Complex multipart regimens

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The purpose of this page is to capture information about complex comparisons that is not easily conveyed on the treatment regimen pages. Many complex multipart RCTs are of the "Y-shaped" format "A followed by B1 versus B2" or "A1 versus A2 followed by B" and this can be captured on the treatment regimen pages. This page will convey information on more complicated designs, such as "A followed by B versus B followed by A" or "A followed by B versus C followed by D".

Contents


Acute promyelocytic leukemia

C9710

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Note: this trial included a second randomization during the maintenance phase, which is not complex and is therefore not reported here.

Arm 1

Arm 2, with ATO3

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Without ATO3 Inferior EFS
With ATO3 Superior EFS

References

  1. Powell BL, Moser B, Stock W, Gallagher RE, Willman CL, Stone RM, Rowe JM, Coutre S, Feusner JH, Gregory J, Couban S, Appelbaum FR, Tallman MS, Larson RA. Arsenic trioxide improves event-free and overall survival for adults with acute promyelocytic leukemia: North American Leukemia Intergroup Study C9710. Blood. 2010 Nov 11;116(19):3751-7. Epub 2010 Aug 12. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Breast cancer

ABCSG-8

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ABCSG-8: Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group 8

Arm 1, monotherapy (Control)

Arm 2, sequential (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Efficacy is based on the 2012 update.

Regimen Efficacy
Tamoxifen Might have inferior RFS
Tamoxifen, then Anastrozole Might have superior RFS

References

  1. Jakesz R, Jonat W, Gnant M, Mittlboeck M, Greil R, Tausch C, Hilfrich J, Kwasny W, Menzel C, Samonigg H, Seifert M, Gademann G, Kaufmann M, Wolfgang J; ABCSG and the GABG. Switching of postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsiveearly breast cancer to anastrozole after 2 years' adjuvant tamoxifen: combined results of ABCSG trial 8 and ARNO 95 trial. Lancet. 2005 Aug 6-12;366(9484):455-62. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Dubsky PC, Jakesz R, Mlineritsch B, Pöstlberger S, Samonigg H, Kwasny W, Tausch C, Stöger H, Haider K, Fitzal F, Singer CF, Stierer M, Sevelda P, Luschin-Ebengreuth G, Taucher S, Rudas M, Bartsch R, Steger GG, Greil R, Filipcic L, Gnant M. Tamoxifen and anastrozole as a sequencing strategy: a randomized controlled trial in postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer from the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 1;30(7):722-8. Epub 2012 Jan 23. link to original article PubMed

ACOSOG Z1041

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Approach Efficacy
Sequential trastuzumab (C) Seems not superior
Concurrent trastuzumab (E) Seems not superior

References

  1. Buzdar AU, Suman VJ, Meric-Bernstam F, Leitch AM, Ellis MJ, Boughey JC, Unzeitig G, Royce M, McCall LM, Ewer MS, Hunt KK; American College of Surgeons Oncology Group investigators. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC-75) followed by paclitaxel plus trastuzumab versus paclitaxel plus trastuzumab followed by FEC-75 plus trastuzumab as neoadjuvant treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (Z1041): a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Dec;14(13):1317-25. Epub 2013 Nov 13. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

ARNO 95

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Arm 1, monotherapy (Control)

Arm 2, sequential (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Efficacy is based on the 2007 update.

Regimen Efficacy
Tamoxifen, then Anastrozole Seems to have superior OS
Tamoxifen Seems to have inferior OS

References

  1. Jakesz R, Jonat W, Gnant M, Mittlboeck M, Greil R, Tausch C, Hilfrich J, Kwasny W, Menzel C, Samonigg H, Seifert M, Gademann G, Kaufmann M, Wolfgang J; ABCSG and the GABG. Switching of postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsiveearly breast cancer to anastrozole after 2 years' adjuvant tamoxifen: combined results of ABCSG trial 8 and ARNO 95 trial. Lancet. 2005 Aug 6-12;366(9484):455-62. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Kaufmann M, Jonat W, Hilfrich J, Eidtmann H, Gademann G, Zuna I, von Minckwitz G. Improved overall survival in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer after anastrozole initiated after treatment with tamoxifen compared with continued tamoxifen: the ARNO 95 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 1;25(19):2664-70. Epub 2007 Jun 11. link to original article PubMed

Assikis et al. 2003

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
FAC, then MV Seems not superior
Tamoxifen Seems not superior

References

  1. Assikis V, Buzdar A, Yang Y, Smith T, Theriault R, Booser D, Valero V, Walters R, Singletary E, Ames F, Hortobagyi G. A phase III trial of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast carcinoma: final analysis with 10-year follow-up. Cancer. 2003 Jun 1;97(11):2716-23. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

BCIRG-005

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Arm 1, sequential (Experimental)

Arm 2, concurrent (Control)

Comparative efficacy

Schedule Efficacy
Sequential (AC, then T) Seems not superior
Concurrent (TAC) Seems not superior

References

  1. Eiermann W, Pienkowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martin M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press M, Sauter G, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Buyse M, Drevot P, Taupin H, Mackey JR. Phase III study of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide with concomitant versus sequential docetaxel as adjuvant treatment in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-normal, node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 10;29(29):3877-84. Epub 2011 Sep 12. link to original article PubMed

BCIRG 006

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Arm 1, sequential without trastuzumab

Arm 2, sequential with trastuzumab

Arm 3, concurrent with trastuzumab

Comparative efficacy

  • Analyzed using a step-down design

Comparison 1

Trastuzumab-containing regimens vs. AC, then T Efficacy
AC, then TH Superior OS
TCH Seems to have superior OS

Comparison 2

Trastuzumab-containing regimens Efficacy
AC, then TH Seems not superior
TCH Seems not superior

References

  1. Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, Pienkowski T, Martin M, Press M, Mackey J, Glaspy J, Chan A, Pawlicki M, Pinter T, Valero V, Liu MC, Sauter G, von Minckwitz G, Visco F, Bee V, Buyse M, Bendahmane B, Tabah-Fisch I, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Crown J; Breast Cancer International Research Group. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6;365(14):1273-83. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

BIG 1-98

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Arm 1, monotherapy

Arm 2, sequential

Arm 3, monotherapy

Arm 4, sequential

Comparative efficacy

  • Analyzed by several methods; efficacy here is based on the 2011 update.

Comparison 1

Monotherapy Efficacy
Letrozole Superior OS
Tamoxifen Inferior OS

Comparison 2

Sequential therapies Efficacy
Letrozole, then Tamoxifen Seems not superior
Tamoxifen, then Letrozole Seems not superior

Comparison 3

Letrozole-containing therapies Efficacy
Letrozole Seems not superior
Letrozole, then Tamoxifen Seems not superior
Tamoxifen, then Letrozole Seems not superior

References

  1. Thürlimann B, Keshaviah A, Coates AS, Mouridsen H, Mauriac L, Forbes JF, Paridaens R, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Gelber RD, Rabaglio M, Smith I, Wardley A, Price KN, Goldhirsch A; Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 Collaborative Group. A comparison of letrozole and tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Dec 29;353(26):2747-57. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2006 May 18;354(20):2200. Wardly, Andrew [corrected to Wardley, Andrew ]. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Coates AS, Keshaviah A, Thürlimann B, Mouridsen H, Mauriac L, Forbes JF, Paridaens R, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Gelber RD, Colleoni M, Láng I, Del Mastro L, Smith I, Chirgwin J, Nogaret JM, Pienkowski T, Wardley A, Jakobsen EH, Price KN, Goldhirsch A. Five years of letrozole compared with tamoxifen as initial adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: update of study BIG 1-98. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Feb 10;25(5):486-92. Epub 2007 Jan 2. link to original article PubMed
    2. Subgroup analysis: Rasmussen BB, Regan MM, Lykkesfeldt AE, Dell'Orto P, Del Curto B, Henriksen KL, Mastropasqua MG, Price KN, Méry E, Lacroix-Triki M, Braye S, Altermatt HJ, Gelber RD, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Goldhirsch A, Gusterson BA, Thürlimann B, Coates AS, Viale G; BIG 1-98 Collaborative and International Breast Cancer Study Groups. Adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen according to centrally-assessed ERBB2 status for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: supplementary results from the BIG 1-98 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2008 Jan;9(1):23-8. Epub 2007 Dec 20. link to original article PubMed
    3. Subgroup analysis: Crivellari D, Sun Z, Coates AS, Price KN, Thürlimann B, Mouridsen H, Mauriac L, Forbes JF, Paridaens RJ, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Gelber RD, Colleoni M, Láng I, Del Mastro L, Gladieff L, Rabaglio M, Smith IE, Chirgwin JH, Goldhirsch A. Letrozole compared with tamoxifen for elderly patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: the BIG 1-98 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1972-9. Epub 2008 Mar 10. link to original article PubMed
    4. Update: Regan MM, Neven P, Giobbie-Hurder A, Goldhirsch A, Ejlertsen B, Mauriac L, Forbes JF, Smith I, Láng I, Wardley A, Rabaglio M, Price KN, Gelber RD, Coates AS, Thürlimann B; BIG 1-98 Collaborative Group.; International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG). Assessment of letrozole and tamoxifen alone and in sequence for postmenopausal women with steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: the BIG 1-98 randomised clinical trial at 8·1 years median follow-up. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Nov;12(12):1101-8. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

BIG 02-98

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Arm 1, sequential control

  • Surgery, then A x 4, then CMF x 3

Arm 2, concurrent control

  • Surgery, then AC x 4, then CMF x 3

Arm 3, sequential experimental

  • Surgery, then A x 4, D x 3, then CMF x 3

Arm 4, concurrent experimental

  • Surgery, then AT x 4, then CMF x 3

Comparative efficacy

This trial was analyzed with a 2 x 2 factorial design. Reported efficacy is based on the 2015 update.

Comparison 1 - addition of docetaxel

Regimen Efficacy
Non-docetaxel-containing (C) Seems not superior (*)
Docetaxel containing (E) Seems not superior (*)

Comparison 2 - sequencing

Regimen Efficacy
Sequential Seems not superior (*)
Concurrent Seems not superior (*)

References

  1. Francis P, Crown J, Di Leo A, Buyse M, Balil A, Andersson M, Nordenskjöld B, Lang I, Jakesz R, Vorobiof D, Gutiérrez J, van Hazel G, Dolci S, Jamin S, Bendahmane B, Gelber RD, Goldhirsch A, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Piccart-Gebhart M; BIG 02-98 Collaborative Group. Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jan 16;100(2):121-33. Epub 2008 Jan 8. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Nov 19;100(22):1655. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Oakman C, Francis PA, Crown J, Quinaux E, Buyse M, De Azambuja E, Margeli Vila M, Andersson M, Nordenskjöld B, Jakesz R, Thürlimann B, Gutiérrez J, Harvey V, Punzalan L, Dell'orto P, Larsimont D, Steinberg I, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M, Viale G, Di Leo A. Overall survival benefit for sequential doxorubicin-docetaxel compared with concurrent doxorubicin and docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer--8-year results of the Breast International Group 02-98 phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2013 May;24(5):1203-11. Epub 2013 Jan 4. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Sonnenblick A, Francis PA, Azim HA Jr, de Azambuja E, Nordenskjöld B, Gutiérez J, Quinaux E, Mastropasqua MG, Ameye L, Anderson M, Lluch A, Gnant M, Goldhirsch A, Di Leo A, Barnadas A, Cortes-Funes H, Piccart M, Crown J. Final 10-year results of the Breast International Group 2-98 phase III trial and the role of Ki67 in predicting benefit of adjuvant docetaxel in patients with oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Aug;51(12):1481-9. Epub 2015 Jun 11. link to original article PubMed

BR9601

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
CMF x 8 Inferior OS
EC x 4, then CMF x 4 Superior OS

References

  1. Poole CJ, Earl HM, Hiller L, Dunn JA, Bathers S, Grieve RJ, Spooner DA, Agrawal RK, Fernando IN, Brunt AM, O'Reilly SM, Crawford SM, Rea DW, Simmonds P, Mansi JL, Stanley A, Harvey P, McAdam K, Foster L, Leonard RC, Twelves CJ; NEAT Investigators and the SCTBG. Epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 2;355(18):1851-62. link to original article PubMed

Buzdar et al. 2005

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
T, then FEC Seems to have inferior pCR rate
TH, then FEC & H Seems to have superior pCR rate

References

  1. Buzdar AU, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Booser DJ, Thomas ES, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Arun BK, Giordano SH, Cristofanilli M, Frye DK, Smith TL, Hunt KK, Singletary SE, Sahin AA, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Berry D, Hortobagyi GN. Significantly higher pathologic complete remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and epirubicin chemotherapy: results of a randomized trial in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3676-85. Epub 2005 Feb 28. link to original article PubMed

Buzzoni et al. 1991

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Arm 1 (Experimental)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

  • Surgery, then A alternating with CMF every 2 cycles (12 cycles total)

Comparative efficacy

Approach Efficacy
Sequential Superior OS
Alternating Inferior OS

References

  1. Buzzoni R, Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Zambetti M. Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in the treatment of resectable breast cancer with more than three positive axillary nodes. J Clin Oncol. 1991 Dec;9(12):2134-40. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Bonadonna G, Zambetti M, Valagussa P. Sequential or alternating doxorubicin and CMF regimens in breast cancer with more than three positive nodes: ten-year results. JAMA. 1995 Feb 15;273(7):542-7. link to original article PubMed

CALGB 9741

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Note: what is referred to in this study as concurrent is in fact the same regimen that is referred to as sequential in other studies. The taxane studied in this trial was paclitaxel.

Arm 1, sequential

  • A x 4, then T q3wk x 4, then C x 4

Arm 2, dose-dense sequential

Arm 3, "concurrent"

Arm 4, dose-dense "concurrent"

Comparative efficacy

  • Analyzed using a 2 x 2 factorial design

Comparison 1

Dose density Efficacy
Dose-dense (q2wk) Seems to have superior OS
Standard (q3wk) Seems to have inferior OS

Comparison 2

Schedule Efficacy
Concurrent Seems not superior
Sequential Seems not superior

References

  1. Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, Davidson NE, Martino S, Livingston R, Ingle JN, Perez EA, Carpenter J, Hurd D, Holland JF, Smith BL, Sartor CI, Leung EH, Abrams J, Schilsky RL, Muss HB, Norton L. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1431-9. Epub 2003 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

DBCG 82b

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Arm 1 (Experimental)

Arm 2 (Control)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
With RT Superior OS
Without RT Inferior OS

References

  1. Overgaard M, Hansen PS, Overgaard J, Rose C, Andersson M, Bach F, Kjaer M, Gadeberg CC, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Zedeler K. Postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk premenopausal women with breast cancer who receive adjuvant chemotherapy: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82b trial. N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 2;337(14):949-55. link to original article PubMed

DBCG 07-READ

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Arm 1

Arm 2, "EC-D"

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
DC x 6 Seems not superior
EC x 3, then D x 3 Seems not superior

References

  1. Ejlertsen B, Tuxen MK, Jakobsen EH, Jensen MB, Knoop AS, Højris I, Ewertz M, Balslev E, Danø H, Vestlev PM, Kenholm J, Nielsen DL, Bechmann T, Andersson M, Cold S, Nielsen HM, Maae E, Carlsen D, Mouridsen HT. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide and docetaxel with or without epirubicin for early TOP2A-normal breast cancer: DBCG 07-READ, an open-label, phase III, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 10;35(23):2639-2646. Epub 2017 Jun 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

DEVA

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Epirubicin Inferior DFS
Epirubicin, then Docetaxel Superior DFS

References

  1. Coombes RC, Bliss JM, Espie M, Erdkamp F, Wals J, Tres A, Marty M, Coleman RE, Tubiana-Mathieu N, den Boer MO, Wardley A, Kilburn LS, Cooper D, Thomas MW, Reise JA, Wilkinson K, Hupperets P. Randomized, phase III trial of sequential epirubicin and docetaxel versus epirubicin alone in postmenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 20;29(24):3247-54. Epub 2011 Jul 18. link to original article PubMed

ECOG E5103

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Arm A (Control)

Arm B (Experimental)

  • Surgery, then AC-Bev x 4 or ddAC-Bev x 4, then wP-Bev

Arm C (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Backbone Efficacy
No bevacizumab Seems not superior
With bevacizumab Seems not superior

References

  1. Miller KD, O'Neill A, Gradishar W, Hobday TJ, Goldstein LJ, Mayer IA, Bloom S, Brufsky AM, Tevaarwerk AJ, Sparano JA, Le-Lindqwister NA, Hendricks CB, Northfelt DW, Dang CT, Sledge GW Jr. Double-blind phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab in patients with lymph node-positive and high-risk lymph node-negative breast cancer (E5103). J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 1;36(25):2621-2629. Epub 2018 Jul 24. link to original article PubMed

ECTO

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Arm A (Control)

Arm B (Experimental)

Arm C (Experimental)

  • AT (Taxol) x 4, then CMF x 4, then surgery

Comparative efficacy

Comparison 1

Paclitaxel Efficacy
Included Seems to have superior RFS
Not included Seems to have inferior RFS

Comparison 2

Timing Efficacy
Adjuvant AT-CMF Seems not superior
Neoadjuvant AT-CMF Seems not superior

References

  1. Gianni L, Baselga J, Eiermann W, Porta VG, Semiglazov V, Lluch A, Zambetti M, Sabadell D, Raab G, Cussac AL, Bozhok A, Martinez-Agulló A, Greco M, Byakhov M, Lopez JJ, Mansutti M, Valagussa P, Bonadonna G. Phase III trial evaluating the addition of paclitaxel to doxorubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, as adjuvant or primary systemic therapy: European Cooperative Trial in Operable Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 May 20;27(15):2474-81. Epub 2009 Mar 30. link to original article PubMed

FATA-GIM3

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Arm 3

Arm 4

Arm 5

Arm 6

Comparative efficacy

Approach Efficacy
AI x 5 y Seems not superior
Tamoxifen x 2 y, then AI x 3 y Seems not superior

References

  1. De Placido S, Gallo C, De Laurentiis M, Bisagni G, Arpino G, Sarobba MG, Riccardi F, Russo A, Del Mastro L, Cogoni AA, Cognetti F, Gori S, Foglietta J, Frassoldati A, Amoroso D, Laudadio L, Moscetti L, Montemurro F, Verusio C, Bernardo A, Lorusso V, Gravina A, Moretti G, Lauria R, Lai A, Mocerino C, Rizzo S, Nuzzo F, Carlini P, Perrone F; GIM Investigators. Adjuvant anastrozole versus exemestane versus letrozole, upfront or after 2 years of tamoxifen, in endocrine-sensitive breast cancer (FATA-GIM3): a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Apr;19(4):474-485. Epub 2018 Feb 23. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2018 Apr;19(4):e184. link to original article PubMed

FinXX

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

  • TX x 3, then CEX x 3

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
T x 3, then CEF x 3 Might have inferior RFS
TX x 3, then CEX x 3 Might have superior RFS

References

  1. Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Huovinen R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Tanner M, Asola R, Kokko R, Ahlgren J, Auvinen P, Hemminki A, Paija O, Helle L, Nuortio L, Villman K, Nilsson G, Lahtela SL, Lehtiö K, Pajunen M, Poikonen P, Nyandoto P, Kataja V, Bono P, Leinonen M, Lindman H; FinXX Study Investigators. Adjuvant capecitabine in combination with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide plus epirubicin for breast cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009 Dec;10(12):1145-51. Epub 2009 Nov 10. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Huovinen R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Tanner M, Kokko R, Ahlgren J, Auvinen P, Paija O, Helle L, Villman K, Nyandoto P, Nilsson G, Pajunen M, Asola R, Poikonen P, Leinonen M, Kataja V, Bono P, Lindman H. Adjuvant capecitabine, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and epirubicin for early breast cancer: final analysis of the randomized FinXX trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jan 1;30(1):11-8. Epub 2011 Nov 21. link to original article PubMed

FNCLCC PACS 01

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Note: efficacy is based on the 2012 update.

Regimen Efficacy
FEC Inferior OS (*)
FEC-D Superior OS (*)

References

  1. Roché H, Fumoleau P, Spielmann M, Canon JL, Delozier T, Serin D, Symann M, Kerbrat P, Soulié P, Eichler F, Viens P, Monnier A, Vindevoghel A, Campone M, Goudier MJ, Bonneterre J, Ferrero JM, Martin AL, Genève J, Asselain B. Sequential adjuvant epirubicin-based and docetaxel chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer patients: the FNCLCC PACS 01 Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5664-71. Epub 2006 Nov 20. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Coudert B, Asselain B, Campone M, Spielmann M, Machiels JP, Pénault-Llorca F, Serin D, Lévy C, Romieu G, Canon JL, Orfeuvre H, Piot G, Petit T, Jerusalem G, Audhuy B, Veyret C, Beauduin M, Eymard JC, Martin AL, Roché H; UNICANCER Breast Group. Extended benefit from sequential administration of docetaxel after standard fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide regimen for node-positive breast cancer: the 8-year follow-up results of the UNICANCER-PACS01 trial. Oncologist. 2012;17(7):900-9. Epub 2012 May 18. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

GEICAM 9906

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
FEC x 6 Inferior DFS
FEC x 4, then T Superior DFS

References

  1. Martín M, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Ruiz A, Alba E, Calvo L, Ruiz-Borrego M, Munárriz B, Rodríguez CA, Crespo C, de Alava E, López García-Asenjo JA, Guitián MD, Almenar S, González-Palacios JF, Vera F, Palacios J, Ramos M, Gracia Marco JM, Lluch A, Alvarez I, Seguí MA, Mayordomo JI, Antón A, Baena JM, Plazaola A, Modolell A, Pelegrí A, Mel JR, Aranda E, Adrover E, Alvarez JV, García Puche JL, Sánchez-Rovira P, Gonzalez S, López-Vega JM; GEICAM 9906 Study Investigators. Randomized phase 3 trial of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide alone or followed by paclitaxel for early breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 4;100(11):805-14. Epub 2008 May 27. link to original article PubMed

GEICAM/2003-02

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Arm 1, FAC (Control)

Arm 2, FAC-wP (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
FAC Seems to have inferior DFS
FAC-wP Seems to have superior DFS

References

  1. Martín M, Ruiz A, Ruiz Borrego M, Barnadas A, González S, Calvo L, Margelí Vila M, Antón A, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Seguí-Palmer MA, Muñoz-Mateu M, Dorca Ribugent J, López-Vega JM, Jara C, Espinosa E, Mendiola Fernández C, Andrés R, Ribelles N, Plazaola A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Salvador Bofill J, Crespo C, Carabantes FJ, Servitja S, Chacón JI, Rodríguez CA, Hernando B, Álvarez I, Carrasco E, Lluch A. Fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus FAC followed by weekly paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-02 study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul 10;31(20):2593-9. Epub 2013 Jun 3. link to original article PubMed

GEICAM/2003-10

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Arm 1, EC-T (Control)

Arm 2, ET-X (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
EC-T Seems to have superior IDFS
ET-X Seems to have inferior IDFS

References

  1. Martín M, Ruiz Simón A, Ruiz Borrego M, Ribelles N, Rodríguez-Lescure Á, Muñoz-Mateu M, González S, Margelí Vila M, Barnadas A, Ramos M, Del Barco Berron S, Jara C, Calvo L, Martínez-Jáñez N, Mendiola Fernández C, Rodríguez CA, Martínez de Dueñas E, Andrés R, Plazaola A, de la Haba-Rodríguez J, López-Vega JM, Adrover E, Ballesteros AI, Santaballa A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Baena-Cañada JM, Casas M, del Carmen Cámara M, Carrasco EM, Lluch A. Epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel versus epirubicin plus docetaxel followed by capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for node-positive early breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-10 study. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Nov 10;33(32):3788-95. Epub 2015 Sep 28. link to original article PubMed

GeparDuo

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Arm 1, ddAT (Experimental)

Arm 2, AC-T (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
ddAT Inferior pCR rate
AC-T Superior pCR rate

References

  1. von Minckwitz G, Raab G, Caputo A, Schütte M, Hilfrich J, Blohmer JU, Gerber B, Costa SD, Merkle E, Eidtmann H, Lampe D, Jackisch C, du Bois A, Kaufmann M. Doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel every 21 days compared with doxorubicin and docetaxel every 14 days as preoperative treatment in operable breast cancer: the GEPARDUO study of the German Breast Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 20;23(12):2676-85. link to original article PubMed

GeparQuinto

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Arm 1A - Control (HER2-negative)

Arm 1B - Control (HER2-positive)

Arm 2A - Experimental (HER2-negative)

Arm 2B - Experimental (HER2-positive)

  • ECL x 4, then TL (Taxotere) x 4, then surgery

Comparative efficacy

Comparison 1 (HER2-negative)

Note that while this study met the primary efficacy endpoint, the advantage for bevacizumab was only seen in the triple-negative breast cancer patients, with p=0.003 in this subgroup.

Regimen Efficacy
No bevacizumab Seems to have inferior pCR rate
With bevacizumab Seems to have superior pCR rate

Comparison 2 (HER2-positive)

Regimen Efficacy
With lapatinib Seems to have inferior pCR rate
With trastuzumab Seems to have superior pCR rate

References

  1. von Minckwitz G, Eidtmann H, Rezai M, Fasching PA, Tesch H, Eggemann H, Schrader I, Kittel K, Hanusch C, Kreienberg R, Solbach C, Gerber B, Jackisch C, Kunz G, Blohmer JU, Huober J, Hauschild M, Fehm T, Müller BM, Denkert C, Loibl S, Nekljudova V, Untch M; German Breast Group; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie–Breast Study Groups. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and bevacizumab for HER2-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):299-309. link to original article PubMed
  2. Untch M, Loibl S, Bischoff J, Eidtmann H, Kaufmann M, Blohmer JU, Hilfrich J, Strumberg D, Fasching PA, Kreienberg R, Tesch H, Hanusch C, Gerber B, Rezai M, Jackisch C, Huober J, Kühn T, Nekljudova V, von Minckwitz G; German Breast Group (GBG); Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie-Breast (AGO-B) Study Group. Lapatinib versus trastuzumab in combination with neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy (GeparQuinto, GBG 44): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Feb;13(2):135-44. Epub 2012 Jan 17. link to SD article PubMed

GIM2

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Arm 1, "q3EC-P" (Control)

  • EC x 4, then P x 4

Arm 2, "q3FEC-P" (Experimental)

Arm 3, "q2EC-P" (Experimental)

Arm 4, "q2FEC-P" (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

  • Analyzed using a 2 x 2 factorial design

Comparison 1

Dose density Efficacy
Dose-dense (q2wk) Superior OS
Standard (q3wk) Inferior OS

Comparison 2

Inclusion of 5-FU Efficacy
Yes (FEC-based) Seems not superior
No (EC-based) Seems not superior

References

  1. Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article PubMed

HannaH

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Arm 1, IV trastuzumab

Arm 2, SC trastuzumab

Comparative efficacy

Route of administration Efficacy
IV trastuzumab Non-inferior pCR rate
SC trastuzumab Non-inferior pCR rate

References

  1. Ismael G, Hegg R, Muehlbauer S, Heinzmann D, Lum B, Kim SB, Pienkowski T, Lichinitser M, Semiglazov V, Melichar B, Jackisch C. Subcutaneous versus intravenous administration of (neo)adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive, clinical stage I-III breast cancer (HannaH study): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Sep;13(9):869-78. Epub 2012 Aug 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

HORG Polyzos et al. 2010

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Arm 1 (Experimental)

Arm 2 (Control)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
D/EC Seems to have superior DFS
FEC Seems to have inferior DFS

References

  1. Polyzos A, Malamos N, Boukovinas I, Adamou A, Ziras N, Kalbakis K, Kakolyris S, Syrigos K, Papakotoulas P, Kouroussis C, Karvounis N, Vamvakas L, Christophyllakis C, Athanasiadis A, Varthalitis I, Georgoulias V, Mavroudis D. FEC versus sequential docetaxel followed by epirubicin/cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with axillary node-positive early breast cancer: a randomized study of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jan;119(1):95-104. Epub 2009 Jul 28. link to original article PubMed

HORG CT/07.17

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
ddFEC → D Inconclusive whether non-inferior
TC Inconclusive whether non-inferior

References

  1. Mavroudis D, Matikas A, Malamos N, Papakotoulas P, Kakolyris S, Boukovinas I, Athanasiadis A, Kentepozidis N, Ziras N, Katsaounis P, Saloustros E, Georgoulias V; Breast Cancer Investigators of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG), Athens, Greece. Dose-dense FEC followed by docetaxel versus docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-negative, axillary lymph node-positive early breast cancer: a multicenter randomized study by the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Ann Oncol. 2016 Oct;27(10):1873-8. Epub 2016 Aug 8. link to original article PubMed

IES

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IES: Intergroup Exemestane Study

Arm 1, monotherapy (Control)

Arm 2, sequential (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Note: reported efficacy is based on the 2011 update.

Regimen Efficacy
Tamoxifen x 5y Seems to have inferior OS
Tamoxifen x 2-3y, then Exemestane x 2-3y (5y total) Seems to have superior OS

References

  1. Coombes RC, Hall E, Gibson LJ, Paridaens R, Jassem J, Delozier T, Jones SE, Alvarez I, Bertelli G, Ortmann O, Coates AS, Bajetta E, Dodwell D, Coleman RE, Fallowfield LJ, Mickiewicz E, Andersen J, Lønning PE, Cocconi G, Stewart A, Stuart N, Snowdon CF, Carpentieri M, Massimini G, Bliss JM, van de Velde C; Intergroup Exemestane Study. A randomized trial of exemestane after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 11;350(11):1081-92. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Coombes RC, Kilburn LS, Snowdon CF, Paridaens R, Coleman RE, Jones SE, Jassem J, Van de Velde CJ, Delozier T, Alvarez I, Del Mastro L, Ortmann O, Diedrich K, Coates AS, Bajetta E, Holmberg SB, Dodwell D, Mickiewicz E, Andersen J, Lønning PE, Cocconi G, Forbes J, Castiglione M, Stuart N, Stewart A, Fallowfield LJ, Bertelli G, Hall E, Bogle RG, Carpentieri M, Colajori E, Subar M, Ireland E, Bliss JM; Intergroup Exemestane Study. Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2-3 years' tamoxifen treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Feb 17;369(9561):559-70. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Bliss JM, Kilburn LS, Coleman RE, Forbes JF, Coates AS, Jones SE, Jassem J, Delozier T, Andersen J, Paridaens R, van de Velde CJ, Lønning PE, Morden J, Reise J, Cisar L, Menschik T, Coombes RC. Disease-related outcomes with long-term follow-up: an updated analysis of the Intergroup Exemestane Study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 1;30(7):709-17. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article PubMed

Mavroudis et al. 2017

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Arm 1, sequential

Arm 2, concurrent

  • Docetaxel & Epirubicin

Comparative efficacy

Schedule Efficacy
Sequential Might have superior DFS
Concurrent Might have inferior DFS

References

  1. Mavroudis D, Saloustros E, Boukovinas I, Papakotoulas P, Kakolyris S, Ziras N, Christophylakis C, Kentepozidis N, Fountzilas G, Rigas G, Varthalitis I, Kalbakis K, Agelaki S, Hatzidaki D, Georgoulias V. Sequential vs concurrent epirubicin and docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk, node-negative, early breast cancer: an interim analysis of a randomised phase III study from the Hellenic Oncology Research Group. Br J Cancer. 2017 Jul 11;117(2):164-170. Epub 2017 Jun 22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

NCCTG N9831

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The taxane used in this trial was paclitaxel.

Arm 1, no trastuzumab (Control)

Arm 2, sequential trastuzumab (Experimental)

Arm 3, concurrent trastuzumab (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Comparison 1

Note: Arm 2 was not included in this joint analysis. Efficacy is based on the 2014 update.

Regimen Efficacy
AC, then T Inferior OS
AC, then TH Superior OS

Comparison 2

Note: efficacy is as reported in the 2011 update.

Trastuzumab-containing regimens Efficacy
AC, then T, then H Might have inferior DFS
AC, then TH Might have superior DFS

References

  1. Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE Jr, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, Fehrenbacher L, Kutteh LA, Vogel VG, Visscher DW, Yothers G, Jenkins RB, Brown AM, Dakhil SR, Mamounas EP, Lingle WL, Klein PM, Ingle JN, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1673-84. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Gralow JR, Kaufman PA, Visscher DW, Chen B, Ingle JN, Dakhil SR, Zujewski J, Moreno-Aspitia A, Pisansky TM, Jenkins RB. Sequential versus concurrent trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4491-7. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Sledge G, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Rastogi P, Gralow J, Swain SM, Winer EP, Colon-Otero G, Davidson NE, Mamounas E, Zujewski JA, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: planned joint analysis of overall survival from NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 20;32(33):3744-52. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

NCIC CTG MA.21

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Arm 1, CEF (Control)

Arm 2, AC/T (Control)

Arm 3, ddEC/T (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Comparison 1

Regimen Efficacy
AC/T Inferior RFS
CEF Superior RFS

Comparison 2

Regimen Efficacy
AC/T Inferior RFS
ddEC/T Superior RFS

Comparison 3

Regimen Efficacy
CEF Seems not superior
ddEC/T Seems not superior

References

  1. Burnell M, Levine MN, Chapman JA, Bramwell V, Gelmon K, Walley B, Vandenberg T, Chalchal H, Albain KS, Perez EA, Rugo H, Pritchard K, O'Brien P, Shepherd LE. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil versus dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 1;28(1):77-82. Epub 2009 Nov 9. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

NEAT

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
CMF x 6 Inferior OS
EC x 4, then CMF x 4 Superior OS

References

  1. Poole CJ, Earl HM, Hiller L, Dunn JA, Bathers S, Grieve RJ, Spooner DA, Agrawal RK, Fernando IN, Brunt AM, O'Reilly SM, Crawford SM, Rea DW, Simmonds P, Mansi JL, Stanley A, Harvey P, McAdam K, Foster L, Leonard RC, Twelves CJ; NEAT Investigators and the SCTBG. Epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 2;355(18):1851-62. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

NeoALTTO

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Arm 1, trastuzumab (C)

Arm 1, lapatinib (E)

Arm 3, lapatinib & trastuzumab (E)

Comparative efficacy

The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Comparison was only between experimental and control arms (i.e., 2 comparisons).

Backbone Efficacy
Trastuzumab vs. Lapatinib Seems not superior
Trastuzumab vs. Lapatinib & Trastuzumab Inferior pCR rate
Lapatinib vs. Trastuzumab Seems not superior
Lapatinib & Trastuzumab vs. Trastuzumab Superior pCR rate

References

  1. Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed

Neo-tAnGo

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Arm 1, EC-ddT

Arm 2, ddT-EC

Arm 3, EC-ddTG

Arm 4, ddTG-EC

Comparative efficacy

  • Analyzed using a 2 x 2 factorial design

Comparison 1

Sequencing Efficacy
Taxane first Seems to have superior pCR rate
EC first Seems to have inferior pCR rate

Comparison 2

Addition of gemcitabine Efficacy
Without gemcitabine Seems not superior
With gemcitabine Seems not superior

References

  1. Earl HM, Vallier AL, Hiller L, Fenwick N, Young J, Iddawela M, Abraham J, Hughes-Davies L, Gounaris I, McAdam K, Houston S, Hickish T, Skene A, Chan S, Dean S, Ritchie D, Laing R, Harries M, Gallagher C, Wishart G, Dunn J, Provenzano E, Caldas C; Neo-tAnGo Investigators. Effects of the addition of gemcitabine, and paclitaxel-first sequencing, in neoadjuvant sequential epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel for women with high-risk early breast cancer (Neo-tAnGo): an open-label, 2×2 factorial randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Feb;15(2):201-12. Epub 2013 Dec 19. link to original article PubMed

NOAH

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Arm 1, no trastuzumab (Control)

  • AT (Taxol) x 3, then T (Taxol) x 3, then CMF x 3, then surgery

Arm 2, with trastuzumab (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Sequencing Efficacy
With trastuzumab Seems to have superior EFS
No trastuzumab Seems to have inferior EFS

References

  1. Gianni L, Eiermann W, Semiglazov V, Manikhas A, Lluch A, Tjulandin S, Zambetti M, Vazquez F, Byakhow M, Lichinitser M, Climent MA, Ciruelos E, Ojeda B, Mansutti M, Bozhok A, Baronio R, Feyereislova A, Barton C, Valagussa P, Baselga J. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab followed by adjuvant trastuzumab versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone, in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced breast cancer (the NOAH trial): a randomised controlled superiority trial with a parallel HER2-negative cohort. Lancet. 2010 Jan 30;375(9712):377-84. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Gianni L, Eiermann W, Semiglazov V, Lluch A, Tjulandin S, Zambetti M, Moliterni A, Vazquez F, Byakhov MJ, Lichinitser M, Climent MA, Ciruelos E, Ojeda B, Mansutti M, Bozhok A, Magazzù D, Heinzmann D, Steinseifer J, Valagussa P, Baselga J. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced breast cancer (NOAH): follow-up of a randomised controlled superiority trial with a parallel HER2-negative cohort. Lancet Oncol. 2014 May;15(6):640-7. Epub 2014 Mar 20. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2018 Dec;19(12):e667. link to SD article PubMed

NSABP B-27

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Arm 1, no taxane (Control)

Arm 2, preoperative taxane (Experimental)

Arm 3, postoperative taxane (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
AC, then surgery Inferior pCR rate
AC, then T, then surgery Superior pCR rate
AC, then surgery, then T Inferior pCR rate

References

  1. Bear HD, Anderson S, Brown A, Smith R, Mamounas EP, Fisher B, Margolese R, Theoret H, Soran A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N; National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. The effect on tumor response of adding sequential preoperative docetaxel to preoperative doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide: preliminary results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Nov 15;21(22):4165-74. Epub 2003 Oct 14. link to original article PubMed

NSABP B-30

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Arm 1, AC -> T

Arm 2, AT

  • AT x 4

Arm 3, ACT

Comparative efficacy

Comparison 1

Schedule Efficacy
Sequential AC -> T Might have superior OS
Concurrent ACT Might have inferior OS

Comparison 2

Schedule Efficacy
Sequential AC -> T Seems to have superior OS
Concurrent AT Seems to have inferior OS

References

  1. Swain SM, Jeong JH, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Rastogi P, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Land SR, Ganz PA, Wolmark N. Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 3;362(22):2053-65. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

NSABP B-38

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Arm 1, sequential without gemcitabine (Control)

Arm 2, sequential with gemcitabine (Experimental)

Arm 3, concurrent

Comparative efficacy

Schedule Efficacy
Sequential (ddAC, then ddP) Seems not superior
Sequential (ddAC, then ddPG) Seems not superior
Concurrent (TAC) Seems not superior

References

  1. Swain SM, Tang G, Geyer CE Jr, Rastogi P, Atkins JN, Donnellan PP, Fehrenbacher L, Azar CA, Robidoux A, Polikoff JA, Brufsky AM, Biggs DD, Levine EA, Zapas JL, Provencher L, Northfelt DW, Paik S, Costantino JP, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Definitive results of a phase III adjuvant trial comparing three chemotherapy regimens in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer: the NSABP B-38 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 10;31(26):3197-204. Epub 2013 Aug 12. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

NSABP B-40

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2

Arm 3

Arm 4

Arm 5

Arm 6

Comparative efficacy

This trial was analyzed using a 3 x 2 factorial design; primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate.

Addition of bevacizumab

Regimen Efficacy
No bevacizumab (C) Seems to have inferior pCR rate
Bevacizumab-based therapy (E) Seems to have superior pCR rate

Addition of capecitabine or gemcitabine

Regimen Efficacy
Docetaxel alone (C) Seems not superior
TX or TG (E) Seems not superior

References

  1. Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Robidoux A, Atkins JN, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):310-20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Bear HD, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Liu Q, Robidoux A, Baez-Diaz L, Brufsky AM, Mehta RS, Fehrenbacher L, Young JA, Senecal FM, Gaur R, Margolese RG, Adams PT, Gross HM, Costantino JP, Paik S, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab in early breast cancer (NSABP B-40 [NRG Oncology]): secondary outcomes of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Sep;16(9):1037-1048. Epub 2015 Aug 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):e589. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

NSAS-BC 02

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Control

Arm 3

Arm 4

Comparative efficacy

This trial was analyzed using a 2 x 2 factorial design.

Use of AC

Regimen Efficacy
AC-containing Inconclusive whether non-inferior
AC-free Inconclusive whether non-inferior

Taxane

Regimen Efficacy
Docetaxel Seems to have superior OS
Paclitaxel (q3wk) Seems to have inferior OS

References

  1. Watanabe T, Kuranami M, Inoue K, Masuda N, Aogi K, Ohno S, Iwata H, Mukai H, Uemura Y, Ohashi Y. Comparison of an AC-taxane versus AC-free regimen and paclitaxel versus docetaxel in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer: final results of the National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer 02 trial, a randomized comparative phase 3 study. Cancer. 2017 Mar 1;123(5):759-768. Epub 2017 Jan 12. link to original article PubMed

SB3-G31-BC

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Arm 1, trastuzumab (control)

Arm 2, SB3 (experimental trastuzumab biosimilar)

  • Same schedule with SB3 instead of trastuzumab

Comparative efficacy

anti-HER2 medication Efficacy
Trastuzumab Equivalent pCR rate
SB3 (trastuzumab biosimilar) Equivalent pCR rate

References

  1. Pivot X, Bondarenko I, Nowecki Z, Dvorkin M, Trishkina E, Ahn JH, Vinnyk Y, Im SA, Sarosiek T, Chatterjee S, Wojtukiewicz MZ, Moiseyenko V, Shparyk Y, Bello M 3rd, Semiglazov V, Song S, Lim J. Phase III, randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SB3 (trastuzumab biosimilar) and reference trastuzumab in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 1;36(10):968-974. Epub 2018 Jan 26. link to original article PubMed

SBG 9401

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Arm 1 (control)

Arm 2 (experimental)

  • Tailored FEC x 6

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Control Seems to have inferior RFS
Experimental Seems to have superior RFS

References

  1. Bergh J, Wiklund T, Erikstein B, Lidbrink E, Lindman H, Malmström P, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P, Bengtsson NO, Söderlund G, Anker G, Wist E, Ottosson S, Salminen E, Ljungman P, Holte H, Nilsson J, Blomqvist C, Wilking N; Scandinavian Breast Group 9401 study. Tailored fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide compared with marrow-supported high-dose chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment for high-risk breast cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000 Oct 21;356(9239):1384-91. Erratum in: Lancet 2000 Dec 23-30;356(9248):2196. link to SD article PubMed

SWOG-8814

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2, CAF-T (Experimental)

Arm 3, CAFT (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Comparison 1

Design Efficacy
No chemotherapy Might have inferior OS
With chemotherapy Might have superior OS

Comparison 2

Timing Efficacy
Concurrent (CAFT) Might have inferior DFS
Sequential (CAF-T) Might have superior DFS

References

  1. Albain KS, Barlow WE, Ravdin PM, Farrar WB, Burton GV, Ketchel SJ, Cobau CD, Levine EG, Ingle JN, Pritchard KI, Lichter AS, Schneider DJ, Abeloff MD, Henderson IC, Muss HB, Green SJ, Lew D, Livingston RB, Martino S, Osborne CK; Breast Cancer Intergroup of North America. Adjuvant chemotherapy and timing of tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer: a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 Dec 19;374(9707):2055-2063. Epub 2009 Dec 10. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

TACT

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Arm 1 (Experimental)

Arm 2 (Control)

Arm 3 (Control)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Experimental (with docetaxel) Seems not superior
Standard (no docetaxel) Seems not superior

References

  1. Ellis P, Barrett-Lee P, Johnson L, Cameron D, Wardley A, O'Reilly S, Verrill M, Smith I, Yarnold J, Coleman R, Earl H, Canney P, Twelves C, Poole C, Bloomfield D, Hopwood P, Johnston S, Dowsett M, Bartlett JM, Ellis I, Peckitt C, Hall E, Bliss JM; TACT Trial Management Group; TACT Trialists. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 16;373(9676):1681-92. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

TACT2

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Arm 1 (Experimental)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Arm 3 (Experimental)

Arm 4 (Control)

Comparative efficacy

  • Analyzed using a 2 x 2 factorial design

Comparison 1

Dose density of epirubicin Efficacy
Dose-dense (q2wk) Seems not superior
Standard (q3wk) Seems not superior

Comparison 2

Capecitabine vs. CMF Efficacy
Capecitabine Non-inferior TTR
CMF Non-inferior TTR

References

  1. Cameron D, Morden JP, Canney P, Velikova G, Coleman R, Bartlett J, Agrawal R, Banerji J, Bertelli G, Bloomfield D, Brunt AM, Earl H, Ellis P, Gaunt C, Gillman A, Hearfield N, Laing R, Murray N, Couper N, Stein RC, Verrill M, Wardley A, Barrett-Lee P, Bliss JM; TACT2 Investigators. Accelerated versus standard epirubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil or capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in the randomised UK TACT2 trial (CRUK/05/19): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jul;18(7):929-945. Epub 2017 Jun 7. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

TEAM

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Arm 1, monotherapy (Control)

Arm 2, sequential (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Tamoxifen x 5y Seems not superior
Tamoxifen x 2.5-3y, then Exemestane x 2-2.5y Seems not superior

References

  1. van de Velde CJ, Rea D, Seynaeve C, Putter H, Hasenburg A, Vannetzel JM, Paridaens R, Markopoulos C, Hozumi Y, Hille ET, Kieback DG, Asmar L, Smeets J, Nortier JW, Hadji P, Bartlett JM, Jones SE. Adjuvant tamoxifen and exemestane in early breast cancer (TEAM): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Jan 22;377(9762):321-31. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Derks MGM, Blok EJ, Seynaeve C, Nortier JWR, Kranenbarg EM, Liefers GJ, Putter H, Kroep JR, Rea D, Hasenburg A, Markopoulos C, Paridaens R, Smeets JBE, Dirix LY, van de Velde CJH. Adjuvant tamoxifen and exemestane in women with postmenopausal early breast cancer (TEAM): 10-year follow-up of a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Sep;18(9):1211-1220. Epub 2017 Jul 18. link to original article PubMed

TRYPHAENA

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Arm A

Arm B

Arm C

Comparative efficacy

Note: this was a cardiac safety study; efficacy findings are not reported.

References

  1. TRYPHAENA: Schneeweiss A, Chia S, Hickish T, Harvey V, Eniu A, Hegg R, Tausch C, Seo JH, Tsai YF, Ratnayake J, McNally V, Ross G, Cortés J. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a randomized phase II cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA). Ann Oncol. 2013 Sep;24(9):2278-84. Epub 2013 May 22. link to original article PubMed

Cervical cancer

NOGGO-AGO

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

  • Surgery, then adjuvant Carboplatin, Ifosfamide, Erythropoietin alfa, then EBRT & Erythropoietin alfa

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
No EPO Might have inferior RFS
With EPO Might have superior RFS

References

  1. Blohmer JU, Paepke S, Sehouli J, Boehmer D, Kolben M, Würschmidt F, Petry KU, Kimmig R, Elling D, Thomssen C, von Minckwitz G, Möbus V, Hinke A, Kümmel S, Budach V, Lichtenegger W, Schmid P. Randomized phase III trial of sequential adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with or without erythropoietin Alfa in patients with high-risk cervical cancer: results of the NOGGO-AGO intergroup study. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 1;29(28):3791-7. Epub 2011 Aug 22. link to original article PubMed

Colorectal cancer

CAIRO

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Arm 1, sequential single agent (Control)

Arm 2, sequential combinations (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Approach Efficacy
Sequential single agent Seems not superior
Sequential combinations Seems not superior

References

  1. Koopman M, Antonini NF, Douma J, Wals J, Honkoop AH, Erdkamp FL, de Jong RS, Rodenburg CJ, Vreugdenhil G, Loosveld OJ, van Bochove A, Sinnige HA, Creemers GM, Tesselaar ME, Slee PHTJ, Werter MJ, Mol L, Dalesio O, Punt CJ. Sequential versus combination chemotherapy with capecitabine, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin in advanced colorectal cancer (CAIRO): a phase III randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jul 14;370(9582):135-142. link to original article PubMed

FFCD 2000-05

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Arm 1, sequential (Control)

Arm 2, combination (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Approach Efficacy Toxicity
Sequential Seems not superior Less toxic
Combination Seems not superior More toxic

References

  1. Ducreux M, Malka D, Mendiboure J, Etienne PL, Texereau P, Auby D, Rougier P, Gasmi M, Castaing M, Abbas M, Michel P, Gargot D, Azzedine A, Lombard-Bohas C, Geoffroy P, Denis B, Pignon JP, Bedenne L, Bouché O; Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive (FFCD) 2000–05 Collaborative Group. Sequential versus combination chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (FFCD 2000-05): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Oct;12(11):1032-44. Epub 2011 Sep 6. link to original article PubMed

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

SWOG S8736

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

  • CHOP x 3, then RT x 40 to 55 Gy

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
CHOP x 8 Seems to have inferior OS
CHOP x 3, then RT Seems to have superior OS

References

  1. Miller TP, Dahlberg S, Cassady JR, Adelstein DJ, Spier CM, Grogan TM, LeBlanc M, Carlin S, Chase E, Fisher RI. Chemotherapy alone compared with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for localized intermediate- and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul 2;339(1):21-6. link to original article PubMed

Follicular lymphoma

GALLIUM

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

Comparative efficacy

mAb Efficacy Toxicity
Rituximab-chemotherapy Inferior PFS Superior toxicity
Obinutuzumab-chemotherapy Superior PFS Inferior toxicity

References

  1. Marcus R, Davies A, Ando K, Klapper W, Opat S, Owen C, Phillips E, Sangha R, Schlag R, Seymour JF, Townsend W, Trněný M, Wenger M, Fingerle-Rowson G, Rufibach K, Moore T, Herold M, Hiddemann W. Obinutuzumab for the first-line treatment of follicular lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Oct 5;377(14):1331-1344. link to original article link to appendix PubMed

Gastroesophageal cancer

ACCORD 07

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Surgery alone Seems to have inferior OS
Perioperative CF Seems to have superior OS

References

  1. Ychou M, Boige V, Pignon JP, Conroy T, Bouché O, Lebreton G, Ducourtieux M, Bedenne L, Fabre JM, Saint-Aubert B, Genève J, Lasser P, Rougier P. Perioperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: an FNCLCC and FFCD multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 May 1;29(13):1715-21. Epub 2011 Mar 28. link to original article PubMed

FLOT4-AIO

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
ECF/ECX Seems to have inferior OS
FLOT Seems to have superior OS

References

  1. Abstract: Salah-Eddin Al-Batran, Nils Homann, Harald Schmalenberg, Hans-Georg Kopp, Georg Martin Haag, Kim Barbara Luley, Wolff H. Schmiegel, Gunnar Folprecht, Stephan Probst, Nicole Prasnikar, Peter C. Thuss-Patience, Wolfgang Fischbach, Jorg Trojan, Michael Koenigsmann, Claudia Pauligk, Thorsten Oliver Goetze, Elke Jaeger, Johannes Meiler, Martin H. Schuler, and Ralf Hofheinz. Perioperative chemotherapy with docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and fluorouracil/leucovorin (FLOT) versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine (ECF/ECX) for resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): A multicenter, randomized phase 3 trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017 35:15_suppl, 4004-4004 link to abstract

MAGIC

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Surgery alone Inferior OS
Perioperative ECF Superior OS

References

  1. Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, Scarffe JH, Lofts FJ, Falk SJ, Iveson TJ, Smith DB, Langley RE, Verma M, Weeden S, Chua YJ, MAGIC Trial Participants. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 6;355(1):11-20. link to original article PubMed

POET

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy only Might have inferior OS
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy Might have superior OS

References

  1. Stahl M, Walz MK, Stuschke M, Lehmann N, Meyer HJ, Riera-Knorrenschild J, Langer P, Engenhart-Cabillic R, Bitzer M, Königsrainer A, Budach W, Wilke H. Phase III comparison of preoperative chemotherapy compared with chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Feb 20;27(6):851-6. Epub 2009 Jan 12. link to original article PubMed

PRODIGE5/ACCORD17

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
CF-based Seems not superior
FOLFOX4-based Seems not superior

References

  1. Conroy T, Galais MP, Raoul JL, Bouché O, Gourgou-Bourgade S, Douillard JY, Etienne PL, Boige V, Martel-Lafay I, Michel P, Llacer-Moscardo C, François E, Créhange G, Abdelghani MB, Juzyna B, Bedenne L, Adenis A; Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive and UNICANCER-GI Group. Definitive chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX versus fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with oesophageal cancer (PRODIGE5/ACCORD17): final results of a randomised, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Mar;15(3):305-14. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2014 Dec;15(13):e587. link to original article PubMed

Glioblastoma

AVAglio

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Arm 1, control

Arm 2, experimental

  • Surgery, then adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, RT, then temozolomide & bevacizumab maintenance, then bevacizumab maintenance

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Temozolomide alone Inferior PFS
Bevacizumab-containing arm Superior PFS

References

  1. Chinot OL, Wick W, Mason W, Henriksson R, Saran F, Nishikawa R, Carpentier AF, Hoang-Xuan K, Kavan P, Cernea D, Brandes AA, Hilton M, Abrey L, Cloughesy T. Bevacizumab plus radiotherapy-temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 20;370(8):709-22. link to original article PubMed

EORTC 22981/26981; NCIC CTG CE.3

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Arm 1, control

Arm 2, experimental

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Radiotherapy alone Inferior OS
Temozolomide-containing arm Superior OS

References

  1. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cairncross JG, Eisenhauer E, Mirimanoff RO; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy Groups; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):987-96. link to original article PubMed

HERBY

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Arm 1, control

Arm 2, experimental

  • Surgery, then adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, RT, then temozolomide & bevacizumab maintenance

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Temozolomide alone Seems not superior
Bevacizumab-containing arm Seems not superior

References

  1. Grill J, Massimino M, Bouffet E, Azizi AA, McCowage G, Cañete A, Saran F, Le Deley MC, Varlet P, Morgan PS, Jaspan T, Jones C, Giangaspero F, Smith H, Garcia J, Elze MC, Rousseau RF, Abrey L, Hargrave D, Vassal G. Phase II, open-label, randomized, multicenter trial (HERBY) of bevacizumab in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 1;36(10):951-958. Epub 2018 Feb 7. link to original article PubMed

RTOG 0825

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Arm 1, control

Arm 2, experimental

  • Surgery, then adjuvant Temozolomide, Bevacizumab, RT, then Temozolomide & Bevacizumab maintenance

Comparative efficacy

Note: although the control regimen had inferior PFS, the effect size did not reach the prespecified improvement target.

Regimen Efficacy
Temozolomide alone Inferior PFS
Bevacizumab-containing arm Superior PFS

References

  1. Gilbert MR, Dignam JJ, Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Blumenthal DT, Vogelbaum MA, Colman H, Chakravarti A, Pugh S, Won M, Jeraj R, Brown PD, Jaeckle KA, Schiff D, Stieber VW, Brachman DG, Werner-Wasik M, Tremont-Lukats IW, Sulman EP, Aldape KD, Curran WJ Jr, Mehta MP. A randomized trial of bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 20;370(8):699-708. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Head and neck cancer

EORTC 24954

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Arm 1, control

Arm 2, experimental

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Sequential RT Seems not superior
Alternating RT Seems not superior

References

  1. Lefebvre JL, Rolland F, Tesselaar M, Bardet E, Leemans CR, Geoffrois L, Hupperets P, Barzan L, de Raucourt D, Chevalier D, Licitra L, Lunghi F, Stupp R, Lacombe D, Bogaerts J, Horiot JC, Bernier J, Vermorken JB; EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group; EORTC Radiation Oncology Group. Phase 3 randomized trial on larynx preservation comparing sequential vs alternating chemotherapy and radiotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Feb 4;101(3):142-52. Epub 2009 Jan 27. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

RTOG 91-11

Arm 1, induction chemotherapy, then radiotherapy (Control)

Arm 2, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (Experimental)

Arm 3, radiotherapy (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Efficacy is based on the 2012 update.

Regimen vs. Arm 1 Arm 2 Arm 3
Arm 1 vs. Inferior LFS Seems to have superior LFS
Arm 2 vs. Superior LFS Seems to have superior LFS
Arm 3 vs. Seems to have inferior LFS Seems to have inferior LFS

References

  1. Forastiere AA, Goepfert H, Maor M, Pajak TF, Weber R, Morrison W, Glisson B, Trotti A, Ridge JA, Chao C, Peters G, Lee DJ, Leaf A, Ensley J, Cooper J. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Nov 27;349(22):2091-8. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Forastiere AA, Zhang Q, Weber RS, Maor MH, Goepfert H, Pajak TF, Morrison W, Glisson B, Trotti A, Ridge JA, Thorstad W, Wagner H, Ensley JF, Cooper JS. Long-term results of RTOG 91-11: a comparison of three nonsurgical treatment strategies to preserve the larynx in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Mar 1;31(7):845-52. Epub 2012 Nov 26. link to original article contains partial protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Hodgkin lymphoma

EORTC 20012

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
BEACOPP4+4 Seems not superior
ABVD x 8 Seems not superior

References

  1. Carde P, Karrasch M, Fortpied C, Brice P, Khaled H, Casasnovas O, Caillot D, Gaillard I, Bologna S, Ferme C, Lugtenburg PJ, Morschhauser F, Aurer I, Coiffier B, Meyer R, Seftel M, Wolf M, Glimelius B, Sureda A, Mounier N. Eight cycles of ABVD versus four cycles of BEACOPPescalated plus four cycles of BEACOPPbaseline in stage III to IV, International Prognostic Score ≥ 3, high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma: First results of the phase III EORTC 20012 Intergroup trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jun 10;34(17):2028-36. Epub 2016 Apr 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

EORTC-GELA H8-F

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
MOPP-ABV x 3, then IFRT Superior OS
STNI Inferior OS

References

  1. Fermé C, Eghbali H, Meerwaldt JH, Rieux C, Bosq J, Berger F, Girinsky T, Brice P, van't Veer MB, Walewski JA, Lederlin P, Tirelli U, Carde P, Van den Neste E, Gyan E, Monconduit M, Diviné M, Raemaekers JM, Salles G, Noordijk EM, Creemers GJ, Gabarre J, Hagenbeek A, Reman O, Blanc M, Thomas J, Vié B, Kluin-Nelemans JC, Viseu F, Baars JW, Poortmans P, Lugtenburg PJ, Carrie C, Jaubert J, Henry-Amar M; EORTC-GELA H8 Trial. Chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation in early-stage Hodgkin's disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Nov 8;357(19):1916-27. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed

EORTC-GELA H8-U

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Arm 3

Comparative efficacy

Note: the paper describes this as an equivalence study, although the primary endpoint of EFS had p=0.80.

Regimen Efficacy
MOPP-ABV x 4, then IFRT Inconclusive whether equivalent
MOPP-ABV x 4, then STNI Inconclusive whether equivalent
MOPP-ABV x 6, then IFRT Inconclusive whether equivalent

References

  1. Fermé C, Eghbali H, Meerwaldt JH, Rieux C, Bosq J, Berger F, Girinsky T, Brice P, van't Veer MB, Walewski JA, Lederlin P, Tirelli U, Carde P, Van den Neste E, Gyan E, Monconduit M, Diviné M, Raemaekers JM, Salles G, Noordijk EM, Creemers GJ, Gabarre J, Hagenbeek A, Reman O, Blanc M, Thomas J, Vié B, Kluin-Nelemans JC, Viseu F, Baars JW, Poortmans P, Lugtenburg PJ, Carrie C, Jaubert J, Henry-Amar M; EORTC-GELA H8 Trial. Chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation in early-stage Hodgkin's disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Nov 8;357(19):1916-27. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed

EORTC/LYSA/FIL H10

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Note: randomization in this trial occurred before treatment, but took effect after 2 cycles of ABVD, and only if interim PET-CT was negative.

Arm 1

  • Favorable: ABVD x 4
  • Unfavorable: ABVD x 6

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
ABVD x 4 Inconclusive whether non-inferior
ABVD x 3, then INRT Inconclusive whether non-inferior

References

  1. Raemaekers JM, André MP, Federico M, Girinsky T, Oumedaly R, Brusamolino E, Brice P, Fermé C, van der Maazen R, Gotti M, Bouabdallah R, Sebban CJ, Lievens Y, Re A, Stamatoullas A, Morschhauser F, Lugtenburg PJ, Abruzzese E, Olivier P, Casasnovas RO, van Imhoff G, Raveloarivahy T, Bellei M, van der Borght T, Bardet S, Versari A, Hutchings M, Meignan M, Fortpied C. Omitting radiotherapy in early positron emission tomography-negative stage I/II Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with an increased risk of early relapse: Clinical results of the preplanned interim analysis of the randomized EORTC/LYSA/FIL H10 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Apr 20;32(12):1188-94. Epub 2014 Mar 17. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: André MPE, Girinsky T, Federico M, Reman O, Fortpied C, Gotti M, Casasnovas O, Brice P, van der Maazen R, Re A, Edeline V, Fermé C, van Imhoff G, Merli F, Bouabdallah R, Sebban C, Specht L, Stamatoullas A, Delarue R, Fiaccadori V, Bellei M, Raveloarivahy T, Versari A, Hutchings M, Meignan M, Raemaekers J. Early positron emission tomography response-adapted treatment in stage I and II Hodgkin lymphoma: final results of the randomized EORTC/LYSA/FIL H10 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jun 1;35(16):1786-1794. Epub 2017 Mar 14. link to original article PubMed

GHSG HD11

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Note: the primary endpoints of this trial, which were to determine the superiority of BEACOPP vs. ABVD and noninferiority of 20 Gy vs. 30 Gy of IFRT, were not reported in the manuscript.

Arm 1

Arm 2

Arm 3

Arm 4

Comparative efficacy

  • Designed using a 2 x 2 factorial design

Comparison 1

Chemotherapy Efficacy
ABVD Not reported
BEACOPP Not reported

Comparison 2

Radiotherapy Efficacy
IFRT x 20 Gy Not reported
IFRT x 30 Gy Not reported

References

  1. Eich HT, Diehl V, Görgen H, Pabst T, Markova J, Debus J, Ho A, Dörken B, Rank A, Grosu AL, Wiegel T, Karstens JH, Greil R, Willich N, Schmidberger H, Döhner H, Borchmann P, Müller-Hermelink HK, Müller RP, Engert A. Intensified chemotherapy and dose-reduced involved-field radiotherapy in patients with early unfavorable Hodgkin's lymphoma: final analysis of the German Hodgkin Study Group HD11 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 20;28(27):4199-206. Epub 2010 Aug 16. link to original article PubMed

GHSG HD12

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Arm 3

Arm 4

Comparative efficacy

  • Designed using a 2 x 2 factorial design

Comparison 1

Reported efficacy is based on the 2018 update.

Chemotherapy Efficacy
BEACOPPescalated x 8 Non-inferior OS (*)
BEACOPPescalated x 4, then BEACOPP x 4 Non-inferior OS (*)

Comparison 2

Radiotherapy Efficacy
ISRT x 30 Gy Might have superior 5-year FFTF
No radiotherapy Might have inferior 5-year FFTF

References

  1. Borchmann P, Haverkamp H, Diehl V, Cerny T, Markova J, Ho AD, Eich HT, Mueller-Hermelink HK, Kanz L, Greil R, Rank A, Paulus U, Smardova L, Huber C, Dörken B, Nerl C, Krause SW, Mueller RP, Fuchs M, Engert A. Eight cycles of escalated-dose BEACOPP compared with four cycles of escalated-dose BEACOPP followed by four cycles of baseline-dose BEACOPP with or without radiotherapy in patients with advanced-stage hodgkin's lymphoma: final analysis of the HD12 trial of the German Hodgkin Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Nov 10;29(32):4234-42. Epub 2011 Oct 11. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: von Tresckow B, Kreissl S, Dipl-Math HG, Bröckelmann PJ, Pabst T, Fridrik M, Rummel M, Jung W, Thiemer J, Sasse S, Bürkle C, Baues C, Diehl V, Engert A, Borchmann P. Intensive treatment strategies in advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HD9 and HD12): analysis of long-term survival in two randomised trials. Lancet Haematol. 2018 Oct 01;5(10):e462-73. link to original article

GHSG HD14

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Chemotherapy Efficacy
ABVD x 4 Inferior FFTF
eBEACOPP x 2, then ABVD x 2 Superior FFTF

References

  1. von Tresckow B, Plütschow A, Fuchs M, Klimm B, Markova J, Lohri A, Kral Z, Greil R, Topp MS, Meissner J, Zijlstra JM, Soekler M, Stein H, Eich HT, Mueller RP, Diehl V, Borchmann P, Engert A. Dose-intensification in early unfavorable Hodgkin's lymphoma: final analysis of the German Hodgkin Study Group HD14 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 20;30(9):907-13. Epub 2012 Jan 23. link to original article PubMed

LYSA H34

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
BEACOPP4+4 Might have superior EFS
ABVD x 8 Might have inferior EFS

References

  1. Mounier N, Brice P, Bologna S, Briere J, Gaillard I, Heczko M, Gabarre J, Casasnovas O, Jaubert J, Colin P, Delmer A, Devidas A, Bachy E, Nicolas-Virelizier E, Aoudjhane A, Humbrecht C, Andre M, Carde P; Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA). ABVD (8 cycles) versus BEACOPP (4 escalated cycles ≥4 baseline): final results in stage III-IV low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma (IPS 0-2) of the LYSA H34 randomized trial. Ann Oncol. 2014 Aug;25(8):1622-8. Epub 2014 May 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

NCIC CTG/ECOG HD.6

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Note: this randomization was for patients with unfavorable risk.

Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Efficacy is based on the 2011 update.

Regimen Efficacy
ABVD x 4 Seems to have superior OS
ABVD x 2, then STNI Seems to have inferior OS

References

  1. Meyer RM, Gospodarowicz MK, Connors JM, Pearcey RG, Bezjak A, Wells WA, Burns BF, Winter JN, Horning SJ, Dar AR, Djurfeldt MS, Ding K, Shepherd LE; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Randomized comparison of ABVD chemotherapy with a strategy that includes radiation therapy in patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jul 20;23(21):4634-42. Epub 2005 Apr 18. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Meyer RM, Gospodarowicz MK, Connors JM, Pearcey RG, Wells WA, Winter JN, Horning SJ, Dar AR, Shustik C, Stewart DA, Crump M, Djurfeldt MS, Chen BE, Shepherd LE; NCIC Clinical Trials Group; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. ABVD alone versus radiation-based therapy in limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 2;366(5):399-408. Epub 2011 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Viviani et al. 2011 (IIL)

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
BEACOPP4+4 Seems to have superior FFFP
ABVD x 8 Seems to have inferior FFFP

References

  1. Viviani S, Zinzani PL, Rambaldi A, Brusamolino E, Levis A, Bonfante V, Vitolo U, Pulsoni A, Liberati AM, Specchia G, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Zaja F, Pogliani EM, Pregno P, Gotti M, Gallamini A, Rota Scalabrini D, Bonadonna G, Gianni AM; Michelangelo Foundation; Gruppo Italiano di Terapie Innovative nei Linfomi; Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi. ABVD versus BEACOPP for Hodgkin's lymphoma when high-dose salvage is planned. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jul 21;365(3):203-12. link to original article PubMed

Multiple myeloma

HOVON-50

Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
SOC Inferior PFS
Thalidomide-based Superior PFS

References

  1. Lokhorst HM, van der Holt B, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, van Oers MH, von dem Borne P, Wijermans P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Wittebol S, Delforge M, Berenschot H, Bos GM, Jie KS, Sinnige H, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Joosten P, Minnema MC, van Ammerlaan R, Sonneveld P; Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Group (HOVON). A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2010 Feb 11;115(6):1113-20. Epub 2009 Oct 30. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: van de Donk NW, van der Holt B, Minnema MC, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, Kersten MJ, von dem Borne PA, Ypma P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Klein SK, Delforge M, Levin MD, Bos GM, Jie KG, Sinnige H, Coenen JL, de Waal EG, Zweegman S, Sonneveld P, Lokhorst HM. Thalidomide before and after autologous stem cell transplantation in recently diagnosed multiple myeloma (HOVON-50): long-term results from the phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Haematol. 2018 Oct;5(10):e479-e492. link to original article PubMed

Non-small cell lung cancer

CONVINCE

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2 (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Cis-Pem, then Pem Inferior PFS
Icotinib Superior PFS

References

  1. Shi YK, Wang L, Han BH, Li W, Yu P, Liu YP, Ding CM, Song X, Ma ZY, Ren XL, Feng JF, Zhang HL, Chen GY, Han XH, Wu N, Yao C, Song Y, Zhang SC, Song W, Liu XQ, Zhao SJ, Lin YC, Ye XQ, Li K, Shu YQ, Ding LM, Tan FL, Sun Y. First-line icotinib versus cisplatin/pemetrexed plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (CONVINCE): a phase 3, open-label, randomized study. Ann Oncol. 2017 Oct 1;28(10):2443-2450. link to original article PubMed

ECOG 3598

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2, with thalidomide (Experimental)

  • TPC, then Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Thalidomide, RT

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Without thalidomide Seems not superior
With thalidomide Seems not superior

References

  1. Hoang T, Dahlberg SE, Schiller JH, Mehta MP, Fitzgerald TJ, Belinsky SA, Johnson DH. Randomized phase III study of thoracic radiation in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin with or without thalidomide in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: the ECOG 3598 study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Feb 20;30(6):616-22. Epub 2012 Jan 23. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

ECOG E4599

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2, with bevacizumab (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Platinum doublet Inferior OS
With bevacizumab Superior OS

References

  1. Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, Brahmer J, Schiller JH, Dowlati A, Lilenbaum R, Johnson DH. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2542-50. link to original article PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Ramalingam SS, Dahlberg SE, Langer CJ, Gray R, Belani CP, Brahmer JR, Sandler AB, Schiller JH, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Outcomes for elderly, advanced-stage non small-cell lung cancer patients treated with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel: analysis of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial 4599. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 1;26(1):60-5. link to original article PubMed

IUNO

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Arm 1, "early" erlotinib

Arm 2, "late" erlotinib

Comparative efficacy

Timing Efficacy
Maintenance erlotinib Seems not superior
Second-line erlotinib Seems not superior

References

  1. Cicènas S, Geater SL, Petrov P, Hotko Y, Hooper G, Xia F, Mudie N, Wu YL. Maintenance erlotinib versus erlotinib at disease progression in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer who have not progressed following platinum-based chemotherapy (IUNO study). Lung Cancer. 2016 Dec;102:30-37. Epub 2016 Oct 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

KEYNOTE-021

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2, with pembrolizumab (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Control Inferior ORR
Experimental (with pembrolizumab) Superior ORR

References

  1. Langer CJ, Gadgeel SM, Borghaei H, Papadimitrakopoulou VA, Patnaik A, Powell SF, Gentzler RD, Martins RG, Stevenson JP, Jalal SI, Panwalkar A, Yang JC, Gubens M, Sequist LV, Awad MM, Fiore J, Ge Y, Raftopoulos H, Gandhi L; KEYNOTE-021 investigators. Carboplatin and pemetrexed with or without pembrolizumab for advanced, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 2 cohort of the open-label KEYNOTE-021 study. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Nov;17(11):1497-1508. Epub 2016 Oct 10. link to original article supplementary appendix PubMed

KEYNOTE-189

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2, with pembrolizumab (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Control Inferior OS
Experimental (with pembrolizumab) Superior OS

References

  1. Gandhi L, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Gadgeel S, Esteban E, Felip E, De Angelis F, Domine M, Clingan P, Hochmair MJ, Powell SF, Cheng SY, Bischoff HG, Peled N, Grossi F, Jennens RR, Reck M, Hui R, Garon EB, Boyer M, Rubio-Viqueira B, Novello S, Kurata T, Gray JE, Vida J, Wei Z, Yang J, Raftopoulos H, Pietanza MC, Garassino MC; KEYNOTE-189 Investigators. Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 31;378(22):2078-2092. Epub 2018 Apr 16. link to original article link to protocol PubMed

KEYNOTE-407

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Arm 1 (Control)

Arm 2, with pembrolizumab (Experimental)

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Control Inferior OS
Experimental (with pembrolizumab) Superior OS

References

  1. Paz-Ares L, Luft A, Vicente D, Tafreshi A, Gümüş M, Mazières J, Hermes B, Çay Şenler F, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Rodríguez-Cid J, Wilson J, Sugawara S, Kato T, Lee KH, Cheng Y, Novello S, Halmos B, Li X, Lubiniecki GM, Piperdi B, Kowalski DM; KEYNOTE-407 Investigators. Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy for squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 22;379(21):2040-2051. Epub 2018 Sep 25. link to original article PubMed

PRONOUNCE

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Arm 1

Arm 2

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Arm 1 Seems not superior
Arm 2 Seems not superior

References

  1. Zinner RG, Obasaju CK, Spigel DR, Weaver RW, Beck JT, Waterhouse DM, Modiano MR, Hrinczenko B, Nikolinakos PG, Liu J, Koustenis AG, Winfree KB, Melemed SA, Guba SC, Ortuzar WI, Desaiah D, Treat JA, Govindan R, Ross HJ. PRONOUNCE: randomized, open-label, phase III study of first-line pemetrexed + carboplatin followed by maintenance pemetrexed versus paclitaxel + carboplatin + bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients ith advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Jan;10(1):134-42. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

RTOG 9410

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Arm 1, sequential

Arm 2, concurrent

Arm 3, concurrent

Comparative efficacy

Schedule Efficacy
Concurrent Seems to have superior OS
Sequential Seems to have inferior OS

References

  1. Curran WJ Jr, Paulus R, Langer CJ, Komaki R, Lee JS, Hauser S, Movsas B, Wasserman T, Rosenthal SA, Gore E, Machtay M, Sause W, Cox JD. Sequential vs. concurrent chemoradiation for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: randomized phase III trial RTOG 9410. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Oct 5;103(19):1452-60. Epub 2011 Sep 8. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(1):79. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Ovarian cancer

OCEANS

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Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
Carbo-Gem Inferior PFS
With Bevacizumab Superior PFS

References

  1. Aghajanian C, Blank SV, Goff BA, Judson PL, Teneriello MG, Husain A, Sovak MA, Yi J, Nycum LR. OCEANS: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun 10;30(17):2039-45. Epub 2012 Apr 23. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Pancreatic cancer

GERCOR LAP07

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This study had two randomizations; the second only occurred if patients were progression-free after 4 cycles.

Arm 1 - Control

Arm 2 - Experimental

Arm 3 - Experimental

Arm 4 - Experimental

Comparative efficacy

First randomization

Regimen Efficacy
Gemcitabine Might have superior OS
With Erlotinib Might have inferior OS

Second randomization

Modality Efficacy
Chemotherapy Seems not superior
Chemoradiotherapy Seems not superior

References

  1. Hammel P, Huguet F, van Laethem JL, Goldstein D, Glimelius B, Artru P, Borbath I, Bouché O, Shannon J, André T, Mineur L, Chibaudel B, Bonnetain F, Louvet C; LAP07 Trial Group. Effect of chemoradiotherapy vs chemotherapy on survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer controlled after 4 months of gemcitabine with or without erlotinib: The LAP07 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016 May 3;315(17):1844-53. link to original article PubMed

Small cell lung cancer

IMpower133

Arm 1 (Control)

CE x 4

Arm 2 (Experimental)

CE & Atezolizumab x 4, then Atezolizumab maintenance

Comparative efficacy

Regimen Efficacy
With atezolizumab Superior OS
Without atezolizumab Inferior OS

References

  1. Horn L, Mansfield AS, Szczęsna A, Havel L, Krzakowski M, Hochmair MJ, Huemer F, Losonczy G, Johnson ML, Nishio M, Reck M, Mok T, Lam S, Shames DS, Liu J, Ding B, Lopez-Chavez A, Kabbinavar F, Lin W, Sandler A, Liu SV; IMpower133 Study Group. First-line atezolizumab plus chemotherapy in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 25. [Epub ahead of print] link to original article PubMed