BW, Kim SB, Yanagita Y, Ohno S, Takao S, Aogi K, Iwata H, Jeong J, Kim A, Park KH, Sasano H, Ohashi Y, Toi M. Adjuvant capecitabine for breast cancer after preoperative chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun 1;376(22):2147-2159. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. TACT2: Cameron D, Morden JP, Canney P, Velikova G, Coleman R, Bartlett J, Agrawal R, Banerji J, Bertelli G, Bloomfield D, Brunt AM, Earl H, Ellis P, Gaunt C, Gillman A, Hearfield N, Laing R, Murray N, Couper N, Stein RC, Verrill M, Wardley A, Barrett-Lee P, Bliss JM; TACT2 Investigators. Accelerated versus standard epirubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil or capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in the randomised UK TACT2 trial (CRUK/05/19): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jul;18(7):929-945. Epub 2017 Jun 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

CMF

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CMF: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil

Variant #1, 600/40/600 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Overgaard et al. 1997 (DBCG 82b) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: radiotherapy was given between cycles 1 & 2

Preceding treatment

  • Mastectomy

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #2, 600/50/600 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Leonard et al. 2004 Phase III (C) Cyclophosphamide & Thiotepa with auto HSCT Seems not superior

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #3, 750/50/600 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Poole et al. 2006 (BR9601) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #4, 750/50/600 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stewart et al. 1993 Phase III (C) CMFP
Oopherectomy
Oopherectomy & Prednisolone
Seems not superior
Poole et al. 2006 (BR9601) Phase III (C) Epirubicin, then CMF x 4 Inferior OS

Note: after 1984, patients in Stewart et al. 1993 only received 6 cycles.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles (see note)

Variant #5, 1000/80/1200 x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Zander et al. 2004 Phase III (C) Cyclophosphamide, Mitoxantrone, Thiotepa with auto HSCT Might have inferior EFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery, then EC x 4

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 3 cycles

Variant #6, 1000/80/1200 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Schmid et al. 2007 (TABLE) Phase III (C) Leuprolide Inferior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery, within 6 weeks

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #7, 1120/60/1000 x 12

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brinker et al. 1983 (DBCG 77B) Phase III (E) Cyclophosphamide Seems not superior
Levamisole Not reported
No chemotherapy Seems to have superior OS (*)

Note: reported efficacy is based on the 2010 update.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

1-month cycle for 12 cycles

Variant #8, 1200/80/1200 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Poole et al. 2006 (NEAT) Phase III (E) See link See link
Cameron et al. 2017 (TACT2) Phase III (C) See link See link
Ellis et al. 2009 (TACT) Randomized Phase II (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery, then E x 4

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #9, 1200/80/1200 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Coombes et al. 1996 Phase III (C) FEC Seems not superior
Poole et al. 2006 (NEAT) Phase III (C) Epirubicin, then CMF x 4 Inferior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #10, 1400/80/1200 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Poole et al. 2006 (NEAT) Phase III (E) See link See link
Cameron et al. 2017 (TACT2) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #11, 1400/80/1200 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Coombes et al. 1996 Phase III (C) FEC Seems not superior
Levine et al. 1998 (NCIC CTG MA.5) Phase III (C) CEF Inferior RFS
Fisher et al. 2001 (NSABP B-23) Phase III (C) AC Seems not superior
Piccart et al. 2001 Phase III (C) Full-dose EC Seems not superior
Moderate-dose EC Not reported
Hutchins et al. 2005 (INT-0102) Phase III (C) CAF Seems to have inferior OS
Poole et al. 2006 (NEAT) Phase III (C) Epirubicin, then CMF x 4 Inferior OS
Muss et al. 2009 (CALGB 49907) Phase III (C) Capecitabine Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #12, 1400/80/1200 x 12

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bonadonna et al. 1976 Phase III (E) Observation Superior RFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 12 cycles

References

  1. Bonadonna G, Brusamolino E, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Brugnatelli L, Brambilla C, De Lena M, Tancini G, Bajetta E, Musumeci R, Veronesi U. Combination chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in operable breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 19;294(8):405-10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Bonadonna G, Rossi A, Valagussa P, Banfi A, Veronesi U. The CMF program for operable breast cancer with positive axillary nodes: updated analysis on the disease-free interval, site of relapse and drug tolerance. Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2904-15. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Tancini G, Brambilla C, Zambetti M, Veronesi U. Ten-year experience with CMF-based adjuvant chemotherapy in resectable breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1985;5(2):95-115. PubMed
    3. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, Zambetti M, Brambilla C. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer: the results of 20 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med. 1995 Apr 6;332(14):901-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. DBCG 77B: Brincker H, Mouridsen HT, Andersen KW. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or CMF in premenopausal women with stage II breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1983;3(1):91-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Andersen J, Andersson M, Kamby C, Knoop AS; Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil; oral cyclophosphamide; levamisole; or no adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk, premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer. 2010 May 1;116(9):2081-9. link to original article PubMed
  3. Stewart HJ, Forrest APM, Hawkins RA, Prescott RJ, Smith DC, Everington D, Richards MA, George WD; Scottish Cancer Trials Breast Group and ICRF Breast Unit Guy's Hospital London. Adjuvant ovarian ablation versus CMF chemotherapy in premenopausal women with pathological stage II breast carcinoma: the Scottish trial. Lancet. 1993 May 22;341(8856):1293-8. link to SD article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Coombes RC, Bliss JM, Wils J, Morvan F, Espié M, Amadori D, Gambrosier P, Richards M, Aapro M, Villar-Grimalt A, McArdle C, Pérez-López FR, Vassilopoulos P, Ferreira EP, Chilvers CE, Coombes G, Woods EM, Marty M; The International Collaborative Cancer Group. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in premenopausal women with axillary node-positive operable breast cancer: results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jan;14(1):35-45. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. DBCG 82b: Overgaard M, Hansen PS, Overgaard J, Rose C, Andersson M, Bach F, Kjaer M, Gadeberg CC, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Zedeler K. Postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk premenopausal women with breast cancer who receive adjuvant chemotherapy: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82b trial. N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 2;337(14):949-55. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. Ragaz J, Jackson SM, Le N, Plenderleith IH, Spinelli JJ, Basco VE, Wilson KS, Knowling MA, Coppin CM, Paradis M, Coldman AJ, Olivotto IA. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in node-positive premenopausal women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 2;337(14):956-62. link to original article PubMed
  7. Review: Goldhirsch A, Colleoni M, Coates AS, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Gelber RD. Adding adjuvant CMF chemotherapy to either radiotherapy or tamoxifen: are all CMFs alike? The International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG). Ann Oncol. 1998 May;9(5):489-93. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  8. NCIC CTG MA.5: Levine MN, Bramwell VH, Pritchard KI, Norris BD, Shepherd LE, Abu-Zahra H, Findlay B, Warr D, Bowman D, Myles J, Arnold A, Vandenberg T, MacKenzie R, Robert J, Ottaway J, Burnell M, Williams CK, Tu D; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Randomized trial of intensive cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil chemotherapy compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Aug;16(8):2651-8. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Levine MN, Pritchard KI, Bramwell VH, Shepherd LE, Tu D, Paul N; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Randomized trial comparing cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer: update of National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Trial MA5. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 1;23(22):5166-70. link to original article PubMed
  9. NSABP B-23: Fisher B, Anderson S, Tan-Chiu E, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, Dimitrov NV, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Merajver S, Romond EH, Kardinal CG, Shibata HR, Margolese RG, Farrar WB. Tamoxifen and chemotherapy for axillary node-negative, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-23. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):931-42. link to original article PubMed
  10. Piccart MJ, Di Leo A, Beauduin M, Vindevoghel A, Michel J, Focan C, Tagnon A, Ries F, Gobert P, Finet C, Closon-Dejardin MT, Dufrane JP, Kerger J, Liebens F, Beauvois S, Bartholomeus S, Dolci S, Lobelle JP, Paesmans M, Nogaret JM. Phase III trial comparing two dose levels of epirubicin combined with cyclophosphamide with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jun 15;19(12):3103-10. link to original article PubMed
  11. Zander AR, Kröger N, Schmoor C, Krüger W, Möbus V, Frickhofen N, Metzner B, Schultze W, Berdel WE, Koenigsmann M, Thiel E, Wandt H, Possinger K, Trümper L, Kreienberg R, Carstensen M, Schmidt EH, Jänicke F, Schumacher M, Jonat W. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell support compared with standard-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes: first results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 15;22(12):2273-83. Epub 2004 Apr 26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  12. Leonard RC, Lind M, Twelves C, Coleman R, van Belle S, Wilson C, Ledermann J, Kennedy I, Barrett-Lee P, Perren T, Verrill M, Cameron D, Foster E, Yellowlees A, Crown J; Anglo-Celtic Cooperative Oncology Group. Conventional adjuvant chemotherapy versus single-cycle, autograft-supported, high-dose, late-intensification chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients: a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jul 21;96(14):1076-83. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  13. INT-0102: Hutchins LF, Green SJ, Ravdin PM, Lew D, Martino S, Abeloff M, Lyss AP, Allred C, Rivkin SE, Osborne CK. Randomized, controlled trial of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil with and without tamoxifen for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: treatment results of Intergroup Protocol INT-0102. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8313-21. link to original article PubMed
  14. NEAT/BR9601: Poole CJ, Earl HM, Hiller L, Dunn JA, Bathers S, Grieve RJ, Spooner DA, Agrawal RK, Fernando IN, Brunt AM, O'Reilly SM, Crawford SM, Rea DW, Simmonds P, Mansi JL, Stanley A, Harvey P, McAdam K, Foster L, Leonard RC, Twelves CJ; NEAT Investigators and the SCTBG. Epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 2;355(18):1851-62. link to original article PubMed
  15. Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Andersen J, Cold S, Edlund P, Ewertz M, Jensen BB, Kamby C, Nordenskjold B, Bergh J. Improved outcome from substituting methotrexate with epirubicin: results from a randomised comparison of CMF versus CEF in patients with primary breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2007 Mar;43(5):877-84. Epub 2007 Feb 16. link to original article PubMed
  16. TABLE: Schmid P, Untch M, Kossé V, Bondar G, Vassiljev L, Tarutinov V, Lehmann U, Maubach L, Meurer J, Wallwiener D, Possinger K. Leuprorelin acetate every-3-months depot versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant treatment in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: the TABLE study. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jun 20;25(18):2509-15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  17. TACT: Ellis P, Barrett-Lee P, Johnson L, Cameron D, Wardley A, O'Reilly S, Verrill M, Smith I, Yarnold J, Coleman R, Earl H, Canney P, Twelves C, Poole C, Bloomfield D, Hopwood P, Johnston S, Dowsett M, Bartlett JM, Ellis I, Peckitt C, Hall E, Bliss JM; TACT Trial Management Group; TACT Trialists. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 16;373(9676):1681-92. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed
  18. CALGB 49907: Muss HB, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Theodoulou M, Mauer AM, Kornblith AB, Partridge AH, Dressler LG, Cohen HJ, Becker HP, Kartcheske PA, Wheeler JD, Perez EA, Wolff AC, Gralow JR, Burstein HJ, Mahmood AA, Magrinat G, Parker BA, Hart RD, Grenier D, Norton L, Hudis CA, Winer EP; CALGB Investigators. Adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009 May 14;360(20):2055-65. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 22;361(17):1714. Magrinat, Gutav [corrected to Magrinat, Gustav]. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  19. TACT2: Cameron D, Morden JP, Canney P, Velikova G, Coleman R, Bartlett J, Agrawal R, Banerji J, Bertelli G, Bloomfield D, Brunt AM, Earl H, Ellis P, Gaunt C, Gillman A, Hearfield N, Laing R, Murray N, Couper N, Stein RC, Verrill M, Wardley A, Barrett-Lee P, Bliss JM; TACT2 Investigators. Accelerated versus standard epirubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil or capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in the randomised UK TACT2 trial (CRUK/05/19): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jul;18(7):929-945. Epub 2017 Jun 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

CMFT

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CMFT: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Tamoxifen

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Overgaard et al. 1999 (DBCG 82C) Phase III (E) Tamoxifen Superior DFS (*)
Tamoxifen & RT Not reported

Note: efficacy for this arm versus tamoxifen monotherapy is based on the 2013 update.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 9 cycles (tamoxifen continued for one year total)

References

  1. DBCG 82C: Overgaard M, Jensen MB, Overgaard J, Hansen PS, Rose C, Andersson M, Kamby C, Kjaer M, Gadeberg CC, Rasmussen BB, Blichert-Toft M, Mouridsen HT. Postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk postmenopausal breast-cancer patients given adjuvant tamoxifen: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group DBCG 82c randomised trial. Lancet. 1999 May 15;353(9165):1641-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ejlertsen B, Jensen MB, Elversang J, Rasmussen BB, Andersson M, Andersen J, Nielsen DL, Cold S, Mouridsen HT. One year of adjuvant tamoxifen compared with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with stage II breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Sep;49(14):2986-94. Epub 2013 Jun 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

DC

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DC: Docetaxel & Cyclophosphamide
TC: Taxotere (Docetaxel) & Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 4 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Jones et al. 2006 (US Oncology Trial 9735) Phase III (E) AC Seems to have superior OS
Blum et al. 2017 (USOR 06-090; NSABP-46-I/USOR 07132; NSABP B-49) Phase III (C) TAC Seems to have inferior IDFS

Note: Blum et al. 2017 is a pooled analysis of three RCTs, some of which had arms other than TAC and TC. Refer to the paper for further details.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #2, 6 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Mavroudis et al. 2016 (HORG CT/07.17) Phase III (E) ddFEC, then D Inconclusive whether non-inferior
Ejlertsen et al. 2017 (DBCG 07-READ) Phase III (E) EC, then D Seems not superior

Patients in DBCG 07-READ were TOP2A normal as determined by FISH.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. US Oncology Trial 9735: Jones SE, Savin MA, Holmes FA, O'Shaughnessy JA, Blum JL, Vukelja S, McIntyre KJ, Pippen JE, Bordelon JH, Kirby R, Sandbach J, Hyman WJ, Khandelwal P, Negron AG, Richards DA, Anthony SP, Mennel RG, Boehm KA, Meyer WG, Asmar L. Phase III trial comparing doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide with docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant therapy for operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 1;24(34):5381-7. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2007 May 1;25(13):1819. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Jones S, Holmes FA, O'Shaughnessy J, Blum JL, Vukelja SJ, McIntyre KJ, Pippen JE, Bordelon JH, Kirby RL, Sandbach J, Hyman WJ, Richards DA, Mennel RG, Boehm KA, Meyer WG, Asmar L, Mackey D, Riedel S, Muss H, Savin MA. Docetaxel with cyclophosphamide is associated with an overall survival benefit compared with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide: 7-year follow-up of US Oncology Research Trial 9735. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 10;27(8):1177-83. Epub 2009 Feb 9. link to original article PubMed
  2. HORG CT/07.17: Mavroudis D, Matikas A, Malamos N, Papakotoulas P, Kakolyris S, Boukovinas I, Athanasiadis A, Kentepozidis N, Ziras N, Katsaounis P, Saloustros E, Georgoulias V; Breast Cancer Investigators of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Dose-dense FEC followed by docetaxel versus docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-negative, axillary lymph node-positive early breast cancer: a multicenter randomized study by the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Ann Oncol. 2016 Oct;27(10):1873-8. Epub 2016 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. USOR 06-090; NSABP-46-I/USOR 07132; NSABP B-49: Blum JL, Flynn PJ, Yothers G, Asmar L, Geyer CE Jr, Jacobs SA, Robert NJ, Hopkins JO, O'Shaughnessy JA, Dang CT, Gómez HL, Fehrenbacher L, Vukelja SJ, Lyss AP, Paul D, Brufsky AM, Jeong JH, Colangelo LH, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Jones SE, Wolmark N. Anthracyclines in early breast cancer: The ABC trials-USOR 06-090, NSABP B-46-I/USOR 07132, and NSABP B-49 (NRG Oncology). J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 10;35(23):2647-2655. Epub 2017 Apr 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. DBCG 07-READ: Ejlertsen B, Tuxen MK, Jakobsen EH, Jensen MB, Knoop AS, Højris I, Ewertz M, Balslev E, Danø H, Vestlev PM, Kenholm J, Nielsen DL, Bechmann T, Andersson M, Cold S, Nielsen HM, Maae E, Carlsen D, Mouridsen HT. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide and docetaxel with or without epirubicin for early TOP2A-normal breast cancer: DBCG 07-READ, an open-label, phase III, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 10;35(23):2639-2646. Epub 2017 Jun 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

ddA

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ddA: dose-dense Adriamycin (Doxorubicin)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Citron et al. 2003 (CALGB 9741) Phase III (E) See link See link
Kahan et al. 2005 Phase II

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, Davidson NE, Martino S, Livingston R, Ingle JN, Perez EA, Carpenter J, Hurd D, Holland JF, Smith BL, Sartor CI, Leung EH, Abrams J, Schilsky RL, Muss HB, Norton L. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1431-9. Epub 2003 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Kahan Z, Uhercsak G, Hajnal-Papp R, Boda K, Thurzo L. Dose-dense sequential adriamycin-Paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is well tolerated and safe in high-risk early breast cancer. Oncology. 2005;68(4-6):446-53. Epub 2005 Jul 13. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Kelemen G, Uhercsák G, Ormándi K, Eller J, Thurzó L, Kahán Z. Long-term efficiency and toxicity of adjuvant dose-dense sequential adriamycin-Paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer. Oncology. 2010;78(3-4):271-3. Epub 2010 Jun 7. link to original article PubMed

ddAC

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ddAC: dose-dense Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) and Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 4 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Citron et al. 2003 (CALGB 9741) Phase III (E) See link See link
Burstein et al. 2005 Non-randomized
Dang et al. 2008 Phase II
Shulman et al. 2012 (CALGB 40101) Phase III (E) ddAC x 6 Seems not superior
ddT x 4 Seems not superior
ddT x 6 Seems not superior
Swain et al. 2013 (NSABP B-38) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: CALGB 40101 originally specified 21-day cycles but was amended to 14-day cycles after results of CALGB 9741 were available. Patients in Dang et al. 2008 had HER2-positive breast cancer.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • (varies depending on reference):
  • CALGB 9741:
    • Filgrastim (Neupogen) 5 mcg/kg (rounded to either 300 or 480 mcg) SC once per day on days 3 to 10
      • Note: Citron et al. 2003 says the schedule was "filgrastim days 3 to 10 of each cycle (a total of seven doses)," so it is unclear whether 7 or 8 doses was actually used).
  • Burstein et al. 2005 and Dang et al. 2008:
  • Burstein et al. 2005:
    • Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) 200 mcg SC once on day 1 for patients with Hb 10 to 12 g/dL; see Burstein et al. 2005 for additional dose adjustments
  • CALGB 40101: one of the following:
    • Filgrastim (Neupogen) 5 mcg/kg (rounded to 300 mcg or 480 mcg, whichever is closer) SC on days 3 to 10; may be discontinued before day 10 if ANC has recovered to an "acceptable range, as determined by the treating physician"
    • Sargramostim (Leukine) 250 to 500 mcg/m2 SC on days 3 to 10; may be discontinued before day 10 if ANC has recovered to an "acceptable range, as determined by the treating physician"
    • Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta) 6 mg SC, administered once 24 to 36 hours after chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 4 cycles, with range

Study Evidence
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Patients in APHINITY had HER2-positive breast cancer. Note that ranges for ddAC are given in the protocol, replicated here.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • G-CSF support (drug/dose/schedule not specified)

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, 6 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Budd et al. 2014 (SWOG S0221) Phase III (C) Continuous AC Seems not superior

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. CALGB 9741: Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, Davidson NE, Martino S, Livingston R, Ingle JN, Perez EA, Carpenter J, Hurd D, Holland JF, Smith BL, Sartor CI, Leung EH, Abrams J, Schilsky RL, Muss HB, Norton L. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1431-9. Epub 2003 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Burstein HJ, Parker LM, Keshaviah A, Doherty J, Partridge AH, Schapira L, Ryan PD, Younger J, Harris LN, Moy B, Come SE, Schumer ST, Bunnell CA, Haldoupis M, Gelman R, Winer EP. Efficacy of pegfilgrastim and darbepoetin alfa as hematopoietic support for dose-dense every-2-week adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8340-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Dang C, Fornier M, Sugarman S, Troso-Sandoval T, Lake D, D'Andrea G, Seidman A, Sklarin N, Dickler M, Currie V, Gilewski T, Moynahan ME, Drullinsky P, Robson M, Wasserheit-Leiblich C, Mills N, Steingart R, Panageas K, Norton L, Hudis C. The safety of dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with trastuzumab in HER-2/neu overexpressed/amplified breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 10;26(8):1216-22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. CALGB 40101: Shulman LN, Cirrincione CT, Berry DA, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Atkins JN, Mayer E, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Norton L, Muss H, Winer EP, Hudis C. Six cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel are not superior to four cycles as adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in women with zero to three positive axillary nodes: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40101. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 20;30(33):4071-6. Epub 2012 Jul 23. link to original article contains verified protocol link to study protocol PDF link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Shulman LN, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Shapiro CL, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Burstein HJ, Norton L, Muss H, Hudis CA, Winer EP. Comparison of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus single-agent paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in women with 0 to 3 positive axillary nodes: CALGB 40101 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2014 Aug 1;32(22):2311-7. link to PMC article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-38: Swain SM, Tang G, Geyer CE Jr, Rastogi P, Atkins JN, Donnellan PP, Fehrenbacher L, Azar CA, Robidoux A, Polikoff JA, Brufsky AM, Biggs DD, Levine EA, Zapas JL, Provencher L, Northfelt DW, Paik S, Costantino JP, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Definitive results of a phase III adjuvant trial comparing three chemotherapy regimens in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer: the NSABP B-38 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 10;31(26):3197-204. Epub 2013 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. SWOG S0221: Budd GT, Barlow WE, Moore HC, Hobday TJ, Stewart JA, Isaacs C, Salim M, Cho JK, Rinn KJ, Albain KS, Chew HK, Burton GV, Moore TD, Srkalovic G, McGregor BA, Flaherty LE, Livingston RB, Lew DL, Gralow JR, Hortobagyi GN. SWOG S0221: a phase III trial comparing chemotherapy schedules in high-risk early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 1;33(1):58-64. Epub 2014 Nov 24. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  7. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  8. ECOG E5103: Miller KD, O'Neill A, Gradishar W, Hobday TJ, Goldstein LJ, Mayer IA, Bloom S, Brufsky AM, Tevaarwerk AJ, Sparano JA, Le-Lindqwister NA, Hendricks CB, Northfelt DW, Dang CT, Sledge GW Jr. Double-blind phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab in patients with lymph node-positive and high-risk lymph node-negative breast cancer (E5103). J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 1;36(25):2621-2629. Epub 2018 Jul 24. link to original article refers to ECOG E1199 protocol PubMed

ddC

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ddC: dose-dense Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 600 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Citron et al. 2003 (CALGB 9741) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Filgrastim (Neupogen) 5 mcg/kg (rounded to either 300 or 480 mcg) SC once per day on days 3 to 10
    • Note: Citron et al. 2003 says the schedule was "filgrastim days 3 to 10 of each cycle (a total of seven doses)," so it is unclear whether 7 or 8 doses was actually used).

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #2, 800 mg/m2

Study Evidence
Kahan et al. 2005 Phase II

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, Davidson NE, Martino S, Livingston R, Ingle JN, Perez EA, Carpenter J, Hurd D, Holland JF, Smith BL, Sartor CI, Leung EH, Abrams J, Schilsky RL, Muss HB, Norton L. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1431-9. Epub 2003 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Kahan Z, Uhercsak G, Hajnal-Papp R, Boda K, Thurzo L. Dose-dense sequential adriamycin-Paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is well tolerated and safe in high-risk early breast cancer. Oncology. 2005;68(4-6):446-53. Epub 2005 Jul 13. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Kelemen G, Uhercsák G, Ormándi K, Eller J, Thurzó L, Kahán Z. Long-term efficiency and toxicity of adjuvant dose-dense sequential adriamycin-Paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer. Oncology. 2010;78(3-4):271-3. Epub 2010 Jun 7. link to original article PubMed

ddEC

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ddEC: dose-dense Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 90/600

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Nitz et al. 2005 (MA-01) Phase III (C) EC, then ECT with auto HSCT Seems to have inferior OS
Del Mastro et al. 2015 (GIM2) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: a mid-protocol amendment of GIM2 suggested giving the pegilgrastim at least 72 h after chemotherapy.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 120/830

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Burnell et al. 2009 (NCIC CTG MA.21) Phase III (E) See link See link

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, with range

Study Evidence
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Patients in APHINITY had HER2-positive breast cancer. Note that ranges for ddEC are given in the protocol, replicated here.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • G-CSF support (drug/dose/schedule not specified)

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. MA-01: Nitz UA, Mohrmann S, Fischer J, Lindemann W, Berdel WE, Jackisch C, Werner C, Ziske C, Kirchner H, Metzner B, Souchon R, Ruffert U, Schütt G, Pollmanns A, Schmoll HJ, Middecke C, Baltzer J, Schrader I, Wiebringhaus H, Ko Y, Rösel S, Schwenzer T, Wernet P, Hinke A, Bender HG, Frick M; West German Study Group. Comparison of rapidly cycled tandem high-dose chemotherapy plus peripheral-blood stem-cell support versus dose-dense conventional chemotherapy for adjuvant treatment of high-risk breast cancer: results of a multicentre phase III trial. Lancet. 2005 Dec 3;366(9501):1935-44. Erratum in: Lancet. 2006 Mar 4;367(9512):730. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. NCIC CTG MA.21: Burnell M, Levine MN, Chapman JA, Bramwell V, Gelmon K, Walley B, Vandenberg T, Chalchal H, Albain KS, Perez EA, Rugo H, Pritchard K, O'Brien P, Shepherd LE. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil versus dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 1;28(1):77-82. Epub 2009 Nov 9. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. GIM2: Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

ddFEC

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ddFEC: dose-dense Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 500/75/500

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Mavroudis et al. 2016 (HORG CT/07.17) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 600/90/600

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Del Mastro et al. 2015 (GIM2) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: a mid-protocol amendment suggested giving the pegilgrastim at least 72 h after chemotherapy. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, 700/75/700

Study Evidence
Mavroudis et al. 2015 (HORG CT/04.23) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: these patients had HER2+ breast cancer. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. GIM2: Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. HORG CT/04.23: Mavroudis D, Saloustros E, Malamos N, Kakolyris S, Boukovinas I, Papakotoulas P, Kentepozidis N, Ziras N, Georgoulias V; Breast Cancer Investigators of Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG), Athens, Greece. Six versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab in combination with dose-dense chemotherapy for women with HER2-positive breast cancer: a multicenter randomized study by the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Ann Oncol. 2015 Jul;26(7):1333-40. Epub 2015 May 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. HORG CT/07.17: Mavroudis D, Matikas A, Malamos N, Papakotoulas P, Kakolyris S, Boukovinas I, Athanasiadis A, Kentepozidis N, Ziras N, Katsaounis P, Saloustros E, Georgoulias V; Breast Cancer Investigators of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Dose-dense FEC followed by docetaxel versus docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-negative, axillary lymph node-positive early breast cancer: a multicenter randomized study by the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Ann Oncol. 2016 Oct;27(10):1873-8. Epub 2016 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

ddT (Taxotere)

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ddT: dose-dense Taxotere (Docetaxel)
ddD: dose-dense Docetaxel

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Mavroudis et al. 2016 (HORG CT/07.17) Phase III (C) See link See link

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. HORG CT/07.17: Mavroudis D, Matikas A, Malamos N, Papakotoulas P, Kakolyris S, Boukovinas I, Athanasiadis A, Kentepozidis N, Ziras N, Katsaounis P, Saloustros E, Georgoulias V; Breast Cancer Investigators of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Dose-dense FEC followed by docetaxel versus docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-negative, axillary lymph node-positive early breast cancer: a multicenter randomized study by the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Ann Oncol. 2016 Oct;27(10):1873-8. Epub 2016 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Docetaxel monotherapy

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D: Docetaxel
T: Taxotere (Docetaxel)
dT: doceTaxel

Variant #1, 35 mg/m2 weekly x 12

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Sparano et al. 2008 (ECOG E1199) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel, q3wk dosing Seems not superior
Paclitaxel, weekly dosing
Docetaxel, q3wk dosing
Not reported

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

12-week course

Variant #2, 75 mg/m2 q3wk x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Watanabe et al. 2017 (NSAS-BC 02) Phase III (C) See link See link
Mavroudis et al. 2017 Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #3, 80 mg/m2 q3wk x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Joensuu et al. 2009 (FinXX) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #4, 100 mg/m2 q3wk x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Joensuu et al. 2006 (FinHer) Phase III (C) TH (Taxotere)
VH
Seems not superior
Vinorelbine Superior DDFS
Roché et al. 2006 (FNCLCC PACS 01) Phase III (E) See link See link
Coombes et al. 2011 (DEVA) Phase III (E) See link See link
Ejlertsen et al. 2017 (DBCG 07-READ) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients in FinHer without HER2/neu amplification were only randomized to this or the vinorelbine arm. Patients in DBCG 07-READ were TOP2A normal as determined by FISH.

Preceding treatment

  • FinHer: Breast surgery with axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy, within 12 weeks
  • FNCLCC PACS 01: FEC x 3
  • DEVA: Epirubicin x 3
  • DBCG 07-READ: EC x 3

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #5, 100 mg/m2 q3wk x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bear et al. 2003 (NSABP B-27) Phase III (E) See link See link
Sparano et al. 2008 (ECOG E1199) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel, q3wk dosing Seems to have superior DFS
Paclitaxel, weekly dosing
Docetaxel, weekly dosing
Not reported
Polyzos et al. 2009 Phase III (E) See link See link
Ellis et al. 2009 (TACT) Randomized Phase II (E) See link See link
Swain et al. 2010 (NSABP B-30) Phase III (E) See link See link
Eiermann et al. 2011 (BCIRG-005) Phase III (E) See link See link
Slamon et al. 2011 (BCIRG 006) Phase III (C) See link See link
Martín et al. 2015 (GEICAM/2003-10) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients in BCIRG 006 were HER2-positive.

Preceding treatment

  • NSABP B-27: Neoadjuvant AC x 4, then surgery
  • ECOG E1199, BCIRG-005, and BCIRG 006: Surgery, then AC x 4
  • Polyzos et al. 2009: Surgery
  • TACT: Surgery, then FEC x 4
  • GEICAM/2003-10: Surgery, then EC x 4

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Polyzos et al. 2009: EC x 4

References

  1. NSABP B-27: Bear HD, Anderson S, Brown A, Smith R, Mamounas EP, Fisher B, Margolese R, Theoret H, Soran A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N; National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. The effect on tumor response of adding sequential preoperative docetaxel to preoperative doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide: preliminary results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Nov 15;21(22):4165-74. Epub 2003 Oct 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Anderson S, Smith RE, Geyer CE Jr, Mamounas EP, Fisher B, Brown AM, Robidoux A, Margolese R, Kahlenberg MS, Paik S, Soran A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N. Sequential preoperative or postoperative docetaxel added to preoperative doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide for operable breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2006 May 1;24(13):2019-27. Epub 2006 Apr 10. link to original article PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Rastogi P, Anderson SJ, Bear HD, Geyer CE, Kahlenberg MS, Robidoux A, Margolese RG, Hoehn JL, Vogel VG, Dakhil SR, Tamkus D, King KM, Pajon ER, Wright MJ, Robert J, Paik S, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Preoperative chemotherapy: updates of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocols B-18 and B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 10;26(5):778-85. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 1;26(16):2793. link to original article PubMed
  2. FinHer: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Bono P, Alanko T, Kataja V, Asola R, Utriainen T, Kokko R, Hemminki A, Tarkkanen M, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Flander M, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Johansson K, Jääskeläinen AS, Pajunen M, Rauhala M, Kaleva-Kerola J, Salminen T, Leinonen M, Elomaa I, Isola J; FinHer Study Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):809-20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Bono P, Kataja V, Alanko T, Kokko R, Asola R, Utriainen T, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Möykkynen K, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Pajunen M, Huusko M, Salminen T, Auvinen P, Leinonen H, Leinonen M, Isola J, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide with either docetaxel or vinorelbine, with or without trastuzumab, as adjuvant treatments of breast cancer: final results of the FinHer Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Dec 1;27(34):5685-92. link to original article PubMed
  3. FNCLCC PACS 01: Roché H, Fumoleau P, Spielmann M, Canon JL, Delozier T, Serin D, Symann M, Kerbrat P, Soulié P, Eichler F, Viens P, Monnier A, Vindevoghel A, Campone M, Goudier MJ, Bonneterre J, Ferrero JM, Martin AL, Genève J, Asselain B. Sequential adjuvant epirubicin-based and docetaxel chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer patients: the FNCLCC PACS 01 Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5664-71. Epub 2006 Nov 20. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Coudert B, Asselain B, Campone M, Spielmann M, Machiels JP, Pénault-Llorca F, Serin D, Lévy C, Romieu G, Canon JL, Orfeuvre H, Piot G, Petit T, Jerusalem G, Audhuy B, Veyret C, Beauduin M, Eymard JC, Martin AL, Roché H; UNICANCER Breast Group. Extended benefit from sequential administration of docetaxel after standard fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide regimen for node-positive breast cancer: the 8-year follow-up results of the UNICANCER-PACS01 trial. Oncologist. 2012;17(7):900-9. Epub 2012 May 18. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. ECOG E1199: Sparano JA, Wang M, Martino S, Jones V, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Weekly paclitaxel in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 17;358(16):1663-71. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Sparano JA, Zhao F, Martino S, Ligibel JA, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Long-term follow-up of the E1199 phase III trial evaluating the role of taxane and schedule in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2353-60. Epub 2015 Jun 15. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  5. TACT: Ellis P, Barrett-Lee P, Johnson L, Cameron D, Wardley A, O'Reilly S, Verrill M, Smith I, Yarnold J, Coleman R, Earl H, Canney P, Twelves C, Poole C, Bloomfield D, Hopwood P, Johnston S, Dowsett M, Bartlett JM, Ellis I, Peckitt C, Hall E, Bliss JM; TACT Trial Management Group; TACT Trialists. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 16;373(9676):1681-92. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. Polyzos A, Malamos N, Boukovinas I, Adamou A, Ziras N, Kalbakis K, Kakolyris S, Syrigos K, Papakotoulas P, Kouroussis C, Karvounis N, Vamvakas L, Christophyllakis C, Athanasiadis A, Varthalitis I, Georgoulias V, Mavroudis D. FEC versus sequential docetaxel followed by epirubicin/cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with axillary node-positive early breast cancer: a randomized study of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jan;119(1):95-104. Epub 2009 Jul 28. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  7. FinXX: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Huovinen R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Tanner M, Asola R, Kokko R, Ahlgren J, Auvinen P, Hemminki A, Paija O, Helle L, Nuortio L, Villman K, Nilsson G, Lahtela SL, Lehtiö K, Pajunen M, Poikonen P, Nyandoto P, Kataja V, Bono P, Leinonen M, Lindman H; FinXX Study Investigators. Adjuvant capecitabine in combination with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide plus epirubicin for breast cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009 Dec;10(12):1145-51. Epub 2009 Nov 10. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Huovinen R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Tanner M, Kokko R, Ahlgren J, Auvinen P, Paija O, Helle L, Villman K, Nyandoto P, Nilsson G, Pajunen M, Asola R, Poikonen P, Leinonen M, Kataja V, Bono P, Lindman H. Adjuvant capecitabine, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and epirubicin for early breast cancer: final analysis of the randomized FinXX trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jan 1;30(1):11-8. Epub 2011 Nov 21. link to original article PubMed
  8. NSABP B-30: Swain SM, Jeong JH, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Rastogi P, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Land SR, Ganz PA, Wolmark N. Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 3;362(22):2053-65. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. DEVA: Coombes RC, Bliss JM, Espie M, Erdkamp F, Wals J, Tres A, Marty M, Coleman RE, Tubiana-Mathieu N, den Boer MO, Wardley A, Kilburn LS, Cooper D, Thomas MW, Reise JA, Wilkinson K, Hupperets P. Randomized, phase III trial of sequential epirubicin and docetaxel versus epirubicin alone in postmenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 20;29(24):3247-54. Epub 2011 Jul 18. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  10. BCIRG-005: Eiermann W, Pienkowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martín M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press M, Sauter G, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Buyse M, Drevot P, Taupin H, Mackey JR. Phase III study of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide with concomitant versus sequential docetaxel as adjuvant treatment in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-normal, node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 10;29(29):3877-84. Epub 2011 Sep 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Mackey JR, Pieńkowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martín M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press MF, Sauter G, Lindsay M, Houé V, Buyse M, Drevot P, Hitier S, Bensfia S, Eiermann W; Translational Research In Oncology (TRIO)/ Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG)-005 investigators. Long-term outcomes after adjuvant treatment of sequential versus combination docetaxel with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 randomized trial. Ann Oncol. 2016 Jun;27(6):1041-7. Epub 2016 Mar 2. link to original article PubMed
  11. BCIRG 006: Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, Pienkowski T, Martín M, Press M, Mackey J, Glaspy J, Chan A, Pawlicki M, Pinter T, Valero V, Liu MC, Sauter G, von Minckwitz G, Visco F, Bee V, Buyse M, Bendahmane B, Tabah-Fisch I, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Crown J; Breast Cancer International Research Group. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6;365(14):1273-83. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  12. GEICAM/2003-10: Martín M, Ruiz Simón A, Ruiz Borrego M, Ribelles N, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Muñoz-Mateu M, González S, Margelí Vila M, Barnadas A, Ramos M, Del Barco Berron S, Jara C, Calvo L, Martínez-Jáñez N, Mendiola Fernández C, Rodríguez CA, Martínez de Dueñas E, Andrés R, Plazaola A, de la Haba-Rodríguez J, López-Vega JM, Adrover E, Ballesteros AI, Santaballa A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Baena-Cañada JM, Casas M, del Carmen Cámara M, Carrasco EM, Lluch A. Epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel versus epirubicin plus docetaxel followed by capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for node-positive early breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-10 study. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Nov 10;33(32):3788-95. Epub 2015 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  13. NSAS-BC 02: Watanabe T, Kuranami M, Inoue K, Masuda N, Aogi K, Ohno S, Iwata H, Mukai H, Uemura Y, Ohashi Y. Comparison of an AC-taxane versus AC-free regimen and paclitaxel versus docetaxel in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer: final results of the National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer 02 trial, a randomized comparative phase 3 study. Cancer. 2017 Mar 1;123(5):759-768. Epub 2017 Jan 12. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  14. Mavroudis D, Saloustros E, Boukovinas I, Papakotoulas P, Kakolyris S, Ziras N, Christophylakis C, Kentepozidis N, Fountzilas G, Rigas G, Varthalitis I, Kalbakis K, Agelaki S, Hatzidaki D, Georgoulias V. Sequential vs concurrent epirubicin and docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk, node-negative, early breast cancer: an interim analysis of a randomised phase III study from the Hellenic Oncology Research Group. Br J Cancer. 2017 Jul 11;117(2):164-170. Epub 2017 Jun 22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  15. DBCG 07-READ: Ejlertsen B, Tuxen MK, Jakobsen EH, Jensen MB, Knoop AS, Højris I, Ewertz M, Balslev E, Danø H, Vestlev PM, Kenholm J, Nielsen DL, Bechmann T, Andersson M, Cold S, Nielsen HM, Maae E, Carlsen D, Mouridsen HT. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide and docetaxel with or without epirubicin for early TOP2A-normal breast cancer: DBCG 07-READ, an open-label, phase III, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 10;35(23):2639-2646. Epub 2017 Jun 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Leonard et al. 2004 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Leonard RC, Lind M, Twelves C, Coleman R, van Belle S, Wilson C, Ledermann J, Kennedy I, Barrett-Lee P, Perren T, Verrill M, Cameron D, Foster E, Yellowlees A, Crown J; Anglo-Celtic Cooperative Oncology Group. Conventional adjuvant chemotherapy versus single-cycle, autograft-supported, high-dose, late-intensification chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients: a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jul 21;96(14):1076-83. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

EC

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EC: Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 60/500 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Piccart et al. 2001 Phase III (E) CMF Not reported
High-dose EC Seems to have inferior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #2, 75/700 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Polyzos et al. 2009 Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #3, 90/600 x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ejlertsen et al. 2017 (DBCG 07-READ) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients were TOP2A normal as determined by FISH.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #4, 90/600 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Zander et al. 2004 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Martín et al. 2015 (GEICAM/2003-10) Phase III (E) See link See link
Del Mastro et al. 2015 (GIM2) Phase III (C) See link See link
Earl et al. 2017 (tAnGo) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #5, 100/830 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Piccart et al. 2001 Phase III (E) CMF Seems not superior
Moderate-dose EC Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #6, with range

Study Evidence
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients in had HER2-positive breast cancer.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Piccart MJ, Di Leo A, Beauduin M, Vindevoghel A, Michel J, Focan C, Tagnon A, Ries F, Gobert P, Finet C, Closon-Dejardin MT, Dufrane JP, Kerger J, Liebens F, Beauvois S, Bartholomeus S, Dolci S, Lobelle JP, Paesmans M, Nogaret JM. Phase III trial comparing two dose levels of epirubicin combined with cyclophosphamide with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jun 15;19(12):3103-10. link to original article PubMed
  2. Zander AR, Kröger N, Schmoor C, Krüger W, Möbus V, Frickhofen N, Metzner B, Schultze W, Berdel WE, Koenigsmann M, Thiel E, Wandt H, Possinger K, Trümper L, Kreienberg R, Carstensen M, Schmidt EH, Jänicke F, Schumacher M, Jonat W. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell support compared with standard-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes: first results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 15;22(12):2273-83. Epub 2004 Apr 26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Polyzos A, Malamos N, Boukovinas I, Adamou A, Ziras N, Kalbakis K, Kakolyris S, Syrigos K, Papakotoulas P, Kouroussis C, Karvounis N, Vamvakas L, Christophyllakis C, Athanasiadis A, Varthalitis I, Georgoulias V, Mavroudis D. FEC versus sequential docetaxel followed by epirubicin/cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with axillary node-positive early breast cancer: a randomized study of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jan;119(1):95-104. Epub 2009 Jul 28. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article PubMed
  5. GEICAM/2003-10: Martín M, Ruiz Simón A, Ruiz Borrego M, Ribelles N, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Muñoz-Mateu M, González S, Margelí Vila M, Barnadas A, Ramos M, Del Barco Berron S, Jara C, Calvo L, Martínez-Jáñez N, Mendiola Fernández C, Rodríguez CA, Martínez de Dueñas E, Andrés R, Plazaola A, de la Haba-Rodríguez J, López-Vega JM, Adrover E, Ballesteros AI, Santaballa A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Baena-Cañada JM, Casas M, del Carmen Cámara M, Carrasco EM, Lluch A. Epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel versus epirubicin plus docetaxel followed by capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for node-positive early breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-10 study. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Nov 10;33(32):3788-95. Epub 2015 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. GIM2: Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. tAnGo: Earl HM, Hiller L, Howard HC, Dunn JA, Young J, Bowden SJ, McDermaid M, Waterhouse AK, Wilson G, Agrawal R, O'Reilly S, Bowman A, Ritchie DM, Goodman A, Hickish T, McAdam K, Cameron D, Dodwell D, Rea DW, Caldas C, Provenzano E, Abraham JE, Canney P, Crown JP, Kennedy MJ, Coleman R, Leonard RC, Carmichael JA, Wardley AM, Poole CJ; tAnGo trial collaborators. Addition of gemcitabine to paclitaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early-stage breast cancer (tAnGo): final 10-year follow-up of an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jun;18(6):755-769. Epub 2017 May 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  8. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  9. DBCG 07-READ: Ejlertsen B, Tuxen MK, Jakobsen EH, Jensen MB, Knoop AS, Højris I, Ewertz M, Balslev E, Danø H, Vestlev PM, Kenholm J, Nielsen DL, Bechmann T, Andersson M, Cold S, Nielsen HM, Maae E, Carlsen D, Mouridsen HT. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide and docetaxel with or without epirubicin for early TOP2A-normal breast cancer: DBCG 07-READ, an open-label, phase III, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 10;35(23):2639-2646. Epub 2017 Jun 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Epirubicin monotherapy

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Variant #1, 50 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Coombes et al. 2011 (DEVA) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Complete surgical excision

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 90 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Mavroudis et al. 2017 Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Poole et al. 2006 (NEAT/BR9601) Phase III (E) See link See link
Ellis et al. 2009 (TACT) Randomized Phase II (C) See link See link
Cameron et al. 2017 (TACT2) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Complete surgical excision

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Poole CJ, Earl HM, Hiller L, Dunn JA, Bathers S, Grieve RJ, Spooner DA, Agrawal RK, Fernando IN, Brunt AM, O'Reilly SM, Crawford SM, Rea DW, Simmonds P, Mansi JL, Stanley A, Harvey P, McAdam K, Foster L, Leonard RC, Twelves CJ; NEAT Investigators and the SCTBG. Epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 2;355(18):1851-62. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. TACT: Ellis P, Barrett-Lee P, Johnson L, Cameron D, Wardley A, O'Reilly S, Verrill M, Smith I, Yarnold J, Coleman R, Earl H, Canney P, Twelves C, Poole C, Bloomfield D, Hopwood P, Johnston S, Dowsett M, Bartlett JM, Ellis I, Peckitt C, Hall E, Bliss JM; TACT Trial Management Group; TACT Trialists. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 16;373(9676):1681-92. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Coombes RC, Bliss JM, Espie M, Erdkamp F, Wals J, Tres A, Marty M, Coleman RE, Tubiana-Mathieu N, den Boer MO, Wardley A, Kilburn LS, Cooper D, Thomas MW, Reise JA, Wilkinson K, Hupperets P. Randomized, phase III trial of sequential epirubicin and docetaxel versus epirubicin alone in postmenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 20;29(24):3247-54. Epub 2011 Jul 18. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. Cameron D, Morden JP, Canney P, Velikova G, Coleman R, Bartlett J, Agrawal R, Banerji J, Bertelli G, Bloomfield D, Brunt AM, Earl H, Ellis P, Gaunt C, Gillman A, Hearfield N, Laing R, Murray N, Couper N, Stein RC, Verrill M, Wardley A, Barrett-Lee P, Bliss JM; TACT2 Investigators. Accelerated versus standard epirubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil or capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in the randomised UK TACT2 trial (CRUK/05/19): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jul;18(7):929-945. Epub 2017 Jun 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Mavroudis D, Saloustros E, Boukovinas I, Papakotoulas P, Kakolyris S, Ziras N, Christophylakis C, Kentepozidis N, Fountzilas G, Rigas G, Varthalitis I, Kalbakis K, Agelaki S, Hatzidaki D, Georgoulias V. Sequential vs concurrent epirubicin and docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk, node-negative, early breast cancer: an interim analysis of a randomised phase III study from the Hellenic Oncology Research Group. Br J Cancer. 2017 Jul 11;117(2):164-170. Epub 2017 Jun 22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

FAC

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FAC: Fluorouracil, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide
CAF: Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Fluorouracil

Variant #1, 500/50/500 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martín et al. 2013 (GEICAM/2003-02) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 500/50/500 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martin et al. 2005 (BCIRG 001) Phase III (C) TAC Inferior OS
Martín et al. 2010 (GEICAM 9805) Phase III (C) TAC Inferior DFS
Martín et al. 2013 (GEICAM/2003-02) Phase III (C) FAC-wP Seems to have inferior DFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Infusion times per Martin et al. 2005 (BCIRG 001).

  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) 500 mg/m2 IV over 15 minutes once on day 1, given second
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) 50 mg/m2 IV over 15 minutes once on day 1, given first
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) 500 mg/m2 IV over 1 to 5 minutes once on day 1, given third
    • A HemOnc.org user reached out to us and said their institutional practice is to infuse cyclophosphamide over 20 to 30 minutes to decrease the likelihood of head and sinus pain.

Supportive medications

  • If patients had febrile neutropenia or infection: Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) 500 mg PO BID on days 5 to 14 of every cycle
  • G-CSF not originally routinely administered unless patients had febrile neutropenia:

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #3, 800/40/400 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Wood et al. 1994 (CALGB 8541) Phase III (C) FAC 600/30/300 x 4 Superior OS
FAC 1200/60/600 x 4 Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #4, 800/40/400 until max doxorubicin

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Buzdar et al. 1984 Phase III (C) FAC + BCG Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles until cumulative doxorubicin dose of 300 mg/m2 reached.

Subsequent treatment

  • After reaching cumulative maximum doxorubicin, patients would go on to receive maintenance CMF. This is now obsolete.

Variant #5, 1000/50/500 x 8

Study Evidence
Hortobagyi et al. 2000 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • CEP with auto HSCT versus no further treatment

Variant #6, 1000/60/1400 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Tallman et al. 2003 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Hutchins et al. 2005 (INT-0102) Phase III (E) CMF Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Tallman et al. 2003: Cyclophosphamide & thiotepa with auto HSCT versus no further chemotherapy

Variant #7, 1200/60/600 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Wood et al. 1994 (CALGB 8541) Phase III (C) FAC 600/30/300 x 4 Superior OS
FAC 800/40/400 x 6 Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #8, with range x 3

Study Evidence
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients had HER2-positive breast cancer. Note that ranges for FAC are given in the protocol, replicated here.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Buzdar AU, Blumenschein GR, Smith TL, Powell KC, Hortobagyi GN, Yap HY, Schell FC, Barnes BC, Ames FC, Martin RG, Hersh EM. Adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, with or without Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and with or without irradiation in operable breast cancer: a prospective randomized trial. Cancer. 1984 Feb 1;53(3):384-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Buzdar AU, Kau SW, Smith TL, Hortobagyi GN. Ten-year results of FAC adjuvant chemotherapy trial in breast cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 1989 Apr;12(2):123-8. PubMed
  2. CALGB 8541: Wood WC, Budman DR, Korzun AH, Cooper MR, Younger J, Hart RD, Moore A, Ellerton JA, Norton L, Ferree CR, Ballow AC, Frei E, Henderson IC. Dose and dose intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II, node-positive breast carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1994 May 5;330(18):1253-9. Erratum in: N Engl J Med 1994 Jul 14;331(2):139. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU, Theriault RL, Valero V, Frye D, Booser DJ, Holmes FA, Giralt S, Khouri I, Andersson B, Gajewski JL, Rondon G, Smith TL, Singletary SE, Ames FC, Sneige N, Strom EA, McNeese MD, Deisseroth AB, Champlin RE. Randomized trial of high-dose chemotherapy and blood cell autografts for high-risk primary breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Feb 2;92(3):225-33. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Assikis V, Buzdar A, Yang Y, Smith T, Theriault R, Booser D, Valero V, Walters R, Singletary E, Ames F, Hortobagyi G. A phase III trial of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast carcinoma: final analysis with 10-year follow-up. Cancer. 2003 Jun 1;97(11):2716-23. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Tallman MS, Gray R, Robert NJ, LeMaistre CF, Osborne CK, Vaughan WP, Gradishar WJ, Pisansky TM, Fetting J, Paietta E, Lazarus HM. Conventional adjuvant chemotherapy with or without high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation in high-risk breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 3;349(1):17-26. link to original article PubMed
  6. BCIRG 001: Martín M, Pienkowski T, Mackey J, Pawlicki M, Guastalla JP, Weaver C, Tomiak E, Al-Tweigeri T, Chap L, Juhos E, Guevin R, Howell A, Fornander T, Hainsworth J, Coleman R, Vinholes J, Modiano M, Pinter T, Tang SC, Colwell B, Prady C, Provencher L, Walde D, Rodriguez-Lescure A, Hugh J, Loret C, Rupin M, Blitz S, Jacobs P, Murawsky M, Riva A, Vogel C; Breast Cancer International Research Group 001 Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel for node-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 2;352(22):2302-13. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Mackey JR, Martín M, Pienkowski T, Rolski J, Guastalla JP, Sami A, Glaspy J, Juhos E, Wardley A, Fornander T, Hainsworth J, Coleman R, Modiano MR, Vinholes J, Pinter T, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Colwell B, Whitlock P, Provencher L, Laing K, Walde D, Price C, Hugh JC, Childs BH, Bassi K, Lindsay MA, Wilson V, Rupin M, Houé V, Vogel C; TRIO/BCIRG 001 investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in node-positive breast cancer: 10-year follow-up of the phase 3 randomised BCIRG 001 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Jan;14(1):72-80. Epub 2012 Dec 12. link to original article PubMed
  7. INT-0102: Hutchins LF, Green SJ, Ravdin PM, Lew D, Martino S, Abeloff M, Lyss AP, Allred C, Rivkin SE, Osborne CK. Randomized, controlled trial of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil with and without tamoxifen for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: treatment results of Intergroup Protocol INT-0102. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8313-21. link to original article PubMed
  8. GEICAM 9805: Martín M, Seguí MA, Antón A, Ruiz A, Ramos M, Adrover E, Aranda I, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Grosse R, Calvo L, Barnadas A, Isla D, Martinez del Prado P, Ruiz Borrego M, Zaluski J, Arcusa A, Muñoz M, López Vega JM, Mel JR, Munarriz B, Llorca C, Jara C, Alba E, Florián J, Li J, López García-Asenjo JA, Sáez A, Rios MJ, Almenar S, Peiró G, Lluch A; GEICAM 9805 Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 2;363(23):2200-10. link to original article PubMed
  9. GEICAM/2003-02: Martín M, Ruiz A, Ruiz Borrego M, Barnadas A, González S, Calvo L, Margelí Vila M, Antón A, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Seguí-Palmer MA, Muñoz-Mateu M, Dorca Ribugent J, López-Vega JM, Jara C, Espinosa E, Mendiola Fernández C, Andrés R, Ribelles N, Plazaola A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Salvador Bofill J, Crespo C, Carabantes FJ, Servitja S, Chacón JI, Rodríguez CA, Hernando B, Álvarez I, Carrasco E, Lluch A. Fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus FAC followed by weekly paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-02 study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul 10;31(20):2593-9. Epub 2013 Jun 3. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

FEC

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FEC: Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide
CEF: Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin, Fluorouracil

Variant #1, 500/50/500 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bonneterre 2001 (FASG 05) Phase III (C) FEC100 x 6 Inferior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #2, 500/100/500 x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Roché et al. 2006 (FNCLCC PACS 01) Phase III (E) See link See link
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients in NeoALTTO all had HER2-positive disease.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, 500/100/500 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kelly et al. 2012 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Kerbrat et al. 2017 (UCBG-0106) Phase III (E) FEC100 x 6 Seems not superior

Note: this is an experimental arm that did not meet its primary endpoint; included here because it represents a de-escalation strategy.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #4, 500/100/500 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bonneterre 2001 (FASG 05) Phase III (E) FEC50 x 6 Superior OS
Roché et al. 2006 (FNCLCC PACS 01) Phase III (C) FEC-D Inferior OS (*)
Kerbrat et al. 2017 (UCBG-0106) Phase III (C) FEC100 x 4 Seems not superior

Note: efficacy for FNCLCC PACS 01 is based on the 2012 update.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #5, 600/50/600 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Coombes et al. 1996 Phase III (E) CMF Seems not superior
Coombes et al. 2016 (HMFEC) Phase III (C) FEC75 Seems not superior

Note: this is an experimental arm that did not meet its primary endpoint; included here because other variants of this regimen have demonstrated comparative superiority.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #6, 600/60/600 x 3

Study Evidence
Joensuu et al. 2006 (FinHer) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Variant #7, 600/60/600 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
van der Hage et al. 2001 (EORTC 10902) Phase III (C) Neoadjuvant FEC Seems not superior
Ellis et al. 2009 (TACT) Randomized Phase II (E) See link See link

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • TACT: D x 4

Variant #8, 600/60/600 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
del Mastro et al. 2016 (GONO-MIG5) Phase III (C) EP x 4 Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #9, 600/60/600 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ellis et al. 2009 (TACT) Randomized Phase II (C) See link See link

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Variant #10, 600/60/600 x 9

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ejlertsen et al. 2007 Phase III (E) CMF Superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 9 cycles

Variant #11, 600/75/600 x 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Joensuu et al. 2009 (FinXX) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Variant #12, 600/90/600 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martín et al. 2008 (GEICAM 9906) Phase III (E) See link See link
Del Mastro et al. 2015 (GIM2) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #13, 600/90/600 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martín et al. 2008 (GEICAM 9906) Phase III (C) FEC x 4, then wP Inferior DFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #14, 700/75/700 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Polyzos et al. 2009 Phase III (C) D, then EC Seems to have inferior DFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #15, 1000/120/1050 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Levine et al. 1998 (NCIC CTG MA.5) Phase III (E) CMF Superior RFS
Coombes et al. 2005 (ICCG HDT trial) Phase III (C) FEC x 3, then HDT Seems not superior
Burnell et al. 2009 (NCIC CTG MA.21) Phase III (C) AC x 4, then T (Taxol) x 4 Superior RFS
ddEC x 6, then T (Taxol) x 4 Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #16, 1200/50/1200 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Coombes et al. 1996 Phase III (E) CMF Seems not superior

Note: this is an experimental arm that did not meet its primary endpoint; however, based on a subgroup analysis, it became a preferred regimen.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #17, with range x 3

Study Evidence
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients had HER2-positive breast cancer. Note that ranges for FEC are given in the protocol, replicated here.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Coombes RC, Bliss JM, Wils J, Morvan F, Espié M, Amadori D, Gambrosier P, Richards M, Aapro M, Villar-Grimalt A, McArdle C, Pérez-López FR, Vassilopoulos P, Ferreira EP, Chilvers CE, Coombes G, Woods EM, Marty M; The International Collaborative Cancer Group. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in premenopausal women with axillary node-positive operable breast cancer: results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jan;14(1):35-45. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. NCIC CTG MA.5: Levine MN, Bramwell VH, Pritchard KI, Norris BD, Shepherd LE, Abu-Zahra H, Findlay B, Warr D, Bowman D, Myles J, Arnold A, Vandenberg T, MacKenzie R, Robert J, Ottaway J, Burnell M, Williams CK, Tu D; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Randomized trial of intensive cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil chemotherapy compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Aug;16(8):2651-8. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Levine MN, Pritchard KI, Bramwell VH, Shepherd LE, Tu D, Paul N; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Randomized trial comparing cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer: update of National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Trial MA5. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 1;23(22):5166-70. link to original article PubMed
  3. FASG 05: Bonneterre J; French Adjuvant Study Group. Benefit of a high-dose epirubicin regimen in adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer patients with poor prognostic factors: 5-year follow-up results of French Adjuvant Study Group 05 randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 1;19(3):602-11. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Bonneterre J, Roché H, Kerbrat P, Brémond A, Fumoleau P, Namer M, Goudier MJ, Schraub S, Fargeot P, Chapelle-Marcillac I. Epirubicin increases long-term survival in adjuvant chemotherapy of patients with poor-prognosis, node-positive, early breast cancer: 10-year follow-up results of the French Adjuvant Study Group 05 randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 20;23(12):2686-93. link to original article PubMed
  4. EORTC 10902: van der Hage JA, van de Velde CJ, Julien JP, Tubiana-Hulin M, Vandervelden C, Duchateau L. Preoperative chemotherapy in primary operable breast cancer: results from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 10902. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Nov 15;19(22):4224-37. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: van Nes JG, Putter H, Julien JP, Tubiana-Hulin M, van de Vijver M, Bogaerts J, de Vos M, van de Velde CJ; Cooperating Investigators of the EORTC. Preoperative chemotherapy is safe in early breast cancer, even after 10 years of follow-up; clinical and translational results from the EORTC trial 10902. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 May;115(1):101-13. Epub 2008 May 18. link to original article PubMed
  5. Fumoleau P, Kerbrat P, Romestaing P, Fargeot P, Brémond A, Namer M, Schraub S, Goudier MJ, Mihura J, Monnier A, Clavère P, Serin D, Seffert P, Pourny C, Facchini T, Jacquin JP, Sztermer JF, Datchary J, Ramos R, Luporsi E. Randomized trial comparing six versus three cycles of epirubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal, node-positive breast cancer patients: 10-year follow-up results of the French Adjuvant Study Group 01 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jan 15;21(2):298-305. link to original article PubMed
  6. Coombes RC, Howell A, Emson M, Peckitt C, Gallagher C, Bengala C, Tres A, Welch R, Lawton P, Rubens R, Woods E, Haviland J, Vigushin D, Kanfer E, Bliss JM. High dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation as adjuvant therapy for primary breast cancer patients with four or more lymph nodes involved: long-term results of an international randomised trial. Ann Oncol. 2005 May;16(5):726-34. Epub 2005 Apr 7. link to original article PubMed
  7. FinHer: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Bono P, Alanko T, Kataja V, Asola R, Utriainen T, Kokko R, Hemminki A, Tarkkanen M, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Flander M, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Johansson K, Jääskeläinen AS, Pajunen M, Rauhala M, Kaleva-Kerola J, Salminen T, Leinonen M, Elomaa I, Isola J; FinHer Study Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):809-20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Bono P, Kataja V, Alanko T, Kokko R, Asola R, Utriainen T, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Möykkynen K, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Pajunen M, Huusko M, Salminen T, Auvinen P, Leinonen H, Leinonen M, Isola J, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide with either docetaxel or vinorelbine, with or without trastuzumab, as adjuvant treatments of breast cancer: final results of the FinHer Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Dec 1;27(34):5685-92. link to original article PubMed
  8. FNCLCC PACS 01: Roché H, Fumoleau P, Spielmann M, Canon JL, Delozier T, Serin D, Symann M, Kerbrat P, Soulié P, Eichler F, Viens P, Monnier A, Vindevoghel A, Campone M, Goudier MJ, Bonneterre J, Ferrero JM, Martin AL, Genève J, Asselain B. Sequential adjuvant epirubicin-based and docetaxel chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer patients: the FNCLCC PACS 01 Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5664-71. Epub 2006 Nov 20. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Coudert B, Asselain B, Campone M, Spielmann M, Machiels JP, Pénault-Llorca F, Serin D, Lévy C, Romieu G, Canon JL, Orfeuvre H, Piot G, Petit T, Jerusalem G, Audhuy B, Veyret C, Beauduin M, Eymard JC, Martin AL, Roché H; UNICANCER Breast Group. Extended benefit from sequential administration of docetaxel after standard fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide regimen for node-positive breast cancer: the 8-year follow-up results of the UNICANCER-PACS01 trial. Oncologist. 2012;17(7):900-9. Epub 2012 May 18. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  9. Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Andersen J, Cold S, Edlund P, Ewertz M, Jensen BB, Kamby C, Nordenskjold B, Bergh J. Improved outcome from substituting methotrexate with epirubicin: results from a randomised comparison of CMF versus CEF in patients with primary breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2007 Mar;43(5):877-84. Epub 2007 Feb 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. GEICAM 9906: Martín M, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Ruiz A, Alba E, Calvo L, Ruiz-Borrego M, Munárriz B, Rodríguez CA, Crespo C, de Alava E, López García-Asenjo JA, Guitián MD, Almenar S, González-Palacios JF, Vera F, Palacios J, Ramos M, Gracia Marco JM, Lluch A, Alvarez I, Seguí MA, Mayordomo JI, Antón A, Baena JM, Plazaola A, Modolell A, Pelegrí A, Mel JR, Aranda E, Adrover E, Alvarez JV, García Puche JL, Sánchez-Rovira P, Gonzalez S, López-Vega JM; GEICAM 9906 Study Investigators. Randomized phase 3 trial of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide alone or followed by paclitaxel for early breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 4;100(11):805-14. Epub 2008 May 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  11. TACT: Ellis P, Barrett-Lee P, Johnson L, Cameron D, Wardley A, O'Reilly S, Verrill M, Smith I, Yarnold J, Coleman R, Earl H, Canney P, Twelves C, Poole C, Bloomfield D, Hopwood P, Johnston S, Dowsett M, Bartlett JM, Ellis I, Peckitt C, Hall E, Bliss JM; TACT Trial Management Group; TACT Trialists. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 16;373(9676):1681-92. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  12. Polyzos A, Malamos N, Boukovinas I, Adamou A, Ziras N, Kalbakis K, Kakolyris S, Syrigos K, Papakotoulas P, Kouroussis C, Karvounis N, Vamvakas L, Christophyllakis C, Athanasiadis A, Varthalitis I, Georgoulias V, Mavroudis D. FEC versus sequential docetaxel followed by epirubicin/cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with axillary node-positive early breast cancer: a randomized study of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jan;119(1):95-104. Epub 2009 Jul 28. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  13. NCIC CTG MA.21: Burnell M, Levine MN, Chapman JA, Bramwell V, Gelmon K, Walley B, Vandenberg T, Chalchal H, Albain KS, Perez EA, Rugo H, Pritchard K, O'Brien P, Shepherd LE. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil versus dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 1;28(1):77-82. Epub 2009 Nov 9. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  14. FinXX: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Huovinen R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Tanner M, Asola R, Kokko R, Ahlgren J, Auvinen P, Hemminki A, Paija O, Helle L, Nuortio L, Villman K, Nilsson G, Lahtela SL, Lehtiö K, Pajunen M, Poikonen P, Nyandoto P, Kataja V, Bono P, Leinonen M, Lindman H; FinXX Study Investigators. Adjuvant capecitabine in combination with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide plus epirubicin for breast cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009 Dec;10(12):1145-51. Epub 2009 Nov 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Huovinen R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Tanner M, Kokko R, Ahlgren J, Auvinen P, Paija O, Helle L, Villman K, Nyandoto P, Nilsson G, Pajunen M, Asola R, Poikonen P, Leinonen M, Kataja V, Bono P, Lindman H. Adjuvant capecitabine, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and epirubicin for early breast cancer: final analysis of the randomized FinXX trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jan 1;30(1):11-8. Epub 2011 Nov 21. link to original article PubMed
  15. NeoALTTO: Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed
  16. Kelly CM, Green MC, Broglio K, Thomas ES, Brewster AM, Valero V, Ibrahim NK, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Booser DJ, Walters RS, Hunt KK, Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU. Phase III trial evaluating weekly paclitaxel versus docetaxel in combination with capecitabine in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 20;30(9):930-5. Epub 2012 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  17. GIM2: Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  18. GONO-MIG5: Del Mastro L, Levaggi A, Michelotti A, Cavazzini G, Adami F, Scotto T, Piras M, Danese S, Garrone O, Durando A, Accortanzo V, Bighin C, Miglietta L, Pastorino S, Pronzato P, Castiglione F, Landucci E, Conte P, Bruzzi P. 5-Fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide versus epirubicin and paclitaxel in node-positive early breast cancer: a phase-III randomized GONO-MIG5 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Jan;155(1):117-26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  19. HMFEC: Coombes RC, Kilburn LS, Tubiana-Mathieu N, Olmos T, Van Bochove A, Perez-Lopez FR, Palmieri C, Stebbing J, Bliss JM. Epirubicin dose and sequential hormonal therapy-Mature results of the HMFEC randomised phase III trial in premenopausal patients with node positive early breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2016 Jun;60:146-53. Epub 2016 Apr 26. link to original article PubMed
  20. UCBG-0106: Kerbrat P, Desmoulins I, Roca L, Levy C, Lortholary A, Marre A, Delva R, Rios M, Viens P, Brain É, Serin D, Edel M, Debled M, Campone M, Mourret-Reynier MA, Bachelot T, Foucher-Goudier MJ, Asselain B, Lemonnier J, Martin AL, Roché H. Optimal duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk node-negative (N-) breast cancer patients: 6-year results of the prospective randomised multicentre phase III UNICANCER-PACS 05 trial (UCBG-0106). Eur J Cancer. 2017 Jul;79:166-175. Epub 2017 May 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  21. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, weekly

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T: Taxol (Paclitaxel)
P: Paclitaxel
pT: pacliTaxel
wP: weekly Paclitaxel
wT: weekly Taxol (Paclitaxel)

Variant #1, 80 mg/m2 x 12

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Romond et al. 2005 (NSABP B-31) Phase III (C) TH Inferior OS Might have inferior DASI score
Romond et al. 2005 (NCCTG N9831) Phase III (C) See link See link
Sparano et al. 2008 (ECOG E1199) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel q3wk Superior OS
Docetaxel q3wk
Docetaxel weekly
Not reported
Kelly et al. 2012 Phase III (C) XT Seems not superior
Shulman et al. 2012 (CALGB 40101) Phase III (E) AC x 4 Seems not superior
AC x 6 Seems not superior
Weekly paclitaxel x 18 Seems not superior
Budd et al. 2014 (SWOG S0221) Phase III (C) ddT x 6 Seems not superior
Miller et al. 2018 (ECOG E5103) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: Patients in NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 were HER2-positive. This paclitaxel dosing schedule was an option after 2003 in NSABP B-31, and was used for all patients in NCCTG N9831. In CALGB 40101, this is the dosing before a mid-protocol amendment in 2003. This is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • NSABP B-31, NCCTG N9831, ECOG E1199: Surgery, then AC x 4
  • Kelly et al. 2012: Surgery
  • SWOG S0221: Surgery, then ddAC x 6 versus continuous AC
  • ECOG E5103: Surgery, then AC x 4 or ddAC x 4

Chemotherapy

12-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • NCCTG N9831: H x 52 versus no further treatment
  • Kelly et al. 2012: FEC x 4

Variant #2, 100 mg/m2 x 8

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martín et al. 2008 (GEICAM 9906) Phase III (E) See link See link
Martín et al. 2013 (GEICAM/2003-02) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • GEICAM 9906: Surgery, then FEC x 4
  • GEICAM/2003-02: Surgery, then FAC x 4

Chemotherapy

8 week course

References

  1. NCCTG N9831: Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE Jr, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, Fehrenbacher L, Kutteh LA, Vogel VG, Visscher DW, Yothers G, Jenkins RB, Brown AM, Dakhil SR, Mamounas EP, Lingle WL, Klein PM, Ingle JN, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1673-84. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Davidson NE, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Mamounas EP, Kaufman PA, Wolmark N. Four-year follow-up of trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: joint analysis of data from NCCTG N9831 and NSABP B-31. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Sep 1;29(25):3366-73. Epub 2011 Jul 18. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Gralow JR, Kaufman PA, Visscher DW, Chen B, Ingle JN, Dakhil SR, Zujewski J, Moreno-Aspitia A, Pisansky TM, Jenkins RB. Sequential versus concurrent trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4491-7. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    3. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Sledge G, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Rastogi P, Gralow J, Swain SM, Winer EP, Colon-Otero G, Davidson NE, Mamounas E, Zujewski JA, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: planned joint analysis of overall survival from NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 20;32(33):3744-52. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    4. Update and HRQoL analysis: Ganz PA, Romond EH, Cecchini RS, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Swain SM, Jeong JH, Fehrenbacher L, Gross HM, Brufsky AM, Flynn PJ, Wahl TA, Seay TE, Wade JL 3rd, Biggs DD, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Zapas JL, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Long-term follow-up of cardiac function and quality of life for patients in NSABP protocol B-31/NRG Oncology: a randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by paclitaxel with AC followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with node-positive breast cancer with tumors overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Dec 10;35(35):3942-3948. Epub 2017 Oct 26. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. ECOG E1199: Sparano JA, Wang M, Martino S, Jones V, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Weekly paclitaxel in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 17;358(16):1663-71. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Sparano JA, Zhao F, Martino S, Ligibel JA, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Long-term follow-up of the E1199 phase III trial evaluating the role of taxane and schedule in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2353-60. Epub 2015 Jun 15. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  3. GEICAM 9906: Martín M, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Ruiz A, Alba E, Calvo L, Ruiz-Borrego M, Munárriz B, Rodríguez CA, Crespo C, de Alava E, López García-Asenjo JA, Guitián MD, Almenar S, González-Palacios JF, Vera F, Palacios J, Ramos M, Gracia Marco JM, Lluch A, Alvarez I, Seguí MA, Mayordomo JI, Antón A, Baena JM, Plazaola A, Modolell A, Pelegrí A, Mel JR, Aranda E, Adrover E, Alvarez JV, García Puche JL, Sánchez-Rovira P, Gonzalez S, López-Vega JM; GEICAM 9906 Study Investigators. Randomized phase 3 trial of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide alone or followed by paclitaxel for early breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 4;100(11):805-14. Epub 2008 May 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Kelly CM, Green MC, Broglio K, Thomas ES, Brewster AM, Valero V, Ibrahim NK, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Booser DJ, Walters RS, Hunt KK, Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU. Phase III trial evaluating weekly paclitaxel versus docetaxel in combination with capecitabine in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 20;30(9):930-5. Epub 2012 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. CALGB 40101: Shulman LN, Cirrincione CT, Berry DA, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Atkins JN, Mayer E, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Norton L, Muss H, Winer EP, Hudis C. Six cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel are not superior to four cycles as adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in women with zero to three positive axillary nodes: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40101. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 20;30(33):4071-6. Epub 2012 Jul 23. link to original article contains verified protocol link to study protocol PDF link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Shulman LN, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Shapiro CL, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Burstein HJ, Norton L, Muss H, Hudis CA, Winer EP. Comparison of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus single-agent paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in women with 0 to 3 positive axillary nodes: CALGB 40101 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2014 Aug 1;32(22):2311-7. link to PMC article PubMed
  6. GEICAM/2003-02: Martín M, Ruiz A, Ruiz Borrego M, Barnadas A, González S, Calvo L, Margelí Vila M, Antón A, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Seguí-Palmer MA, Muñoz-Mateu M, Dorca Ribugent J, López-Vega JM, Jara C, Espinosa E, Mendiola Fernández C, Andrés R, Ribelles N, Plazaola A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Salvador Bofill J, Crespo C, Carabantes FJ, Servitja S, Chacón JI, Rodríguez CA, Hernando B, Álvarez I, Carrasco E, Lluch A. Fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus FAC followed by weekly paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-02 study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul 10;31(20):2593-9. Epub 2013 Jun 3. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. SWOG S0221: Budd GT, Barlow WE, Moore HC, Hobday TJ, Stewart JA, Isaacs C, Salim M, Cho JK, Rinn KJ, Albain KS, Chew HK, Burton GV, Moore TD, Srkalovic G, McGregor BA, Flaherty LE, Livingston RB, Lew DL, Gralow JR, Hortobagyi GN. SWOG S0221: a phase III trial comparing chemotherapy schedules in high-risk early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 1;33(1):58-64. Epub 2014 Nov 24. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  8. ECOG E5103: Miller KD, O'Neill A, Gradishar W, Hobday TJ, Goldstein LJ, Mayer IA, Bloom S, Brufsky AM, Tevaarwerk AJ, Sparano JA, Le-Lindqwister NA, Hendricks CB, Northfelt DW, Dang CT, Sledge GW Jr. Double-blind phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab in patients with lymph node-positive and high-risk lymph node-negative breast cancer (E5103). J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 1;36(25):2621-2629. Epub 2018 Jul 24. link to original article refers to ECOG E1199 protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, dose-dense (q2wk)

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ddT: dose-dense Taxol (Paclitaxel)
ddP: dose-dense Paclitaxel

Variant #1, 175 mg/m2 x 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Citron et al. 2003 (CALGB 9741) Phase III (E) See link See link
Burstein et al. 2005 Non-randomized
Shulman et al. 2012 (CALGB 40101) Phase III (E) ddAC x 4 Seems not superior
ddAC x 6 Seems not superior
ddT x 6 Seems not superior
Swain et al. 2013 (NSABP B-38) Phase III (C) See link See link
Del Mastro et al. 2015 (GIM2) Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: in CALGB 40101, this is the dosing after a mid-protocol amendment in 2003.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) 12.5 to 50 mg IV 30 to 60 minutes prior to paclitaxel
  • One of the following H2 blockers:
  • One of the following dexamethasone choices:
  • Recommended growth factor support with one of the following:
    • Filgrastim (Neupogen) 5 mcg/kg (rounded to 300 mcg or 480 mcg, whichever is closer) SC once per day on days 3 to 10; may be discontinued before day 10 if ANC has recovered to an "acceptable range, as determined by the treating physician"
    • Sargramostim (Leukine) 250 to 500 mcg/m2 SC once per day on days 3 to 10; may be discontinued before day 10 if ANC has recovered to an "acceptable range, as determined by the treating physician"
    • Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta) 6 mg SC, administered once 24 to 36 hours after chemotherapy
      • GIM2: a mid-protocol amendment suggested giving the pegilgrastim at least 72 h after chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • CALGB 9741: ddC x 4 (if preceded by ddA)

Variant #2, 175 mg/m2 x 6

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Budd et al. 2014 (SWOG S0221) Phase III (E) Weekly paclitaxel Seems not superior

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • ddAC x 6 versus continuous AC

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #3, 200 mg/m2 x 4

Study Evidence
Kahan et al. 2005 Phase II

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. CALGB 9741: Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, Davidson NE, Martino S, Livingston R, Ingle JN, Perez EA, Carpenter J, Hurd D, Holland JF, Smith BL, Sartor CI, Leung EH, Abrams J, Schilsky RL, Muss HB, Norton L. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1431-9. Epub 2003 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Kahan Z, Uhercsak G, Hajnal-Papp R, Boda K, Thurzo L. Dose-dense sequential adriamycin-paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is well tolerated and safe in high-risk early breast cancer. Oncology. 2005;68(4-6):446-53. Epub 2005 Jul 13. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Kelemen G, Uhercsák G, Ormándi K, Eller J, Thurzó L, Kahán Z. Long-term efficiency and toxicity of adjuvant dose-dense sequential adriamycin-Paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer. Oncology. 2010;78(3-4):271-3. Epub 2010 Jun 7. link to original article PubMed
  3. Burstein HJ, Parker LM, Keshaviah A, Doherty J, Partridge AH, Schapira L, Ryan PD, Younger J, Harris LN, Moy B, Come SE, Schumer ST, Bunnell CA, Haldoupis M, Gelman R, Winer EP. Efficacy of pegfilgrastim and darbepoetin alfa as hematopoietic support for dose-dense every-2-week adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8340-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. CALGB 40101: Shulman LN, Cirrincione CT, Berry DA, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Atkins JN, Mayer E, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Norton L, Muss H, Winer EP, Hudis C. Six cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel are not superior to four cycles as adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in women with zero to three positive axillary nodes: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40101. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 20;30(33):4071-6. Epub 2012 Jul 23. link to original article contains verified protocol link to study protocol PDF link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Shulman LN, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Shapiro CL, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Burstein HJ, Norton L, Muss H, Hudis CA, Winer EP. Comparison of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus single-agent paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in women with 0 to 3 positive axillary nodes: CALGB 40101 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2014 Aug 1;32(22):2311-7. link to PMC article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-38: Swain SM, Tang G, Geyer CE Jr, Rastogi P, Atkins JN, Donnellan PP, Fehrenbacher L, Azar CA, Robidoux A, Polikoff JA, Brufsky AM, Biggs DD, Levine EA, Zapas JL, Provencher L, Northfelt DW, Paik S, Costantino JP, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Definitive results of a phase III adjuvant trial comparing three chemotherapy regimens in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer: the NSABP B-38 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 10;31(26):3197-204. Epub 2013 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. SWOG S0221: Budd GT, Barlow WE, Moore HC, Hobday TJ, Stewart JA, Isaacs C, Salim M, Cho JK, Rinn KJ, Albain KS, Chew HK, Burton GV, Moore TD, Srkalovic G, McGregor BA, Flaherty LE, Livingston RB, Lew DL, Gralow JR, Hortobagyi GN. SWOG S0221: a phase III trial comparing chemotherapy schedules in high-risk early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 1;33(1):58-64. Epub 2014 Nov 24. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  7. GIM2: Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

TAC (Taxotere)

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TAC: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide
ACT: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Taxotere (Docetaxel)

Variant #1, 4 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Swain et al. 2010 (NSABP B-30) Phase III (C) See link See link

Note: this was a mid-protocol dosing amendment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #2, 6 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Martin et al. 2005 (BCIRG 001) Phase III (E) FAC Superior OS
Martín et al. 2010 (GEICAM 9805) Phase III (E) FAC Superior DFS
Eiermann et al. 2011 (BCIRG-005) Phase III (C) AC, then T Seems not superior
Swain et al. 2013 (NSABP B-38) Phase III (C) ddAC, then ddP Seems not superior
ddAC, then ddPG Seems not superior
Blum et al. 2017 (USOR 06-090; NSABP-46-I/USOR 07132; NSABP B-49) Phase III (C) TC Seems to have superior IDFS

Note: Blum et al. 2017 is a pooled analysis of three RCTs, some of which had arms other than TAC and TC. Refer to the paper for further details.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 8 mg PO every 12 hours x 6 total doses, starting the day before treatment
  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) 500 mg PO BID on days 5 to 14 of every cycle (prophylaxis)
  • G-CSF not originally routinely administered unless patients had febrile neutropenia, but some guidelines recommend one of the following:

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. BCIRG 001: Martín M, Pienkowski T, Mackey J, Pawlicki M, Guastalla JP, Weaver C, Tomiak E, Al-Tweigeri T, Chap L, Juhos E, Guevin R, Howell A, Fornander T, Hainsworth J, Coleman R, Vinholes J, Modiano M, Pinter T, Tang SC, Colwell B, Prady C, Provencher L, Walde D, Rodriguez-Lescure A, Hugh J, Loret C, Rupin M, Blitz S, Jacobs P, Murawsky M, Riva A, Vogel C; Breast Cancer International Research Group 001 Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel for node-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 2;352(22):2302-13. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Mackey JR, Martín M, Pienkowski T, Rolski J, Guastalla JP, Sami A, Glaspy J, Juhos E, Wardley A, Fornander T, Hainsworth J, Coleman R, Modiano MR, Vinholes J, Pinter T, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Colwell B, Whitlock P, Provencher L, Laing K, Walde D, Price C, Hugh JC, Childs BH, Bassi K, Lindsay MA, Wilson V, Rupin M, Houé V, Vogel C; TRIO/BCIRG 001 investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in node-positive breast cancer: 10-year follow-up of the phase 3 randomised BCIRG 001 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Jan;14(1):72-80. Epub 2012 Dec 12. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-30: Swain SM, Jeong JH, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Rastogi P, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Land SR, Ganz PA, Wolmark N. Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 3;362(22):2053-65. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. GEICAM 9805: Martín M, Seguí MA, Antón A, Ruiz A, Ramos M, Adrover E, Aranda I, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Grosse R, Calvo L, Barnadas A, Isla D, Martinez del Prado P, Ruiz Borrego M, Zaluski J, Arcusa A, Muñoz M, López Vega JM, Mel JR, Munarriz B, Llorca C, Jara C, Alba E, Florián J, Li J, López García-Asenjo JA, Sáez A, Rios MJ, Almenar S, Peiró G, Lluch A; GEICAM 9805 Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 2;363(23):2200-10. link to original article PubMed
  4. BCIRG-005: Eiermann W, Pienkowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martín M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press M, Sauter G, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Buyse M, Drevot P, Taupin H, Mackey JR. Phase III study of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide with concomitant versus sequential docetaxel as adjuvant treatment in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-normal, node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 10;29(29):3877-84. Epub 2011 Sep 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Mackey JR, Pieńkowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martín M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press MF, Sauter G, Lindsay M, Houé V, Buyse M, Drevot P, Hitier S, Bensfia S, Eiermann W; Translational Research In Oncology (TRIO)/ Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG)-005 investigators. Long-term outcomes after adjuvant treatment of sequential versus combination docetaxel with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 randomized trial. Ann Oncol. 2016 Jun;27(6):1041-7. Epub 2016 Mar 2. link to original article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-38: Swain SM, Tang G, Geyer CE Jr, Rastogi P, Atkins JN, Donnellan PP, Fehrenbacher L, Azar CA, Robidoux A, Polikoff JA, Brufsky AM, Biggs DD, Levine EA, Zapas JL, Provencher L, Northfelt DW, Paik S, Costantino JP, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Definitive results of a phase III adjuvant trial comparing three chemotherapy regimens in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer: the NSABP B-38 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 10;31(26):3197-204. Epub 2013 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. USOR 06-090; NSABP-46-I/USOR 07132; NSABP B-49: Blum JL, Flynn PJ, Yothers G, Asmar L, Geyer CE Jr, Jacobs SA, Robert NJ, Hopkins JO, O'Shaughnessy JA, Dang CT, Gómez HL, Fehrenbacher L, Vukelja SJ, Lyss AP, Paul D, Brufsky AM, Jeong JH, Colangelo LH, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Jones SE, Wolmark N. Anthracyclines in early breast cancer: The ABC trials-USOR 06-090, NSABP B-46-I/USOR 07132, and NSABP B-49 (NRG Oncology). J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 10;35(23):2647-2655. Epub 2017 Apr 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

Vinorelbine monotherapy

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V: Vinorelbine

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Joensuu et al. 2006 (FinHer) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Inferior DDFS
TH (Taxotere)
VH
Seems not superior

Patients without HER2/neu amplification were only randomized to this arm verus the docetaxel arm.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 & 2: 25 mg/m2 IV over 5 to 10 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycle 3: 25 mg/m2 IV over 5 to 10 minutes once per day on days 1 & 8

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Bono P, Alanko T, Kataja V, Asola R, Utriainen T, Kokko R, Hemminki A, Tarkkanen M, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Flander M, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Johansson K, Jääskeläinen AS, Pajunen M, Rauhala M, Kaleva-Kerola J, Salminen T, Leinonen M, Elomaa I, Isola J; FinHer Study Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):809-20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Bono P, Kataja V, Alanko T, Kokko R, Asola R, Utriainen T, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Möykkynen K, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Pajunen M, Huusko M, Salminen T, Auvinen P, Leinonen H, Leinonen M, Isola J, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide with either docetaxel or vinorelbine, with or without trastuzumab, as adjuvant treatments of breast cancer: final results of the FinHer Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Dec 1;27(34):5685-92. link to original article PubMed

Metastatic disease, first-line chemotherapy

Note: in many of these regimens, patients were allowed to have received (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy (when applicable). These are first-line regimens in the metastatic setting, with a few being specifically for the locally advanced but unresectable setting.

AC

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AC: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) & Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 40/500

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Katsumata et al. 2009 (JCOG9802) Phase III (C) Docetaxel Might have inferior OS
AC-D Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #2, 40/800 (PO)

Study Evidence
Jones et al. 1975 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

21- to 28-day cycles

Variant #3, 60/600

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Slamon et al. 2001 Phase III (C) ACH Seems to have inferior OS
Biganzoli et al. 2002 (EORTC 10961) Phase III (C) AT (Taxol) Seems not superior
Nabholtz et al. 2003 (TAX 306) Phase III (C) AT (Taxotere) Seems to have inferior TTP

Note: patients in Slamon et al. 2001 had not previously received adjuvant (postoperative) therapy with an anthracycline.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles (see note)

Variant #4, with range

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) AC & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Jones SE, Durie BG, Salmon SE. Combination chemotherapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide for advanced breast cancer. Cancer. 1975 Jul;36(1):90-7. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eiermann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J, Norton L. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 15;344(11):783-92. link to original article PubMed
  3. EORTC 10961: Biganzoli L, Cufer T, Bruning P, Coleman R, Duchateau L, Calvert AH, Gamucci T, Twelves C, Fargeot P, Epelbaum R, Lohrisch C, Piccart MJ. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 10961 multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jul 15;20(14):3114-21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. TAX 306: Nabholtz JM, Falkson C, Campos D, Szanto J, Martín M, Chan S, Pienkowski T, Zaluski J, Pinter T, Krzakowski M, Vorobiof D, Leonard R, Kennedy I, Azli N, Murawsky M, Riva A, Pouillart P; TAX 306 Study Group. Docetaxel and doxorubicin compared with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: results of a randomized, multicenter, phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):968-75. link to original article PubMed
  5. JCOG9802: Katsumata N, Watanabe T, Minami H, Aogi K, Tabei T, Sano M, Masuda N, Andoh J, Ikeda T, Shibata T, Takashima S. Phase III trial of doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide (AC), docetaxel, and alternating AC and docetaxel as front-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG9802). Ann Oncol. 2009 Jul;20(7):1210-5. Epub 2009 Mar 2. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

AC & Bevacizumab

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AC & Bevacizumab: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Bevacizumab

Variant #1, with range

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) AC Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

AT (Taxol)

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AT: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) & Taxol (Paclitaxel)

Variant #1, 50/150

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Sledge et al. 2003 (ECOG E1193) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin
Paclitaxel
Superior TTF

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 50/220

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Jassem et al. 2001 Phase III (E) FAC Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

Variant #3, with range

Study Evidence
Gianni et al. 1995 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Gianni L, Munzone E, Capri G, Fulfaro F, Tarenzi E, Villani F, Spreafico C, Laffranchi A, Caraceni A, Martini C, Stefanelli M, Valagussa P, Bonadonna G. Paclitaxel by 3-hour infusion in combination with bolus doxorubicin in women with untreated metastatic breast cancer: high antitumor efficacy and cardiac effects in a dose-finding and sequence-finding study. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Nov;13(11):2688-99. link to original article PubMed
  2. Jassem J, Pieńkowski T, Płuzańska A, Jelic S, Gorbunova V, Mrsic-Krmpotic Z, Berzins J, Nagykalnai T, Wigler N, Renard J, Munier S, Weil C; Central & Eastern Europe and Israel Pacitaxel Breast Cancer Study Group. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel versus fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide as first-line therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer: final results of a randomized phase III multicenter trial. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Mar 15;19(6):1707-15. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. ECOG E1193: Sledge GW, Neuberg D, Bernardo P, Ingle JN, Martino S, Rowinsky EK, Wood WC. Phase III trial of doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and the combination of doxorubicin and paclitaxel as front-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: an intergroup trial (E1193). J Clin Oncol. 2003 Feb 15;21(4):588-92. link to original article PubMed

AT (Taxotere)

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AT: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Taxotere (Docetaxel)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Nabholtz et al. 2003 Phase III (E) AC Seems to have superior TTP
Bontenbal et al. 2005 Phase III (E) FAC Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. TAX 306: Nabholtz JM, Falkson C, Campos D, Szanto J, Martín M, Chan S, Pienkowski T, Zaluski J, Pinter T, Krzakowski M, Vorobiof D, Leonard R, Kennedy I, Azli N, Murawsky M, Riva A, Pouillart P; TAX 306 Study Group. Docetaxel and doxorubicin compared with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: results of a randomized, multicenter, phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):968-75. link to original article PubMed
  2. Bontenbal M, Creemers GJ, Braun HJ, de Boer AC, Janssen JT, Leys RB, Ruit JB, Goey SH, van der Velden PC, Kerkhofs LG, Schothorst KL, Schmitz PI, Bokma HJ, Verweij J, Seynaeve C; Dutch Community Setting Trial for the Clinical Trial Group. Phase II to III study comparing doxorubicin and docetaxel with fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer: results of a Dutch Community Setting Trial for the Clinical Trial Group of the Comprehensive Cancer Centre. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 1;23(28):7081-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Capecitabine monotherapy

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Variant #1, 650 mg/m2 BID, continuous

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stockler et al. 2011 Phase III (E) CMF Seems to have superior OS
Intermittent Capecitabine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 1000 mg/m2 BID

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bajetta et al. 2005 Phase II
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
Stockler et al. 2011 Phase III (E) CMF Seems to have superior OS
Continuous Capecitabine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #3, 1250 mg/m2 BID

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bajetta et al. 2005 Phase II
Harbeck et al. 2016 (PELICAN) Phase III (E) Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin Inconclusive whether non-inferior
Robson et al. 2017 (OlympiAD) Phase III (C) Olaparib Inferior PFS

Patients in GBG 26/BIG 3-05 had HER2-positive disease. Patients in OlympiAD had confirmed deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA mutation.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Bajetta E, Procopio G, Celio L, Gattinoni L, Della Torre S, Mariani L, Catena L, Ricotta R, Longarini R, Zilembo N, Buzzoni R. Safety and efficacy of two different doses of capecitabine in the treatment of advanced breast cancer in older women. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2155-61. Epub 2005 Feb 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Stockler MR, Harvey VJ, Francis PA, Byrne MJ, Ackland SP, Fitzharris B, Van Hazel G, Wilcken NR, Grimison PS, Nowak AK, Gainford MC, Fong A, Paksec L, Sourjina T, Zannino D, Gebski V, Simes RJ, Forbes JF, Coates AS. Capecitabine versus classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4498-504. Epub 2011 Oct 24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. PELICAN: Harbeck N, Saupe S, Jäger E, Schmidt M, Kreienberg R, Müller L, Otremba BJ, Waldenmaier D, Dorn J, Warm M, Scholz M, Untch M, de Wit M, Barinoff J, Lück HJ, Harter P, Augustin D, Harnett P, Beckmann MW, Al-Batran SE; PELICAN Investigators. A randomized phase III study evaluating pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus capecitabine as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer: results of the PELICAN study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Jan;161(1):63-72. Epub 2016 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. OlympiAD: Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, Xu B, Domchek SM, Masuda N, Delaloge S, Li W, Tung N, Armstrong A, Wu W, Goessl C, Runswick S, Conte P. Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 10;377(6):523-533. Epub 2017 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine & Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) Capecitabine Superior PFS
Lang et al. 2013 (TURANDOT) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Non-inferior OS (*)
Welt et al. 2016 (CARIN) Phase III (C) Capecitabine, Vinorelbine, Bevacizumab Might have inferior PFS

Note: efficacy for TURANDOT is based on the 2016 update.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. TURANDOT: Lang I, Brodowicz T, Ryvo L, Kahan Z, Greil R, Beslija S, Stemmer SM, Kaufman B, Zvirbule Z, Steger GG, Melichar B, Pienkowski T, Sirbu D, Messinger D, Zielinski C; Central European Cooperative Oncology Group. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus bevacizumab plus capecitabine as first-line treatment for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: interim efficacy results of the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 TURANDOT trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Feb;14(2):125-33. Epub 2013 Jan 10. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Zielinski C, Láng I, Inbar M, Kahán Z, Greil R, Beslija S, Stemmer SM, Zvirbule Z, Steger GG, Melichar B, Pienkowski T, Sirbu D, Petruzelka L, Eniu A, Nisenbaum B, Dank M, Anghel R, Messinger D, Brodowicz T; TURANDOT investigators. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus bevacizumab plus capecitabine as first-line treatment for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (TURANDOT): primary endpoint results of a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Sep;17(9):1230-9. Epub 2016 Aug 5. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. CARIN: Welt A, Marschner N, Lerchenmueller C, Decker T, Steffens CC, Koehler A, Depenbusch R, Busies S, Hegewisch-Becker S. Capecitabine and bevacizumab with or without vinorelbine in first-line treatment of HER2/neu-negative metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer: final efficacy and safety data of the randomised, open-label superiority phase 3 CARIN trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Feb;156(1):97-107. link to PMC article PubMed

Capecitabine & Paclitaxel

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TX: Taxol (Paclitaxel), Xeloda (Capecitabine)

Regimen

Study Evidence
Blum et al. 2006 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Blum JL, Dees EC, Chacko A, Doane L, Ethirajan S, Hopkins J, McMahon R, Merten S, Negron A, Neubauer M, Ilegbodu D, Boehm KA, Asmar L, O'Shaughnessy JA. Phase II trial of capecitabine and weekly paclitaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Sep 20;24(27):4384-90. Epub 2006 Aug 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine & Paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Schwartzberg et al. 2011 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Schwartzberg LS, Arena FP, Mintzer DM, Epperson AL, Walker MS. Phase II multicenter trial of albumin-bound paclitaxel and capecitabine in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2012 Apr;12(2):87-93. Epub 2011 Dec 6. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

CMF

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CMF: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bull et al. 1978 Phase III (C) CAF Might have inferior ORR
Stadtmauer et al. 2000 (Philadelphia Bone Marrow Transplant Group) Phase III (C) CMF x 4-6, then HDT Seems not superior
Ackland et al. 2001 (HEPI 013) Phase III (C) CEF Inferior TTP
Stockler et al. 2011 Phase III (C) Continuous Capecitabine
Intermittent Capecitabine
Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Bull JM, Tormey DC, Li SH, Carbone PP, Falkson G, Blom J, Perlin E, Simon R. A randomized comparative trial of adriamycin versus methotrexate in combination drug therapy. Cancer. 1978 May;41(5):1649-57. link to original article PubMed
  2. Philadelphia Bone Marrow Transplant Group: Stadtmauer EA, O'Neill A, Goldstein LJ, Crilley PA, Mangan KF, Ingle JN, Brodsky I, Martino S, Lazarus HM, Erban JK, Sickles C, Glick JH; Philadelphia Bone Marrow Transplant Group. Conventional-dose chemotherapy compared with high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 13;342(15):1069-76. link to original article PubMed
  3. HEPI 013: Ackland SP, Anton A, Breitbach GP, Colajori E, Tursi JM, Delfino C, Efremidis A, Ezzat A, Fittipaldo A, Kolaric K, Lopez M, Viaro D; HEPI 013 study group. Dose-intensive epirubicin-based chemotherapy is superior to an intensive intravenous cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil regimen in metastatic breast cancer: a randomized multinational study. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):943-53. link to original article PubMed
  4. Stockler MR, Harvey VJ, Francis PA, Byrne MJ, Ackland SP, Fitzharris B, Van Hazel G, Wilcken NR, Grimison PS, Nowak AK, Gainford MC, Fong A, Paksec L, Sourjina T, Zannino D, Gebski V, Simes RJ, Forbes JF, Coates AS. Capecitabine versus classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4498-504. Epub 2011 Oct 24. link to original article PubMed

Docetaxel monotherapy

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D: Docetaxel
T: Taxotere (Docetaxel)

Variant #1, 40 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Rivera et al. 2008 Phase III (E) Docetaxel q3wk Seems not superior Superior toxicity

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 35 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 40 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 40 mg/m2 6 weeks out of 8

Study Evidence
Burstein et al. 2000 Phase II

Chemotherapy

8-week cycles

Variant #3, 60 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #4, 60 mg/m2 q4wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #5, 75 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
Mackey et al. 2014 (ROSE/TRIO-12) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Ramucirumab Might have inferior PFS
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #6, 75 mg/m2 q4wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #7, 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Trudeau et al. 1996 Phase II
Marty et al. 2005 (M77001) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Trastuzumab Seems to have inferior OS
Rivera et al. 2008 Phase III (C) Weekly Docetaxel Seems not superior Inferior toxicity
Gradishar et al. 2009 Phase III (C) Higher-dose weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel Inferior PFS
Lower-dose weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel Seems not superior
q3wk nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel Seems not superior
Miles et al. 2010 (AVADO) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) Seems not superior
Docetaxel & Bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) Inferior PFS
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
Nielsen et al. 2011 (DBCG) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Gemcitabine Might have inferior TTP
Bergh et al. 2012 (SUN 1064) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Sunitinib Seems not superior

Note: AVADO gave up to 9 cycles.

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 100 mg/m2 IV over 60 minutes once on day 1
    • Note: Rivera et al. 2008 gave 75 mg/m2 in cycle 1, with escalation to 100 mg/m2 depending on toxicity

21-day cycles (see note)

References

  1. Trudeau ME, Eisenhauer EA, Higgins BP, Letendre F, Lofters WS, Norris BD, Vandenberg TA, Delorme F, Muldal AM. Docetaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a phase II study of the National Cancer Institute of Canada-Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Feb;14(2):422-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Review: Burris HA 3rd. Single-agent docetaxel (Taxotere) in randomized phase III trials. Semin Oncol. 1999 Jun;26(3 Suppl 9):1-6. PubMed
  3. Burstein HJ, Manola J, Younger J, Parker LM, Bunnell CA, Scheib R, Matulonis UA, Garber JE, Clarke KD, Shulman LN, Winer EP. Docetaxel administered on a weekly basis for metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Mar;18(6):1212-9. link to original article PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
  4. M77001: Marty M, Cognetti F, Maraninchi D, Snyder R, Mauriac L, Tubiana-Hulin M, Chan S, Grimes D, Antón A, Lluch A, Kennedy J, O'Byrne K, Conte P, Green M, Ward C, Mayne K, Extra JM. Randomized phase II trial of the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab combined with docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer administered as first-line treatment: the M77001 study group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jul 1;23(19):4265-74. Epub 2005 May 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Rivera E, Mejia JA, Arun BK, Adinin RB, Walters RS, Brewster A, Broglio KR, Yin G, Esmaeli B, Hortobagyi GN, Valero V. Phase 3 study comparing the use of docetaxel on an every-3-week versus weekly schedule in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Cancer. 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1455-61. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. Gradishar WJ, Krasnojon D, Cheporov S, Makhson AN, Manikhas GM, Clawson A, Bhar P. Significantly longer progression-free survival with nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug 1;27(22):3611-9. Epub 2009 May 26. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jul 1;29(19):2739. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. AVADO: Miles DW, Chan A, Dirix LY, Cortés J, Pivot X, Tomczak P, Delozier T, Sohn JH, Provencher L, Puglisi F, Harbeck N, Steger GG, Schneeweiss A, Wardley AM, Chlistalla A, Romieu G. Phase III study of bevacizumab plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel for the first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 10;28(20):3239-47. Epub 2010 May 24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. Nielsen DL, Bjerre KD, Jakobsen EH, Cold S, Stenbygaard L, Sørensen PG, Kamby C, Møller S, Jørgensen CL, Andersson M. Gemcitabine plus docetaxel versus docetaxel in patients with predominantly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer: a randomized, phase III study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 20;29(36):4748-54. Epub 2011 Nov 14. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  10. SUN 1064: Bergh J, Bondarenko IM, Lichinitser MR, Liljegren A, Greil R, Voytko NL, Makhson AN, Cortes J, Lortholary A, Bischoff J, Chan A, Delaloge S, Huang X, Kern KA, Giorgetti C. First-line treatment of advanced breast cancer with sunitinib in combination with docetaxel versus docetaxel alone: results of a prospective, randomized phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 20;30(9):921-9. Epub 2012 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  11. ROSE/TRIO-12: Mackey JR, Ramos-Vazquez M, Lipatov O, McCarthy N, Krasnozhon D, Semiglazov V, Manikhas A, Gelmon KA, Konecny GE, Webster M, Hegg R, Verma S, Gorbunova V, Abi Gerges D, Thireau F, Fung H, Simms L, Buyse M, Ibrahim A, Martín M. Primary results of ROSE/TRIO-12, a randomized placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the addition of ramucirumab to first-line docetaxel chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 10;33(2):141-8. Epub 2014 Sep 2. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  12. SELECT BC: Takashima T, Mukai H, Hara F, Matsubara N, Saito T, Takano T, Park Y, Toyama T, Hozumi Y, Tsurutani J, Imoto S, Watanabe T, Sagara Y, Nishimura R, Shimozuma K, Ohashi Y; SELECT BC Study Group. Taxanes versus S-1 as the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (SELECT BC): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jan;17(1):90-8. Epub 2015 Nov 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. HRQoL analysis: Shiroiwa T, Fukuda T, Shimozuma K, Mouri M, Hagiwara Y, Doihara H, Akabane H, Kashiwaba M, Watanabe T, Ohashi Y, Mukai H. Long-term health status as measured by EQ-5D among patients with metastatic breast cancer: comparison of first-line oral S-1 and taxane therapies in the randomized phase III SELECT BC trial. Qual Life Res. 2017 Feb;26(2):445-453. Epub 2016 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Docetaxel & Bevacizumab

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Variant #1, docetaxel 75 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, docetaxel 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Miles et al. 2010 (AVADO) Phase III (C) Docetaxel Superior PFS
Docetaxel & Bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) Not reported
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 9 cycles (AVADO) or indefinitely (RIBBON-1)

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. AVADO: Miles DW, Chan A, Dirix LY, Cortés J, Pivot X, Tomczak P, Delozier T, Sohn JH, Provencher L, Puglisi F, Harbeck N, Steger GG, Schneeweiss A, Wardley AM, Chlistalla A, Romieu G. Phase III study of bevacizumab plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel for the first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 10;28(20):3239-47. Epub 2010 May 24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin monotherapy

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Variant #1, 20 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gundersen et al. 1986 Phase III (E) VAC Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Duration not specified

Variant #2, 60 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Norris et al. 2000 (NCIC CTG MA.8) Phase III (C) Doxorubicin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior
O'Brien et al. 2004 (CAELYX Breast Cancer Study Group) Phase III (C) Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin Seems to have non-inferior PFS

Note: in NCIC CTG MA.8, this dose was after a mid-protocol amendment. Treatment in NCIC CTG MA.8 was given until a cumulative dose of 450 mg/m2.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles (see note)

Variant #3, 75 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Paridaens et al. 2000 (EORTC 10923) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 7 cycles

References

  1. Gundersen S, Kvinnsland S, Klepp O, Kvaløy S, Lund E, Høst H. Weekly adriamycin versus VAC in advanced breast cancer: a randomized trial. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1986 Dec;22(12):1431-4. link to SD article PubMed
  2. EORTC 10923: Paridaens R, Biganzoli L, Bruning P, Klijn JG, Gamucci T, Houston S, Coleman R, Schachter J, Van Vreckem A, Sylvester R, Awada A, Wildiers J, Piccart M. Paclitaxel versus doxorubicin as first-line single-agent chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Randomized Study with cross-over. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Feb;18(4):724-33. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. NCIC CTG MA.8: Norris B, Pritchard KI, James K, Myles J, Bennett K, Marlin S, Skillings J, Findlay B, Vandenberg T, Goss P, Latreille J, Rudinskas L, Lofters W, Trudeau M, Osoba D, Rodgers A. Phase III comparative study of vinorelbine combined with doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone in disseminated metastatic/recurrent breast cancer: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study MA8. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Jun;18(12):2385-94. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. CAELYX Breast Cancer Study Group: O'Brien ME, Wigler N, Inbar M, Rosso R, Grischke E, Santoro A, Catane R, Kieback DG, Tomczak P, Ackland SP, Orlandi F, Mellars L, Alland L, Tendler C; CAELYX Breast Cancer Study Group. Reduced cardiotoxicity and comparable efficacy in a phase III trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin HCl (CAELYX/Doxil) versus conventional doxorubicin for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2004 Mar;15(3):440-9. link to original article PubMed

Doxorubicin pegylated liposomal monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
O'Brien et al. 2004 (CAELYX Breast Cancer Study Group) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Seems to have non-inferior PFS
Harbeck et al. 2016 (PELICAN) Phase III (E) Capecitabine Inconclusive whether non-inferior

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. CAELYX Breast Cancer Study Group: O'Brien ME, Wigler N, Inbar M, Rosso R, Grischke E, Santoro A, Catane R, Kieback DG, Tomczak P, Ackland SP, Orlandi F, Mellars L, Alland L, Tendler C; CAELYX Breast Cancer Study Group. Reduced cardiotoxicity and comparable efficacy in a phase III trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin HCl (CAELYX/Doxil) versus conventional doxorubicin for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2004 Mar;15(3):440-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. PELICAN: Harbeck N, Saupe S, Jäger E, Schmidt M, Kreienberg R, Müller L, Otremba BJ, Waldenmaier D, Dorn J, Warm M, Scholz M, Untch M, de Wit M, Barinoff J, Lück HJ, Harter P, Augustin D, Harnett P, Beckmann MW, Al-Batran SE; PELICAN Investigators. A randomized phase III study evaluating pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus capecitabine as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer: results of the PELICAN study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Jan;161(1):63-72. Epub 2016 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

EC

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EC: Epirubicin & Cyclophosphamide

Variant #1, 75/600

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Slamon et al. 2001 Phase III (C) ECH Seems to have inferior OS
Langley et al. 2005 (UKNCRI AB01) Phase III (C) EP Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #2, 90/600

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Blohmer et al. 2010 Phase III (C) ED Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 to 8 cycles

Variant #3, with range

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) EC & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eiermann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J, Norton L. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 15;344(11):783-92. link to original article PubMed
  2. UKNCRI AB01: Langley RE, Carmichael J, Jones AL, Cameron DA, Qian W, Uscinska B, Howell A, Parmar M. Phase III trial of epirubicin plus paclitaxel compared with epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: United Kingdom National Cancer Research Institute trial AB01. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8322-30. link to original article PubMed
  3. Blohmer JU, Schmid P, Hilfrich J, Friese K, Kleine-Tebbe A, Koelbl H, Sommer H, Morack G, Wischnewsky MB, Lichtenegger W, Kuemmel S. Epirubicin and cyclophosphamide versus epirubicin and docetaxel as first-line therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer: final results of a randomised phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2010 Jul;21(7):1430-5. Epub 2010 Jan 20. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

EC & Bevacizumab

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EC & Bevacizumab: Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) EC Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

EP

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EP: Epirubicin & Paclitaxel

Variant #1, 75/200

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Langley et al. 2005 (UKNCRI AB01) Phase III (E) EC Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Variant #2, 80/175

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fountzilas et al. 2004 Phase III (C) Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Fountzilas G, Kalofonos HP, Dafni U, Papadimitriou C, Bafaloukos D, Papakostas P, Kalogera-Fountzila A, Gogas H, Aravantinos G, Moulopoulos LA, Economopoulos T, Pectasides D, Maniadakis N, Siafaka V, Briasoulis E, Christodoulou C, Tsavdaridis D, Makrantonakis P, Razis E, Kosmidis P, Skarlos D, Dimopoulos MA. Paclitaxel and epirubicin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer: a phase III study conducted by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Oncol. 2004 Oct;15(10):1517-26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. UKNCRI AB01: Langley RE, Carmichael J, Jones AL, Cameron DA, Qian W, Uscinska B, Howell A, Parmar M. Phase III trial of epirubicin plus paclitaxel compared with epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: United Kingdom National Cancer Research Institute trial AB01. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8322-30. link to original article PubMed

Epirubicin monotherapy

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Variant #1, 40 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bastholt et al. 1996 Phase III (E) Epirubicin 60 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Epirubicin 90 mg/m2 Inferior TTP
Epirubicin 135 mg/m2 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 60 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bastholt et al. 1996 Phase III (E) Epirubicin 40 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Epirubicin 90 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Epirubicin 135 mg/m2 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #3, 90 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bastholt et al. 1996 Phase III (C) Epirubicin 40 mg/m2 Superior TTP
Epirubicin 60 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Epirubicin 135 mg/m2 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #4, 120 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Berruti et al. 2002 Phase III (C) Cisplatin & Epirubicin
Cisplatin, Epirubicin, Lonidamine
Epirubicin & Lonidamine
Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #5, 135 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bastholt et al. 1996 Phase III (E) Epirubicin 40 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Epirubicin 60 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Epirubicin 90 mg/m2 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #6, 140 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Nielsen et al. 2000 Phase III (C) Cisplatin & Epirubicin Seems to have inferior TTP Superior toxicity

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles until maximum dose of epirubicin reached (1000 mg/m2)

References

  1. Bastholt L, Dalmark M, Gjedde SB, Pfeiffer P, Pedersen D, Sandberg E, Kjaer M, Mouridsen HT, Rose C, Nielsen OS, Jakobsen P, Bentzen SM. Dose-response relationship of epirubicin in the treatment of postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer: a randomized study of epirubicin at four different dose levels performed by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Apr;14(4):1146-55. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Nielsen D, Dombernowsky P, Larsen SK, Hansen OP, Skovsgaard T. Epirubicin or epirubicin and cisplatin as first-line therapy in advanced breast cancer: a phase III study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2000;46(6):459-66. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Berruti A, Bitossi R, Gorzegno G, Bottini A, Alquati P, De Matteis A, Nuzzo F, Giardina G, Danese S, De Lena M, Lorusso V, Farris A, Sarobba MG, DeFabiani E, Bonazzi G, Castiglione F, Bumma C, Moro G, Bruzzi P, Dogliotti L; Epirubicin-Lonidamine Group Orbassano Torino Italy. Time to progression in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with epirubicin is not improved by the addition of either cisplatin or lonidamine: final results of a phase III study with a factorial design. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Oct 15;20(20):4150-9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

FAC

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FAC: Fluorouracil, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide
CAF: Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Fluorouracil

Variant #1, 21-day cycles, 5-FU 1 out of 3 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Muss et al. 1991 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) FAC & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 to 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Muss et al. 1991: CMF versus observation, then CMF at progression

Variant #2, 21-day cycles, 5-FU 2 out of 3 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Hortobagyi et al. 1979 Phase III (C) FAC-BCG Inferior OS in responders

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #3, 28-day cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bull et al. 1978 Phase III (E) CMF Might have superior ORR

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Bull JM, Tormey DC, Li SH, Carbone PP, Falkson G, Blom J, Perlin E, Simon R. A randomized comparative trial of adriamycin versus methotrexate in combination drug therapy. Cancer. 1978 May;41(5):1649-57. link to original article PubMed
  2. Hortobagyi GN, Gutterman JU, Blumenschein GR, Tashima CK, Burgess MA, Einhorn L, Buzdar AU, Richman SP, Hersh EM. Combination chemoimmunotherapy of metastatic breast cancer with 5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and BCG. Cancer. 1979 Nov;44(5):1955-62. link to original article PubMed
  3. Muss HB, Case LD, Richards F 2nd, White DR, Cooper MR, Cruz JM, Powell BL, Spurr CL, Capizzi RL; The Piedmont Oncology Association. Interrupted versus continuous chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1991 Nov 7;325(19):1342-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

FAC & Bevacizumab

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FAC & Bevacizumab: Fluorouracil, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) FAC Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

FEC

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FEC: Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide
CEF: Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin, Fluorouracil

Variant #1, 500/50/500 ("FEC 50")

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufman et al. 1997 (HEPI 010) Phase III (C) FEC 100 Inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

Variant #2, 500/60/500

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Blomqvist et al. 1993 Phase III (C) Weekly FEC Superior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #3, 500/90/500

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Zielinksi et al. 2005 (CECOG BM1) Phase III (C) GET Seems not superior
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) FEC & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the lower bound of the dosing range allowed in RIBBON-1.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

Variant #4, 500/100/500 ("FEC 100")

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufman et al. 1997 (HEPI 010) Phase III (E) FEC 50 Superior ORR
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) FEC & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the upper bound of the dosing range allowed in RIBBON-1.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

Variant #5, 600/60/600 ("CEF21")

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Del Mastro et al. 2001 Phase III (C) HD-CEF14 Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 to 12 cycles

Variant #6, 1000/100/800

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ackland et al. 2001 (HEPI 013) Phase III (E) CMF Superior TTP

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

References

  1. Blomqvist C, Elomaa I, Rissanen P, Hietanen P, Nevasaari K, Helle L. Influence of treatment schedule on toxicity and efficacy of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil in metastatic breast cancer: a randomized trial comparing weekly and every-4-week administration. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Mar;11(3):467-73. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. HEPI 010: Brufman G, Colajori E, Ghilezan N, Lassus M, Martoni A, Perevodchikova N, Tosello C, Viaro D, Zielinski C; The Epirubicin High Dose (HEPI 010) Study Group. Doubling epirubicin dose intensity (100 mg/m2 versus 50 mg/m2) in the FEC regimen significantly increases response rates: an international randomised phase III study in metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 1997 Feb;8(2):155-62. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. HEPI 013: Ackland SP, Anton A, Breitbach GP, Colajori E, Tursi JM, Delfino C, Efremidis A, Ezzat A, Fittipaldo A, Kolaric K, Lopez M, Viaro D; HEPI 013 study group. Dose-intensive epirubicin-based chemotherapy is superior to an intensive intravenous cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil regimen in metastatic breast cancer: a randomized multinational study. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):943-53. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. Del Mastro L, Venturini M, Lionetto R, Carnino F, Guarneri D, Gallo L, Contu A, Pronzato P, Vesentini L, Bergaglio M, Comis S, Rosso R. Accelerated-intensified cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (CEF) compared with standard CEF in metastatic breast cancer patients: results of a multicenter, randomized phase III study of the Italian Gruppo Oncologico Nord-Ouest-Mammella Inter Gruppo Group. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Apr 15;19(8):2213-21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. CECOG BM1: Zielinski C, Beslija S, Mrsic-Krmpotic Z, Welnicka-Jaskiewicz M, Wiltschke C, Kahan Z, Grgic M, Tzekova V, Inbar M, Cervek J, Chernozemsky I, Szanto J, Spanik S, Wagnerova M, Ghilezan N, Pawlega J, Vrbanec D, Khamtsov D, Soldatenkova V, Brodowicz T. Gemcitabine, epirubicin, and paclitaxel versus fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: a Central European Cooperative Oncology Group International, multicenter, prospective, randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Mar 1;23(7):1401-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

FEC & Bevacizumab

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FEC & Bevacizumab: Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) FEC Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Carmichael et al. 1995 Phase II, <20 pts in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Carmichael J, Possinger K, Phillip P, Beykirch M, Kerr H, Walling J, Harris AL. Advanced breast cancer: a phase II trial with gemcitabine. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Nov;13(11):2731-6. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine & Paclitaxel

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GT: Gemcitabine & Taxol (Paclitaxel)
PG: Paclitaxel & Gemcitabine

Variant #1, 6 cycles

Study Evidence
Park et al. 2013 (KCSG-BR07-02) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, indefinite

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Albain et al. 2008 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Albain KS, Nag SM, Calderillo-Ruiz G, Jordaan JP, Llombart AC, Pluzanska A, Rolski J, Melemed AS, Reyes-Vidal JM, Sekhon JS, Simms L, O'Shaughnessy J. Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and prior anthracycline treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Aug 20;26(24):3950-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. KCSG-BR07-02: Park YH, Jung KH, Im SA, Sohn JH, Ro J, Ahn JH, Kim SB, Nam BH, Oh DY, Han SW, Lee S, Park IH, Lee KS, Kim JH, Kang SY, Lee MH, Park HS, Ahn JS, Im YH. Phase III, multicenter, randomized trial of maintenance chemotherapy versus observation in patients with metastatic breast cancer after achieving disease control with six cycles of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy: KCSG-BR07-02. J Clin Oncol. 2013 May 10;31(14):1732-9. Epub 2013 Apr 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, weekly

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Variant #1, 80 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Perez et al. 2001 Phase II
Seidman et al. 2008 (CALGB 9840) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel q3wk Superior OS
Fountzilas et al. 2008 Phase III (E) Carboplatin & Paclitaxel
Docetaxel & Gemcitabine
Seems to have superior OS
Martin et al. 2017 (BELLE-4) Phase III (C) Buparlisib & Paclitaxel Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 80 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Guan et al. 2013 (EGF104535) Phase III (C) TL (Taxol) Seems to have inferior OS
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Note: this is the lower limit of dosing allowed in SELECT BC. Patients in EGF104535 had HER2+ disease.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #3, 90 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Miller et al. 2007 (ECOG 2100) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
Miles et al. 2016 (MERiDiAN) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #4, 100 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence
Seidman et al. 1998 Phase II, <20 pts in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

Variant #5, 100 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Note: this is the upper limit of dosing allowed in SELECT BC.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Seidman AD, Hudis CA, Albanell J, Tong W, Tepler I, Currie V, Moynahan ME, Theodoulou M, Gollub M, Baselga J, Norton L. Dose-dense therapy with weekly 1-hour paclitaxel infusions in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Oct;16(10):3353-61. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2006 May 10;24(14):2220. Albanel, J [corrected to Albanell, J ]. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Perez EA, Vogel CL, Irwin DH, Kirshner JJ, Patel R. Multicenter phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Nov 15;19(22):4216-23. link to original article PubMed
  3. ECOG E2100: Miller K, Wang M, Gralow J, Dickler M, Cobleigh M, Perez EA, Shenkier T, Cella D, Davidson NE. Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 27;357(26):2666-76. link to original article PubMed
  4. CALGB 9840: Seidman AD, Berry D, Cirrincione C, Harris L, Muss H, Marcom PK, Gipson G, Burstein H, Lake D, Shapiro CL, Ungaro P, Norton L, Winer E, Hudis C. Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1642-9. link to original article PubMed
  5. Fountzilas G, Dafni U, Dimopoulos MA, Koutras A, Skarlos D, Papakostas P, Gogas H, Bafaloukos D, Kalogera-Fountzila A, Samantas E, Briasoulis E, Pectasides D, Maniadakis N, Matsiakou F, Aravantinos G, Papadimitriou C, Karina M, Christodoulou C, Kosmidis P, Kalofonos HP. A randomized phase III study comparing three anthracycline-free taxane-based regimens, as first line chemotherapy, in metastatic breast cancer: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 May;115(1):87-99. Epub 2008 May 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. EGF104535: Guan Z, Xu B, DeSilvio ML, Shen Z, Arpornwirat W, Tong Z, Lorvidhaya V, Jiang Z, Yang J, Makhson A, Leung WL, Russo MW, Newstat B, Wang L, Chen G, Oliva C, Gomez H. Randomized trial of lapatinib versus placebo added to paclitaxel in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jun 1;31(16):1947-53. Epub 2013 Mar 18. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. SELECT BC: Takashima T, Mukai H, Hara F, Matsubara N, Saito T, Takano T, Park Y, Toyama T, Hozumi Y, Tsurutani J, Imoto S, Watanabe T, Sagara Y, Nishimura R, Shimozuma K, Ohashi Y; SELECT BC Study Group. Taxanes versus S-1 as the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (SELECT BC): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jan;17(1):90-8. Epub 2015 Nov 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. HRQoL analysis: Shiroiwa T, Fukuda T, Shimozuma K, Mouri M, Hagiwara Y, Doihara H, Akabane H, Kashiwaba M, Watanabe T, Ohashi Y, Mukai H. Long-term health status as measured by EQ-5D among patients with metastatic breast cancer: comparison of first-line oral S-1 and taxane therapies in the randomized phase III SELECT BC trial. Qual Life Res. 2017 Feb;26(2):445-453. Epub 2016 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  8. MERiDiAN: Miles D, Cameron D, Bondarenko I, Manzyuk L, Alcedo JC, Lopez RI, Im SA, Canon JL, Shparyk Y, Yardley DA, Masuda N, Ro J, Denduluri N, Hubeaux S, Quah C, Bais C, O'Shaughnessy J. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MERiDiAN): A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial with prospective biomarker evaluation. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Jan;70:146-155. Epub 2016 Nov 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Miles D, Cameron D, Hilton M, Garcia J, O'Shaughnessy J. Overall survival in MERiDiAN, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial evaluating first-line bevacizumab plus paclitaxel for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2018 Feb;90:153-155. Epub 2017 Nov 23. link to SD article PubMed
  9. BELLE-4: Martín M, Chan A, Dirix L, O'Shaughnessy J, Hegg R, Manikhas A, Shtivelband M, Krivorotko P, Batista López N, Campone M, Ruiz Borrego M, Khan QJ, Beck JT, Ramos Vázquez M, Urban P, Goteti S, Di Tomaso E, Massacesi C, Delaloge S. A randomized adaptive phase II/III study of buparlisib, a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, combined with paclitaxel for the treatment of HER2- advanced breast cancer (BELLE-4). Ann Oncol. 2017 Feb 1;28(2):313-320. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, q3wk

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Variant #1, 175 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Seidman et al. 1995 Phase II
Slamon et al. 2001 Phase III (C) TH Seems to have inferior OS
Winer et al. 2004 (CALGB 9342) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel 210 mg/m2 q3wk Seems not superior
Paclitaxel 250 mg/m2 q3wk Seems not superior
Gradishar et al. 2005 Phase III (C) Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel Inferior TTP
Seidman et al. 2008 (CALGB 9840) Phase III (C) Weekly paclitaxel Inferior OS
Albain et al. 2008 Phase III (C) GT Seems to have inferior OS
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 175 mg/m2 q4wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (C) S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS Inferior EQ-5D score

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #3, 200 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bishop et al. 1999 Phase III (E) CMFP Seems to have superior OS
Paridaens et al. 2000 (EORTC 10923) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 7 or 8 cycles

Variant #4, 250 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Holmes et al. 1991 Phase II
Smith et al. 1996 (NSABP B-26) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel 250 mg/m2 over 3 hours Seems not superior

Note: Holmes et al. 1991 is of historic interest, being the first phase II trial of a taxane in breast cancer.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Holmes FA, Walters RS, Theriault RL, Forman AD, Newton LK, Raber MN, Buzdar AU, Frye DK, Hortobagyi GN. Phase II trial of taxol, an active drug in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991 Dec 18;83(24):1797-805. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Seidman AD, Tiersten A, Hudis C, Gollub M, Barrett S, Yao TJ, Lepore J, Gilewski T, Currie V, Crown J, Hakes T, Baselga J, Sklarin N, Moynihan ME, Tong W, Egorin M, Kearns C, Spriggs D, Norton L. Phase II trial of paclitaxel by 3-hour infusion as initial and salvage chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Oct;13(10):2575-81. link to original article PubMed
  3. Bishop JF, Dewar J, Toner GC, Smith J, Tattersall MH, Olver IN, Ackland S, Kennedy I, Goldstein D, Gurney H, Walpole E, Levi J, Stephenson J, Canetta R. Initial paclitaxel improves outcome compared with CMFP combination chemotherapy as front-line therapy in untreated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Aug;17(8):2355-64. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. NSABP B-26: Smith RE, Brown AM, Mamounas EP, Anderson SJ, Lembersky BC, Atkins JH, Shibata HR, Baez L, DeFusco PA, Davila E, Tipping SJ, Bearden JD, Thirlwell MP. Randomized trial of 3-hour versus 24-hour infusion of high-dose paclitaxel in patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-26. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Nov;17(11):3403-11. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. EORTC 10923: Paridaens R, Biganzoli L, Bruning P, Klijn JG, Gamucci T, Houston S, Coleman R, Schachter J, Van Vreckem A, Sylvester R, Awada A, Wildiers J, Piccart M. Paclitaxel versus doxorubicin as first-line single-agent chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Randomized Study with cross-over. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Feb;18(4):724-33. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eiermann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J, Norton L. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 15;344(11):783-92. link to original article PubMed
  7. CALGB 9342: Winer EP, Berry DA, Woolf S, Duggan D, Kornblith A, Harris LN, Michaelson RA, Kirshner JA, Fleming GF, Perry MC, Graham ML, Sharp SA, Keresztes R, Henderson IC, Hudis C, Muss H, Norton L. Failure of higher-dose paclitaxel to improve outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 9342. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2061-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  8. Gradishar WJ, Tjulandin S, Davidson N, Shaw H, Desai N, Bhar P, Hawkins M, O'Shaughnessy J. Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 1;23(31):7794-803. Epub 2005 Sep 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. CALGB 9840: Seidman AD, Berry D, Cirrincione C, Harris L, Muss H, Marcom PK, Gipson G, Burstein H, Lake D, Shapiro CL, Ungaro P, Norton L, Winer E, Hudis C. Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1642-9. link to original article PubMed
  10. Albain KS, Nag SM, Calderillo-Ruiz G, Jordaan JP, Llombart AC, Pluzanska A, Rolski J, Melemed AS, Reyes-Vidal JM, Sekhon JS, Simms L, O'Shaughnessy J. Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and prior anthracycline treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Aug 20;26(24):3950-7. link to original article PubMed
  11. SELECT BC: Takashima T, Mukai H, Hara F, Matsubara N, Saito T, Takano T, Park Y, Toyama T, Hozumi Y, Tsurutani J, Imoto S, Watanabe T, Sagara Y, Nishimura R, Shimozuma K, Ohashi Y; SELECT BC Study Group. Taxanes versus S-1 as the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (SELECT BC): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jan;17(1):90-8. Epub 2015 Nov 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. HRQoL analysis: Shiroiwa T, Fukuda T, Shimozuma K, Mouri M, Hagiwara Y, Doihara H, Akabane H, Kashiwaba M, Watanabe T, Ohashi Y, Mukai H. Long-term health status as measured by EQ-5D among patients with metastatic breast cancer: comparison of first-line oral S-1 and taxane therapies in the randomized phase III SELECT BC trial. Qual Life Res. 2017 Feb;26(2):445-453. Epub 2016 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Miller et al. 2007 (ECOG E2100) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Superior PFS
Lang et al. 2013 (TURANDOT) Phase III (E) Capecitabine & Bevacizumab Non-inferior OS (*)
Rugo et al. 2015 (CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H) Phase III (C) Ixabepilone & Bevacizumab Superior PFS
nab-Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Might have superior PFS
Miles et al. 2016 (MERiDiAN) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Note: efficacy for TURANDOT is based on the 2016 update.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. ECOG E2100: Miller K, Wang M, Gralow J, Dickler M, Cobleigh M, Perez EA, Shenkier T, Cella D, Davidson NE. Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 27;357(26):2666-76. link to original article PubMed
  2. TURANDOT: Lang I, Brodowicz T, Ryvo L, Kahan Z, Greil R, Beslija S, Stemmer SM, Kaufman B, Zvirbule Z, Steger GG, Melichar B, Pienkowski T, Sirbu D, Messinger D, Zielinski C; Central European Cooperative Oncology Group. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus bevacizumab plus capecitabine as first-line treatment for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: interim efficacy results of the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 TURANDOT trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Feb;14(2):125-33. Epub 2013 Jan 10. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Zielinski C, Láng I, Inbar M, Kahán Z, Greil R, Beslija S, Stemmer SM, Zvirbule Z, Steger GG, Melichar B, Pienkowski T, Sirbu D, Petruzelka L, Eniu A, Nisenbaum B, Dank M, Anghel R, Messinger D, Brodowicz T; TURANDOT investigators. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus bevacizumab plus capecitabine as first-line treatment for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (TURANDOT): primary endpoint results of a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Sep;17(9):1230-9. Epub 2016 Aug 5. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H: Rugo HS, Barry WT, Moreno-Aspitia A, Lyss AP, Cirrincione C, Leung E, Mayer EL, Naughton M, Toppmeyer D, Carey LA, Perez EA, Hudis C, Winer EP. Randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel once per week compared with nanoparticle albumin-bound nab-paclitaxel once per week or ixabepilone with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2361-9. Epub 2015 Jun 8. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. MERiDiAN: Miles D, Cameron D, Bondarenko I, Manzyuk L, Alcedo JC, Lopez RI, Im SA, Canon JL, Shparyk Y, Yardley DA, Masuda N, Ro J, Denduluri N, Hubeaux S, Quah C, Bais C, O'Shaughnessy J. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MERiDiAN): A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial with prospective biomarker evaluation. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Jan;70:146-155. Epub 2016 Nov 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Miles D, Cameron D, Hilton M, Garcia J, O'Shaughnessy J. Overall survival in MERiDiAN, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial evaluating first-line bevacizumab plus paclitaxel for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2018 Feb;90:153-155. Epub 2017 Nov 23. link to SD article PubMed

Paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound monotherapy

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Example orders

Variant #1, 100 mg/m2, 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gradishar et al. 2009 Randomized Phase II (E) Docetaxel Seems not superior
Weekly nab-paclitaxel (150 mg/m2) Not reported
q3wk nab-paclitaxel Not reported

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 150 mg/m2 weekly, 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gradishar et al. 2009 Randomized Phase II (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS
Weekly nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m2) Not reported
q3wk nab-paclitaxel Not reported

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #3, 260 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gradishar et al. 2005 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Superior TTP
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (C) nab-Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Gradishar et al. 2005: No corticosteroid or antihistamine premedication

21-day cycles

Variant #4, 300 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gradishar et al. 2009 Randomized Phase II (E) Docetaxel Seems not superior
Weekly nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m2) Not reported
Weekly nab-paclitaxel (150 mg/m2) Not reported

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Gradishar WJ, Tjulandin S, Davidson N, Shaw H, Desai N, Bhar P, Hawkins M, O'Shaughnessy J. Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 1;23(31):7794-803. Epub 2005 Sep 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Gradishar WJ, Krasnojon D, Cheporov S, Makhson AN, Manikhas GM, Clawson A, Bhar P. Significantly longer progression-free survival with nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug 1;27(22):3611-9. Epub 2009 May 26. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jul 1;29(19):2739. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound & Bevacizumab

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Example orders

Variant #1, 150 mg/m2, 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Rugo et al. 2015 (CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H) Phase III (E) Ixabepilone & Bevacizumab Not reported
Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Might have inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 260 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Phase III (E) nab-Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H: Rugo HS, Barry WT, Moreno-Aspitia A, Lyss AP, Cirrincione C, Leung E, Mayer EL, Naughton M, Toppmeyer D, Carey LA, Perez EA, Hudis C, Winer EP. Randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel once per week compared with nanoparticle albumin-bound nab-paclitaxel once per week or ixabepilone with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2361-9. Epub 2015 Jun 8. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Pemetrexed monotherapy

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Variant #1, 500 mg/m2

Study Evidence
Gomez et al. 2006 Phase II

Patients in the study were "chemotherapy-naïve, with advanced (T4 and N0-N2, M0, M1) breast cancer."

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 4 mg PO BID the day before, day of, and day after chemotherapy
  • Folic acid 350 to 1000 mcg PO once per day, to start 5 to 7 days prior to start of pemetrexed therapy, to continue throughout therapy with pemetrexed
  • Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 1000 mcg IM every 9 weeks, the first dose given before the study's pretreatment biopsy, to continue throughout therapy with pemetrexed

21-day cycle for up to 3 cycles

Variant #2, 600 mg/m2

Study Evidence
Robert et al. 2011 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 4 mg PO BID the day before, day of, and day after chemotherapy
  • Folic acid 350 to 1000 mcg PO once per day, to start at least 5 days prior to start of pemetrexed therapy, to continue throughout therapy with pemetrexed, and until 3 weeks after the last dose of pemetrexed
  • Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 1000 mcg IM every 8 to 10 weeks, the first dose given at least 1 week prior to start of pemetrexed therapy, to continue throughout therapy with pemetrexed, and until 3 weeks after the last dose of pemetrexed

14-day cycles

References

  1. Gomez HL, Santillana SL, Vallejos CS, Velarde R, Sanchez J, Wang X, Bauer NL, Hockett RD, Chen VJ, Niyikiza C, Hanauske AR. A phase II trial of pemetrexed in advanced breast cancer: clinical response and association with molecular target expression. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 1;12(3 Pt 1):832-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Robert NJ, Conkling PR, O'Rourke MA, Kuefler PR, McIntyre KJ, Zhan F, Asmar L, Wang Y, Shonukan OO, O'Shaughnessy JA. Results of a phase II study of pemetrexed as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Feb;126(1):101-8. Epub 2010 Dec 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

S-1 monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Takashima et al. 2015 (SELECT BC) Phase III (E) Docetaxel
Paclitaxel
Seems to have non-inferior OS Superior EQ-5D score

Chemotherapy

  • Tegafur, gimeracil, oteracil (S-1) as follows:
    • BSA less than 1.25 m2: 40 mg PO BID on days 1 to 28
    • BSA at least 1.25 m2 and less than 1.5 m2: 50 mg PO BID on days 1 to 28
    • BSA 1.5 m2 or more: 60 mg PO BID on days 1 to 28

42-day cycles

References

  1. SELECT BC: Takashima T, Mukai H, Hara F, Matsubara N, Saito T, Takano T, Park Y, Toyama T, Hozumi Y, Tsurutani J, Imoto S, Watanabe T, Sagara Y, Nishimura R, Shimozuma K, Ohashi Y; SELECT BC Study Group. Taxanes versus S-1 as the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (SELECT BC): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jan;17(1):90-8. Epub 2015 Nov 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. HRQoL analysis: Shiroiwa T, Fukuda T, Shimozuma K, Mouri M, Hagiwara Y, Doihara H, Akabane H, Kashiwaba M, Watanabe T, Ohashi Y, Mukai H. Long-term health status as measured by EQ-5D among patients with metastatic breast cancer: comparison of first-line oral S-1 and taxane therapies in the randomized phase III SELECT BC trial. Qual Life Res. 2017 Feb;26(2):445-453. Epub 2016 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Metastatic disease, maintenance after first-line therapy

Bevacizumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Miles et al. 2010 (AVADO) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Robert et al. 2011 (RIBBON-1) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. AVADO: Miles DW, Chan A, Dirix LY, Cortés J, Pivot X, Tomczak P, Delozier T, Sohn JH, Provencher L, Puglisi F, Harbeck N, Steger GG, Schneeweiss A, Wardley AM, Chlistalla A, Romieu G. Phase III study of bevacizumab plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel for the first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 10;28(20):3239-47. Epub 2010 May 24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. RIBBON-1: Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, Brufsky AM, Bondarenko I, Lipatov ON, Perez EA, Yardley DA, Chan SY, Zhou X, Phan SC, O'Shaughnessy J. RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1252-60. Epub 2011 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine & Paclitaxel

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GT: Gemcitabine & Taxol (Paclitaxel)
PG: Paclitaxel & Gemcitabine

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Park et al. 2013 (KCSG-BR07-02) Phase III (E) Observation Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. KCSG-BR07-02: Park YH, Jung KH, Im SA, Sohn JH, Ro J, Ahn JH, Kim SB, Nam BH, Oh DY, Han SW, Lee S, Park IH, Lee KS, Kim JH, Kang SY, Lee MH, Park HS, Ahn JS, Im YH. Phase III, multicenter, randomized trial of maintenance chemotherapy versus observation in patients with metastatic breast cancer after achieving disease control with six cycles of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy: KCSG-BR07-02. J Clin Oncol. 2013 May 10;31(14):1732-9. Epub 2013 Apr 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Observation

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Park et al. 2013 (KCSG-BR07-02) Phase III (C) PG Seems to have inferior OS

No further treatment.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. KCSG-BR07-02: Park YH, Jung KH, Im SA, Sohn JH, Ro J, Ahn JH, Kim SB, Nam BH, Oh DY, Han SW, Lee S, Park IH, Lee KS, Kim JH, Kang SY, Lee MH, Park HS, Ahn JS, Im YH. Phase III, multicenter, randomized trial of maintenance chemotherapy versus observation in patients with metastatic breast cancer after achieving disease control with six cycles of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy: KCSG-BR07-02. J Clin Oncol. 2013 May 10;31(14):1732-9. Epub 2013 Apr 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Metastatic disease, subsequent lines of chemotherapy

Abemaciclib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Efficacy
Dickler et al. 2017 (MONARCH 1) Phase II 20% (95% CI 13-27.5)

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. MONARCH 1: Dickler MN, Tolaney SM, Rugo HS, Cortés J, Diéras V, Patt D, Wildiers H, Hudis CA, O'Shaughnessy J, Zamora E, Yardley DA, Frenzel M, Koustenis A, Baselga J. MONARCH 1, a phase II study of abemaciclib, a CDK4 and CDK6 Inhibitor, as a single agent, in patients with refractory HR(+)/HER2(-) metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Sep 1;23(17):5218-5224. Epub 2017 May 22. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed

Capecitabine monotherapy

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Variant #1, 1000 mg/m2 BID

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
Baselga et al. 2017 (RESILIENCE) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Sorafenib Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 1250 mg/m2 BID

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Geyer et al. 2006 (EGF100151) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Lapatinib Inferior TTP
Thomas et al. 2007 Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Ixabepilone Inferior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2009 (GBG 26/BIG 3-05) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Trastuzumab Seems to have inferior TTP
Sparano et al. 2010 (CA163-048) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Ixabepilone Inferior PFS
Crown et al. 2013 (A6181099) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Sunitinib Seems not superior
Kaufman et al. 2015 (E7389-G000-301) Phase III (C) Eribulin Might have inferior OS
Yamamoto et al. 2016 (JO21095) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Zhang et al. 2017 (BG01-1323L) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Utidelone Inferior PFS
Robson et al. 2017 (OlympiAD) Phase III (C) Olaparib Inferior PFS

Patients in EGF100151 & GBG 26/BIG 3-05 had HER2-positive disease. Patients in OlympiAD had confirmed deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA mutation.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. EGF100151: Geyer CE, Forster J, Lindquist D, Chan S, Romieu CG, Pienkowski T, Jagiello-Gruszfeld A, Crown J, Chan A, Kaufman B, Skarlos D, Campone M, Davidson N, Berger M, Oliva C, Rubin SD, Stein S, Cameron D. Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 28;355(26):2733-43. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Cameron D, Casey M, Press M, Lindquist D, Pienkowski T, Romieu CG, Chan S, Jagiello-Gruszfeld A, Kaufman B, Crown J, Chan A, Campone M, Viens P, Davidson N, Gorbounova V, Raats JI, Skarlos D, Newstat B, Roychowdhury D, Paoletti P, Oliva C, Rubin S, Stein S, Geyer CE. A phase III randomized comparison of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in women with advanced breast cancer that has progressed on trastuzumab: updated efficacy and biomarker analyses. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Dec;112(3):533-43. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Cameron D, Casey M, Oliva C, Newstat B, Imwalle B, Geyer CE. Lapatinib plus capecitabine in women with HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer: final survival analysis of a phase III randomized trial. Oncologist. 2010;15(9):924-34. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Thomas ES, Gomez HL, Li RK, Chung HC, Fein LE, Chan VF, Jassem J, Pivot XB, Klimovsky JV, de Mendoza FH, Xu B, Campone M, Lerzo GL, Peck RA, Mukhopadhyay P, Vahdat LT, Roché HH. Ixabepilone plus capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer progressing after anthracycline and taxane treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 20;25(33):5210-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. GBG 26/BIG 03-05: von Minckwitz G, du Bois A, Schmidt M, Maass N, Cufer T, de Jongh FE, Maartense E, Zielinski C, Kaufmann M, Bauer W, Baumann KH, Clemens MR, Duerr R, Uleer C, Andersson M, Stein RC, Nekljudova V, Loibl S. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 study. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Apr 20;27(12):1999-2006. Epub 2009 Mar 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: von Minckwitz G, Schwedler K, Schmidt M, Barinoff J, Mundhenke C, Cufer T, Maartense E, de Jongh FE, Baumann KH, Bischoff J, Harbeck N, Lück HJ, Maass N, Zielinski C, Andersson M, Stein RC, Nekljudova V, Loibl S; GBG 26/BIG 03-05 study group and participating investigators. Trastuzumab beyond progression: overall survival analysis of the GBG 26/BIG 3-05 phase III study in HER2-positive breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2011 Oct;47(15):2273-81. Epub 2011 Jul 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. CA163-048: Sparano JA, Vrdoljak E, Rixe O, Xu B, Manikhas A, Medina C, Da Costa SC, Ro J, Rubio G, Rondinon M, Perez Manga G, Peck R, Poulart V, Conte P. Randomized phase III trial of ixabepilone plus capecitabine versus capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 10;28(20):3256-63.link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  5. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. A6181099: Crown JP, Diéras V, Staroslawska E, Yardley DA, Bachelot T, Davidson N, Wildiers H, Fasching PA, Capitain O, Ramos M, Greil R, Cognetti F, Fountzilas G, Blasinska-Morawiec M, Liedtke C, Kreienberg R, Miller WH Jr, Tassell V, Huang X, Paolini J, Kern KA, Romieu G. Phase III trial of sunitinib in combination with capecitabine versus capecitabine monotherapy for the treatment of patients with pretreated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2870-8. Epub 2013 Jul 15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. E7389-G000-301: Kaufman PA, Awada A, Twelves C, Yelle L, Perez EA, Velikova G, Olivo MS, He Y, Dutcus CE, Cortes J. Phase III open-label randomized study of eribulin mesylate versus capecitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Feb 20;33(6):594-601. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. JO21095: Yamamoto D, Sato N, Rai Y, Yamamoto Y, Saito M, Iwata H, Masuda N, Oura S, Watanabe J, Hattori S, Matsuura Y, Kuroi K. Efficacy and safety of low-dose capecitabine plus docetaxel versus single-agent docetaxel in patients with anthracycline-pretreated HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III JO21095 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Feb;161(3):473-482. Epub 2016 Dec 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. BG01-1323L: Zhang P, Sun T, Zhang Q, Yuan Z, Jiang Z, Wang XJ, Cui S, Teng Y, Hu XC, Yang J, Pan H, Tong Z, Li H, Yao Q, Wang Y, Yin Y, Sun P, Zheng H, Cheng J, Lu J, Zhang B, Geng C, Liu J, Peng R, Yan M, Zhang S, Huang J, Tang L, Qiu R, Xu B; BG01-1323L study group. Utidelone plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone for heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer refractory to anthracyclines and taxanes: a multicentre, open-label, superiority, phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Mar;18(3):371-383. Epub 2017 Feb 11. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  11. RESILIENCE: Baselga J, Zamagni C, Gómez P, Bermejo B, Nagai SE, Melichar B, Chan A, Mángel L, Bergh J, Costa F, Gómez HL, Gradishar WJ, Hudis CA, Rapoport BL, Roché H, Maeda P, Huang L, Meinhardt G, Zhang J, Schwartzberg LS. RESILIENCE: phase III randomized, double-blind trial comparing sorafenib with capecitabine versus placebo with capecitabine in locally advanced or metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2017 Dec;17(8):585-594.e4. Epub 2017 May 22. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  12. OlympiAD: Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, Xu B, Domchek SM, Masuda N, Delaloge S, Li W, Tung N, Armstrong A, Wu W, Goessl C, Runswick S, Conte P. Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 10;377(6):523-533. Epub 2017 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine & Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) Capecitabine Superior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Capecitabine Superior PFS

Note: efficacy for TURANDOT is based on the 2016 update.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine & Docetaxel

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TX: Taxotere (Docetaxel) and Xeloda (Capecitabine)
XT: Xeloda (Capecitabine) and Taxotere (Docetaxel)

Variant #1, 825/60

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Yamamoto et al. 2016 (JO21095) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Seems to have superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 1250/75

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
O'Shaughnessy et al. 2002 Phase III (E) Docetaxel Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. O'Shaughnessy J, Miles D, Vukelja S, Moiseyenko V, Ayoub JP, Cervantes G, Fumoleau P, Jones S, Lui WY, Mauriac L, Twelves C, Van Hazel G, Verma S, Leonard R. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jun 15;20(12):2812-23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. JO21095: Yamamoto D, Sato N, Rai Y, Yamamoto Y, Saito M, Iwata H, Masuda N, Oura S, Watanabe J, Hattori S, Matsuura Y, Kuroi K. Efficacy and safety of low-dose capecitabine plus docetaxel versus single-agent docetaxel in patients with anthracycline-pretreated HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III JO21095 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Feb;161(3):473-482. Epub 2016 Dec 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine & Ixabepilone

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Thomas et al. 2007 Phase III (E) Capecitabine Superior PFS
Sparano et al. 2010 (CA163-048) Phase III (E) Capecitabine Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Thomas ES, Gomez HL, Li RK, Chung HC, Fein LE, Chan VF, Jassem J, Pivot XB, Klimovsky JV, de Mendoza FH, Xu B, Campone M, Lerzo GL, Peck RA, Mukhopadhyay P, Vahdat LT, Roché HH. Ixabepilone plus capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer progressing after anthracycline and taxane treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 20;25(33):5210-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. CA163-048: Sparano JA, Vrdoljak E, Rixe O, Xu B, Manikhas A, Medina C, Da Costa SC, Ro J, Rubio G, Rondinon M, Perez Manga G, Peck R, Poulart V, Conte P. Randomized phase III trial of ixabepilone plus capecitabine versus capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 10;28(20):3256-63. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Carboplatin & Gemcitabine

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Nagourney et al. 2008 Pilot, <20 pts

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles, given until complete remission, progression of disease, or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Nagourney RA, Flam M, Link J, Hager S, Blitzer J, Lyons W, Sommers BL, Evans S. Carboplatin plus gemcitabine repeating doublet therapy in recurrent breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2008 Oct;8(5):432-5. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Vinorelbine

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Ray-Coquard et al. 1998 Phase II
Vassilomanolakis et al. 2000 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Ray-Coquard I, Biron P, Bachelot T, Guastalla JP, Catimel G, Merrouche Y, Droz JP, Chauvin F, Blay JY. Vinorelbine and cisplatin (CIVIC regimen) for the treatment of metastatic breast carcinoma after failure of anthracycline- and/or paclitaxel-containing regimens. Cancer. 1998 Jan 1;82(1):134-40. PubMed
  2. Vassilomanolakis M, Koumakis G, Barbounis V, Demiri M, Pateras H, Efremidis AP. Vinorelbine and cisplatin in metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with anthracyclines. Ann Oncol. 2000 Sep;11(9):1155-60. link to original article contains verified protocol Pubmed

Docetaxel monotherapy

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D: Docetaxel
T: Taxotere (Docetaxel)

Variant #1, 40 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Rivera et al. 2008 Phase III (C), <20 pts in this subgroup Docetaxel q3wk Seems not superior Superior toxicity

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 35 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 40 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 40 mg/m2 6 weeks out of 8

Study Evidence
Burstein et al. 2000 Phase II

Chemotherapy

8-week cycles

Variant #3, 60 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Adachi et al. 1996 Phase II
Harvey et al. 2006 Phase III (E) 75 mg/m2 q3wk docetaxel Might have inferior TTP
100 mg/m2 q3wk docetaxel Might have inferior TTP
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the dosage used for Japanese patients; Adachi et al. 1996 reported 21- to 28-day cycles

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #4, 70 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Yamamoto et al. 2016 (JO21095) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Docetaxel Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • At progression, this arm was pre-assigned to transition to capecitabine

Variant #5, 75 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Harvey et al. 2006 Phase III (E) 60 mg/m2 q3wk docetaxel Might have superior TTP
100 mg/m2 q3wk docetaxel Might have inferior TTP
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the lower end of the range of docetaxel dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #6, 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
ten Bokkel Huinink et al. 1994 Phase II
Nabholtz et al. 1999 (TAX 304) Phase III (E) MV Superior OS
Chan et al. 1999 (TAX 303) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Superior ORR
Sjöström et al. 1999 Phase III (E) MF Superior TTP
O'Shaughnessy et al. 2002 Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Docetaxel Seems to have inferior OS
Bonneterre et al. 2002 Phase III (E) 5-FU & Vinorelbine Seems not superior Less toxic
Jones et al. 2005 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Seems to have superior OS
Harvey et al. 2006 Phase III (E) 60 mg/m2 q3wk docetaxel Might have superior TTP
75 mg/m2 q3wk docetaxel Might have superior TTP
Rivera et al. 2008 Phase III (C), <20 pts in this subgroup Weekly Docetaxel Seems not superior Inferior toxicity
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
Nielsen et al. 2011 Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Gemcitabine Might have inferior TTP
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the upper end of the range of docetaxel dosing described in TANIA. TAX 304 stopped treatment after 10 cycles. TAX 303 stopped treatment after 7 cycles.

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 100 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
    • Note: Rivera et al. 2008 gave 75 mg/m2 in cycle 1, with escalation to 100 mg/m2 depending on toxicity

21-day cycles (see note)

References

  1. ten Bokkel Huinink WW, Prove AM, Piccart M, Steward W, Tursz T, Wanders J, Franklin H, Clavel M, Verweij J, Alakl M, Bayssas M, Kaye SB. A phase II trial with docetaxel (Taxotere) in second line treatment with chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer: a study of the EORTC Early Clinical Trials Group. Ann Oncol. 1994 Jul;5(6):527-32. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Adachi I, Watanabe T, Takashima S, Narabayashi M, Horikoshi N, Aoyama H, Taguchi T. A late phase II study of RP56976 (docetaxel) in patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1996 Jan;73(2):210-6. link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed
  3. TAX 304: Nabholtz JM, Senn HJ, Bezwoda WR, Melnychuk D, Deschênes L, Douma J, Vandenberg TA, Rapoport B, Rosso R, Trillet-Lenoir V, Drbal J, Molino A, Nortier JW, Richel DJ, Nagykalnai T, Siedlecki P, Wilking N, Genot JY, Hupperets PS, Pannuti F, Skarlos D, Tomiak EM, Murawsky M, Alakl M, Aapro M; 304 Study Group. Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus mitomycin plus vinblastine in patients with metastatic breast cancer progressing despite previous anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1999 May;17(5):1413-24. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. Review: Burris HA 3rd. Single-agent docetaxel (Taxotere) in randomized phase III trials. Semin Oncol. 1999 Jun;26(3 Suppl 9):1-6. PubMed
  5. TAX 303: Chan S, Friedrichs K, Noel D, Pintér T, Van Belle S, Vorobiof D, Duarte R, Gil Gil M, Bodrogi I, Murray E, Yelle L, von Minckwitz G, Korec S, Simmonds P, Buzzi F, González Mancha R, Richardson G, Walpole E, Ronzoni M, Murawsky M, Alakl M, Riva A, Crown J; 303 Study Group. Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus doxorubicin in patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Aug;17(8):2341-54. link to original article PubMed
  6. Sjöström J, Blomqvist C, Mouridsen H, Pluzanska A, Ottosson-Lönn S, Bengtsson NO, Ostenstad B, Mjaaland I, Palm-Sjövall M, Wist E, Valvere V, Anderson H, Bergh J. Docetaxel compared with sequential methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced breast cancer after anthracycline failure: a randomised phase III study with crossover on progression by the Scandinavian Breast Group. Eur J Cancer. 1999 Aug;35(8):1194-201. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  7. O'Shaughnessy J, Miles D, Vukelja S, Moiseyenko V, Ayoub JP, Cervantes G, Fumoleau P, Jones S, Lui WY, Mauriac L, Twelves C, Van Hazel G, Verma S, Leonard R. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jun 15;20(12):2812-23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. Bonneterre J, Roché H, Monnier A, Guastalla JP, Namer M, Fargeot P, Assadourian S. Docetaxel vs 5-fluorouracil plus vinorelbine in metastatic breast cancer after anthracycline therapy failure. Br J Cancer. 2002 Nov 18;87(11):1210-5. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  9. Jones SE, Erban J, Overmoyer B, Budd GT, Hutchins L, Lower E, Laufman L, Sundaram S, Urba WJ, Pritchard KI, Mennel R, Richards D, Olsen S, Meyers ML, Ravdin PM. Randomized phase III study of docetaxel compared with paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 20;23(24):5542-51. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  10. Harvey V, Mouridsen H, Semiglazov V, Jakobsen E, Voznyi E, Robinson BA, Groult V, Murawsky M, Cold S. Phase III trial comparing three doses of docetaxel for second-line treatment of advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Nov 1;24(31):4963-70. Epub 2006 Oct 10. link to original article PubMed
  11. Rivera E, Mejia JA, Arun BK, Adinin RB, Walters RS, Brewster A, Broglio KR, Yin G, Esmaeli B, Hortobagyi GN, Valero V. Phase 3 study comparing the use of docetaxel on an every-3-week versus weekly schedule in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Cancer. 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1455-61. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  12. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  13. Nielsen DL, Bjerre KD, Jakobsen EH, Cold S, Stenbygaard L, Sørensen PG, Kamby C, Møller S, Jørgensen CL, Andersson M. Gemcitabine plus docetaxel versus docetaxel in patients with predominantly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer: a randomized, phase III study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 20;29(36):4748-54. Epub 2011 Nov 14. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  14. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  15. JO21095: Yamamoto D, Sato N, Rai Y, Yamamoto Y, Saito M, Iwata H, Masuda N, Oura S, Watanabe J, Hattori S, Matsuura Y, Kuroi K. Efficacy and safety of low-dose capecitabine plus docetaxel versus single-agent docetaxel in patients with anthracycline-pretreated HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III JO21095 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Feb;161(3):473-482. Epub 2016 Dec 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Docetaxel & Bevacizumab

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Variant #1, docetaxel 60 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS

Note: this is the dosage used for Japanese patients.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, docetaxel 75 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS

Note: this is the lower end of the range of docetaxel dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #3, docetaxel 100 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Docetaxel Superior PFS

Note: this is the upper end of the range of docetaxel dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin monotherapy

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Variant #1, 20 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Doxorubicin & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the lower end of the range of weekly doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression

Variant #2, 25 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Doxorubicin & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the higher end of the range of weekly doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression

Variant #3, 60 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Norris et al. 2000 (NCIC CTG MA.8) Phase III (C) Doxorubicin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Doxorubicin & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: in NCIC CTG MA.8, this dose was after a mid-protocol amendment. Treatment in NCIC CTG MA.8 was given until a cumulative dose of 450 mg/m2. This is the lower end of the range of q3wk doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles (see note)

Variant #4, 75 mg/m2 q3wk, limited duration

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Chan et al. 1999 (TAX 303) Phase III (C) Docetaxel Inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 7 cycles

Variant #5, 75 mg/m2 q3wk, indefinite

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Doxorubicin & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the higher end of the range of q3wk doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. TAX 303: Chan S, Friedrichs K, Noel D, Pintér T, Van Belle S, Vorobiof D, Duarte R, Gil Gil M, Bodrogi I, Murray E, Yelle L, von Minckwitz G, Korec S, Simmonds P, Buzzi F, González Mancha R, Richardson G, Walpole E, Ronzoni M, Murawsky M, Alakl M, Riva A, Crown J; 303 Study Group. Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus doxorubicin in patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Aug;17(8):2341-54. link to original article PubMed
  2. NCIC CTG MA.8: Norris B, Pritchard KI, James K, Myles J, Bennett K, Marlin S, Skillings J, Findlay B, Vandenberg T, Goss P, Latreille J, Rudinskas L, Lofters W, Trudeau M, Osoba D, Rodgers A. Phase III comparative study of vinorelbine combined with doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone in disseminated metastatic/recurrent breast cancer: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study MA8. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Jun;18(12):2385-94. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin & Bevacizumab

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Variant #1, doxorubicin 20 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Superior PFS

Note: this is the lower end of the range of weekly doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, doxorubicin 25 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Superior PFS

Note: this is the higher end of the range of weekly doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #3, doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Superior PFS

Note: this is the lower end of the range of q3wk doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #4, doxorubicin 75 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Superior PFS

Note: this is the higher end of the range of q3wk doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin non-pegylated liposomal monotherapy

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NPLD: Non-Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) NPLD & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin non-pegylated liposomal & Bevacizumab

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NPLD/Bev: Non-Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin & Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) NPLD Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin pegylated liposomal monotherapy

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PLD: Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin

Variant #1, 40 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) PLD & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the lower end of the range of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 50 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) PLD & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: this is the higher end of the range of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxorubicin pegylated liposomal & Bevacizumab

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PLD/Bev: Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin & Bevacizumab

Variant #1, 40 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) PLD Superior PFS

Note: this is the lower end of the range of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 50 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) PLD Superior PFS

Note: this is the higher end of the range of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin dosing described in TANIA.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Eribulin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cortes et al. 2011 (EMBRACE) Phase III (E) Investigator's choice Seems to have superior OS
Kaufman et al. 2015 (E7389-G000-301) Phase III (E) Capecitabine Might have superior OS
Robson et al. 2017 (OlympiAD) Phase III (C) Olaparib Inferior PFS

Patients in OlympiAD had confirmed deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA mutation.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. EMBRACE: Cortes J, O'Shaughnessy J, Loesch D, Blum JL, Vahdat LT, Petrakova K, Chollet P, Manikas A, Diéras V, Delozier T, Vladimirov V, Cardoso F, Koh H, Bougnoux P, Dutcus CE, Seegobin S, Mir D, Meneses N, Wanders J, Twelves C; EMBRACE (Eisai Metastatic Breast Cancer Study Assessing Physician's Choice Versus E7389) investigators. Eribulin monotherapy versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with metastatic breast cancer (EMBRACE): a phase 3 open-label randomised study. Lancet. 2011 Mar 12;377(9769):914-23. Epub 2011 Mar 2. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. E7389-G000-301: Kaufman PA, Awada A, Twelves C, Yelle L, Perez EA, Velikova G, Olivo MS, He Y, Dutcus CE, Cortes J. Phase III open-label randomized study of eribulin mesylate versus capecitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Feb 20;33(6):594-601. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. OlympiAD: Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, Xu B, Domchek SM, Masuda N, Delaloge S, Li W, Tung N, Armstrong A, Wu W, Goessl C, Runswick S, Conte P. Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 10;377(6):523-533. Epub 2017 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine monotherapy

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Variant #1, 800 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence
Carmichael et al. 1995 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 1000 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Gemcitabine & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #3, 1200 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence
Spielmann et al. 2001 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #4, 1250 mg/m2 2 weeks out of 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) Gemcitabine & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) Gemcitabine & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Carmichael J, Possinger K, Phillip P, Beykirch M, Kerr H, Walling J, Harris AL. Advanced breast cancer: a phase II trial with gemcitabine. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Nov;13(11):2731-6. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Spielmann M, Llombart-Cussac A, Kalla S, Espié M, Namer M, Ferrero JM, Diéras V, Fumoleau P, Cuvier C, Perrocheau G, Ponzio A, Kayitalire L, Pouillart P. Single-agent gemcitabine is active in previously treated metastatic breast cancer. Oncology. 2001;60(4):303-7. link to original article PubMed
  3. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine & Bevacizumab

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Variant #1, 1000 mg/m2, 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Gemcitabine Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 1250 mg/m2, 2 weeks out of 3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) Gemcitabine Superior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) Gemcitabine Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, weekly

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Variant #1, 80 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Perez et al. 2001 Phase II
Seidman et al. 2008 (CALGB 9840) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel q3wk Superior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 90 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Perez EA, Vogel CL, Irwin DH, Kirshner JJ, Patel R. Multicenter phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Nov 15;19(22):4216-23. link to original article PubMed
  2. CALGB 9840: Seidman AD, Berry D, Cirrincione C, Harris L, Muss H, Marcom PK, Gipson G, Burstein H, Lake D, Shapiro CL, Ungaro P, Norton L, Winer E, Hudis C. Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1642-9. link to original article PubMed
  3. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, q3wk

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Variant #1, 135 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Nabholtz et al. 1996 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 q3wk Seems not superior (*)

Note: although Nabholtz et al. 1996 did not meet its primary endpoint, there seemed to be a TTP disadvantage in the lower-dose arm.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 175 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Seidman et al. 1995 Phase II
Nabholtz et al. 1996 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 q3wk Seems not superior (*)
Winer et al. 2004 (CALGB 9342) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel 210 mg/m2 q3wk Seems not superior
Paclitaxel 250 mg/m2 q3wk Seems not superior
Icli et al. 2005 Phase III (C) EoP Seems to have inferior OS
Jones et al. 2005 Phase III (E) Docetaxel Seems to have inferior OS
Gradishar et al. 2005 Phase III (C) Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel Inferior TTP
Seidman et al. 2008 (CALGB 9840) Phase III (C) Weekly paclitaxel Inferior OS
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: although Nabholtz et al. 1996 did not meet its primary endpoint, there seemed to be a TTP advantage in the higher-dose arm, which subsequently led to its adoption as the standard-of-care.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Seidman AD, Tiersten A, Hudis C, Gollub M, Barrett S, Yao TJ, Lepore J, Gilewski T, Currie V, Crown J, Hakes T, Baselga J, Sklarin N, Moynihan ME, Tong W, Egorin M, Kearns C, Spriggs D, Norton L. Phase II trial of paclitaxel by 3-hour infusion as initial and salvage chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Oct;13(10):2575-81. link to original article PubMed
  2. Nabholtz JM, Gelmon K, Bontenbal M, Spielmann M, Catimel G, Conte P, Klaassen U, Namer M, Bonneterre J, Fumoleau P, Winograd B. Multicenter, randomized comparative study of two doses of paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jun;14(6):1858-67. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. CALGB 9342: Winer EP, Berry DA, Woolf S, Duggan D, Kornblith A, Harris LN, Michaelson RA, Kirshner JA, Fleming GF, Perry MC, Graham ML, Sharp SA, Keresztes R, Henderson IC, Hudis C, Muss H, Norton L. Failure of higher-dose paclitaxel to improve outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 9342. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2061-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. Icli F, Akbulut H, Uner A, Yalcin B, Baltali E, Altinbas M, Coşkun S, Komurcu S, Erkisi M, Demirkazik A, Senler FC, Sencan O, Büyükcelik A, Boruban C, Onur H, Zengin N, Sak SD. Cisplatin plus oral etoposide (EoP) combination is more effective than paclitaxel in patients with advanced breast cancer pretreated with anthracyclines: a randomised phase III trial of Turkish Oncology Group. Br J Cancer. 2005 Feb 28;92(4):639-44. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Jones SE, Erban J, Overmoyer B, Budd GT, Hutchins L, Lower E, Laufman L, Sundaram S, Urba WJ, Pritchard KI, Mennel R, Richards D, Olsen S, Meyers ML, Ravdin PM. Randomized phase III study of docetaxel compared with paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 20;23(24):5542-51. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. Gradishar WJ, Tjulandin S, Davidson N, Shaw H, Desai N, Bhar P, Hawkins M, O'Shaughnessy J. Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 1;23(31):7794-803. Epub 2005 Sep 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. CALGB 9840: Seidman AD, Berry D, Cirrincione C, Harris L, Muss H, Marcom PK, Gipson G, Burstein H, Lake D, Shapiro CL, Ungaro P, Norton L, Winer E, Hudis C. Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1642-9. link to original article PubMed
  8. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab

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Variant #1, 90 mg/m2 3 weeks out of 4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 175 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound monotherapy

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Example orders

Variant #1, 100 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) nab-Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Note: the details of this regimen are minimal in the manuscript; it is unclear if this is truly given once per week or given in a 3 weeks on, 1 week off schedule.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 260 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gradishar et al. 2005 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Superior TTP
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) nab-Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (C) nab-Paclitaxel & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Gradishar et al. 2005: No corticosteroid or antihistamine premedication

21-day cycles

References

  1. Gradishar WJ, Tjulandin S, Davidson N, Shaw H, Desai N, Bhar P, Hawkins M, O'Shaughnessy J. Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 1;23(31):7794-803. Epub 2005 Sep 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound & Bevacizumab

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Example orders

Variant #1, 100 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) nab-Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Note: the schedule of bevacizumab is inferred, as there was insufficient detail in the description in the manuscript.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 260 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) nab-Paclitaxel Superior PFS
von Minckwitz et al. 2014 (TANIA) Phase III (E) nab-Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. TANIA: von Minckwitz G, Puglisi F, Cortes J, Vrdoljak E, Marschner N, Zielinski C, Villanueva C, Romieu G, Lang I, Ciruelos E, De Laurentiis M, Veyret C, de Ducla S, Freudensprung U, Srock S, Gligorov J. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Oct;15(11):1269-78. Epub 2014 Sep 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Vinorelbine monotherapy

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Variant #1, 25 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence
Gasparini et al. 1994 Phase II
Zelek et al. 2001 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Variant #2, 30 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (C) Vinorelbine & Bevacizumab Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #3, 30 mg/m2 2 out of 3 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robson et al. 2017 (OlympiAD) Phase III (C) Olaparib Inferior PFS

Patients had confirmed deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA mutation.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Gasparini G, Caffo O, Barni S, Frontini L, Testolin A, Guglielmi RB, Ambrosini G. Vinorelbine is an active antiproliferative agent in pretreated advanced breast cancer patients: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 1994 Oct;12(10):2094-101. link to original article PubMed
  2. Zelek L, Barthier S, Riofrio M, Fizazi K, Rixe O, Delord JP, Le Cesne A, Spielmann M. Weekly vinorelbine is an effective palliative regimen after failure with anthracyclines and taxanes in metastatic breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2001 Nov 1;92(9):2267-72. PubMed
  3. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. OlympiAD: Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, Xu B, Domchek SM, Masuda N, Delaloge S, Li W, Tung N, Armstrong A, Wu W, Goessl C, Runswick S, Conte P. Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 10;377(6):523-533. Epub 2017 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Vinorelbine & Bevacizumab

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Example orders

Variant #1, vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 weekly

Study Evidence
Burstein et al. 2008 Phase II

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

Variant #2, vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Brufsky et al. 2011 (RIBBON-2) Phase III (E) Vinorelbine Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Burstein HJ, Chen YH, Parker LM, Savoie J, Younger J, Kuter I, Ryan PD, Garber JE, Chen H, Campos SM, Shulman LN, Harris LN, Gelman R, Winer EP. VEGF as a marker for outcome among advanced breast cancer patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy with bevacizumab and vinorelbine chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7871-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. RIBBON-2: Brufsky AM, Hurvitz S, Perez E, Swamy R, Valero V, O'Neill V, Rugo HS. RIBBON-2: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for second-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4286-93. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Additional resources

Patient information