Multiple myeloma

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Andrew J. Cowan, MD
Seattle, WA

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Are you looking for a regimen but can't find it here? It is possible that we've moved it to the historical regimens page. If you still can't find it, please let us know so we can add it!.
Note: due to its size/complexity, the multiple myeloma page has been split into three sub-pages:


This page will remain as a consolidated location for guidelines and prognostic information.

regimens on this page
variants on this page


Guidelines

ASCO

BSH/UKMF

European Myeloma Network (EMN)

ESMO

IMWG

NCCN


Investigational agents

These are drugs under study with at least some promising results for this disease.

Response criteria

Prognosis

Durie-Salmon Staging System - 1975

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Composed of four factors with a modifier based on renal function

  • Serum levels of monoclonal protein (only defined for IgM, IgA, and Bence-Jones)
  • Number of lytic bone lesions
  • Hemoglobin
  • Serum calcium level

Risk stratification

  • Stage I: (must meet ALL criteria)
    • Hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dL
    • Calcium normal or less than or equal to 12 mg/dL
    • Skeletal survey with normal bone structure (scale 0) or solitary bone plasmacytoma only
    • Monoclonal protein relatively small (IgG M-spike value less than 5 g/dL OR IgA M-spike value less than 3 g/dL OR urine light chain protein less than 4 g/24 hr)
  • Stage II: not stage I or stage III
  • Stage III: (if meets ANY of the criteria)
    • Hemoglobin less than 8.5 g/dL
    • Calcium greater than 12 mg/dL
    • Skeletal survey with extensive skeletal destruction and major fractures
    • Monoclonal protein relatively large (IgG M-spike value greater than 7 g/dL OR IgA M-spike value greater than 5 g/dL OR urine light chain protein greater than 12 g/24 hr)

Modifier

  • A: relatively normal creatinine (less than 2 mg/dL)
  • B: creatinine greater than or equal to 2 mg/dL

References

  1. Durie BG, Salmon SE. A clinical staging system for multiple myeloma. Correlation of measured myeloma cell mass with presenting clinical features, response to treatment, and survival. Cancer. 1975 Sep;36(3):842-54. link to original article PubMed

International Staging System (ISS) - 2005

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Composed of two factors

  • Serum albumin level
  • Serum beta-2 microglobulin level

Risk stratification

  • Stage I: Median survival of 62 months
    • Beta-2 microglobulin less than 3.5 mg/l
    • Albumin greater than or equal to 3.5 g/dl
  • Stage II: Median survival of 44 months
    • Not meeting stage I or stage III criteria
  • Stage III: Median survival of 29 months
    • Beta-2 microglobulin greater than or equal to 5.5 mg/l

References

  1. Greipp PR, San Miguel J, Durie BG, Crowley JJ, Barlogie B, Bladé J, Boccadoro M, Child JA, Avet-Loiseau H, Kyle RA, Lahuerta JJ, Ludwig H, Morgan G, Powles R, Shimizu K, Shustik C, Sonneveld P, Tosi P, Turesson I, Westin J. International staging system for multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 May 20;23(15):3412-20. Epub 2005 Apr 4. link to original article PubMed
  2. Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Criteria for diagnosis, staging, risk stratification and response assessment of multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2009 Jan;23(1):3-9. Epub 2008 Oct 30. link to PMC article PubMed

IMWG consensus on risk stratification - 2013

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Composed of four factors

  • Serum albumin level
  • Serum beta-2 microglobulin level
  • Age
  • Chromosomal abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

Risk stratification

  • Low risk: (must meet all criteria) Median survival of greater than 10 years
    • ISS Stage I or II
    • Age less than 55 years
    • Absence of the following: del(17p13), t(4;14), +1q21
  • Standard risk: Median survival of 7 years
    • Not meeting low risk or high risk criteria
  • High risk: (if meets both criteria) Median survival of 2 years
    • ISS Stage II or III
    • Either of the following: del(17p13) or t(4;14)

References

  1. Chng WJ, Dispenzieri A, Chim CS, Fonseca R, Goldschmidt H, Lentzsch S, Munshi N, Palumbo A, Miguel JS, Sonneveld P, Cavo M, Usmani S, Durie BG, Avet-Loiseau H; International Myeloma Working Group. IMWG consensus on risk stratification in multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2014 Feb;28(2):269-77. Epub 2013 Aug 26. Review. link to original article PubMed

Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) - 2015

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Composed of four factors

  • Serum albumin level
  • Serum beta-2 microglobulin level
  • Serum LDH
  • Chromosomal abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

Risk stratification

  • Low risk: 5-year overall survival = 82%
    • Beta-2 microglobulin less than 3.5 mg/l
    • Albumin less than or equal to 3.5 g/dl
    • LDH less than the upper limit of normal range
    • Absence of the following: del(17p), t(4;14), t(14;16)
  • Intermediate risk: 5-year overall survival = 62%
    • Not meeting low risk or high risk criteria
  • High risk: (if meets ANY of the criteria) 5-year overall survival = 40%
    • Beta-2 microglobulin greater than or equal to 5.5 mg/l
    • LDH greater than the upper limit of normal range
    • Any of the following: del(17p), t(4;14), t(14;16)

References

  1. Palumbo A, Avet-Loiseau H, Oliva S, Lokhorst HM, Goldschmidt H, Rosinol L, Richardson P, Caltagirone S, Lahuerta JJ, Facon T, Bringhen S, Gay F, Attal M, Passera R, Spencer A, Offidani M, Kumar S, Musto P, Lonial S, Petrucci MT, Orlowski RZ, Zamagni E, Morgan G, Dimopoulos MA, Durie BG, Anderson KC, Sonneveld P, San Miguel J, Cavo M, Rajkumar SV, Moreau P. Revised International Staging System for multiple myeloma: a report from International Myeloma Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Sep 10;33(26):2863-9. Epub 2015 Aug 3. link to original article link to PMC article

Miscellaneous

  1. Avet-Loiseau H, Attal M, Moreau P, Charbonnel C, Garban F, Hulin C, Leyvraz S, Michallet M, Yakoub-Agha I, Garderet L, Marit G, Michaux L, Voillat L, Renaud M, Grosbois B, Guillerm G, Benboubker L, Monconduit M, Thieblemont C, Casassus P, Caillot D, Stoppa AM, Sotto JJ, Wetterwald M, Dumontet C, Fuzibet JG, Azais I, Dorvaux V, Zandecki M, Bataille R, Minvielle S, Harousseau JL, Facon T, Mathiot C. Genetic abnormalities and survival in multiple myeloma: the experience of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3489-95. Epub 2007 Jan 5. link to original article PubMed
  2. Avet-Loiseau H, Hulin C, Campion L, Rodon P, Marit G, Attal M, Royer B, Dib M, Voillat L, Bouscary D, Caillot D, Wetterwald M, Pegourie B, Lepeu G, Corront B, Karlin L, Stoppa AM, Fuzibet JG, Delbrel X, Guilhot F, Kolb B, Decaux O, Lamy T, Garderet L, Allangba O, Lifermann F, Anglaret B, Moreau P, Harousseau JL, Facon T. Chromosomal abnormalities are major prognostic factors in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome experience. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 1;31(22):2806-9. Epub 2013 Jun 24. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

External links

References