Non-small cell lung cancer

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Note: biomarker-specific regimens have been moved to dedicated pages:

60 regimens on this page
91 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ASCO

Current

Former

ASCO/CCO

Current

Former

ESMO

NCCN

Adjuvant therapy

Carboplatin & Paclitaxel

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Strauss et al. 2008 (CALGB 9633) Phase III Observation Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Lobectomy or pneumonectomy, within 4 to 8 weeks

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Strauss GM, Herndon JE 2nd, Maddaus MA, Johnstone DW, Johnson EA, Harpole DH, Gillenwater HH, Watson DM, Sugarbaker DJ, Schilsky RL, Vokes EE, Green MR. Adjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin compared with observation in stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer: CALGB 9633 with the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study Groups. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Nov 1;26(31):5043-51. Epub 2008 Sep 22. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Cisplatin & Docetaxel

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Barlesi et al. 2015 Phase III Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems not superior

This trial included patients with Stage IB–III NSCLC.

Preceding treatment

  • Complete R0 resection, within 8 weeks

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

References

  1. Barlesi F, Chouaid C, Crequit J, Le Caer H, Pujol JL, Legodec J, Vergnenegre A, Le Treut J, Fabre-Guillevin E, Loundou A, Auquier P, Simeoni MC, Thomas PA. A randomized trial comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin with docetaxel plus cisplatin in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with quality of life as the primary objective. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2015 Jun;20(6):783-90. Epub 2015 Mar 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Etoposide

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Arriagada et al. 2004 Phase III Observation Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Complete surgical resection, within 60 days

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Arriagada R, Bergman B, Dunant A, Le Chevalier T, Pignon JP, Vansteenkiste J; International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial Collaborative Group. Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 22;350(4):351-60. link to original article PubMed

Cisplatin & Gemcitabine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Barlesi et al. 2015 Phase III Cisplatin & Docetaxel Seems not superior

This trial included patients with Stage IB–III NSCLC.

Preceding treatment

  • Complete R0 resection, within 8 weeks

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

References

  1. Barlesi F, Chouaid C, Crequit J, Le Caer H, Pujol JL, Legodec J, Vergnenegre A, Le Treut J, Fabre-Guillevin E, Loundou A, Auquier P, Simeoni MC, Thomas PA. A randomized trial comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin with docetaxel plus cisplatin in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with quality of life as the primary objective. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2015 Jun;20(6):783-90. Epub 2015 Mar 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Pemetrexed

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CPx: Cisplatin & Pemetrexed

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kreuter et al. 2013 (TREAT) Randomized Phase II Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior (*)

Intended for pathologically confirmed NSCLC stages (according to the TNM staging system version 6) IB, IIA, IIB or T3N1. Efficacy based on 2016 update.

Preceding treatment

  • Complete surgical resection, within 4 to 6 weeks

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Kreuter M, Vansteenkiste J, Fischer JR, Eberhardt W, Zabeck H, Kollmeier J, Serke M, Frickhofen N, Reck M, Engel-Riedel W, Neumann S, Thomeer M, Schumann C, De Leyn P, Graeter T, Stamatis G, Zuna I, Griesinger F, Thomas M; TREAT investigators. Randomized phase 2 trial on refinement of early-stage NSCLC adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed versus cisplatin and vinorelbine: the TREAT study. Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr;24(4):986-92. Epub 2012 Nov 15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Kreuter M, Vansteenkiste J, Fischer JR, Eberhardt WE, Zabeck H, Kollmeier J, Serke M, Frickhofen N, Reck M, Engel-Riedel W, Neumann S, Thomeer M, Schumann C, De Leyn P, Graeter T, Stamatis G, Griesinger F, Thomas M; TREAT investigators. Three-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Phase II Trial on Refinement of Early-Stage NSCLC Adjuvant Chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Pemetrexed versus Cisplatin and Vinorelbine (the TREAT Study). J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Jan;11(1):85-93. link to original article PubMed

Cisplatin & Vinblastine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Arriagada et al. 2004 Phase III Observation Seems to have superior OS

Note: Exact days for parts of the regimen were not specified by Arriagada et al. 2004. This vinblastine schedule is extrapolated from regimen information in Table 1 in which vinblastine is said to be given "weekly from days 1 to 29" and "then every 2 weeks after day 43 until last cisplatin administration.

Preceding treatment

  • Complete surgical resection, within 60 days

Chemotherapy

12-week course

References

  1. Arriagada R, Bergman B, Dunant A, Le Chevalier T, Pignon JP, Vansteenkiste J; International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial Collaborative Group. Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 22;350(4):351-60. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Vindesine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Arriagada et al. 2004 Phase III Observation Seems to have superior OS

Note: Exact days for parts of the regimen were not specified by Arriagada et al. 2004. This vindesine schedule is extrapolated from regimen information in Table 1 in which vindesine is said to be given "weekly from days 1 to 29" and "then every 2 weeks after day 43 until last cisplatin administration.

Preceding treatment

  • Complete surgical resection, within 60 days

Chemotherapy

12-week course

References

  1. Arriagada R, Bergman B, Dunant A, Le Chevalier T, Pignon JP, Vansteenkiste J; International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial Collaborative Group. Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 22;350(4):351-60. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Vinorelbine

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CVb: Cisplatin & Vinorelbine

Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Winton et al. 2005 (JBR.10) Phase III Observation Seems to have superior OS
Kreuter et al. 2013 (TREAT) Randomized Phase II Cisplatin & Pemetrexed Seems not superior (*)

Efficacy for TREAT based on 2016 update.

Preceding treatment

  • JBR.10: Complete surgical resection, within 6 weeks
  • TREAT: Complete surgical resection, within 4 to 6 weeks

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Arriagada et al. 2004 Phase III Observation Seems to have superior OS
Douillard et al. 2006 (ANITA) Phase III Observation Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Arriagada et al. 2004: Complete surgical resection, within 60 days
  • ANITA: Complete surgical resection

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Arriagada R, Bergman B, Dunant A, Le Chevalier T, Pignon JP, Vansteenkiste J; International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial Collaborative Group. Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 22;350(4):351-60. link to original article PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
  2. Winton T, Livingston R, Johnson D, Rigas J, Johnston M, Butts C, Cormier Y, Goss G, Inculet R, Vallieres E, Fry W, Bethune D, Ayoub J, Ding K, Seymour L, Graham B, Tsao MS, Gandara D, Kesler K, Demmy T, Shepherd F; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group; National Cancer Institute of the United States Intergroup JBR.10 Trial Investigators. Vinorelbine plus cisplatin vs. observation in resected non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 23;352(25):2589-97. link to original article PubMed
  3. Douillard JY, Rosell R, De Lena M, Carpagnano F, Ramlau R, Gonzáles-Larriba JL, Grodzki T, Pereira JR, Le Groumellec A, Lorusso V, Clary C, Torres AJ, Dahabreh J, Souquet PJ, Astudillo J, Fournel P, Artal-Cortes A, Jassem J, Koubkova L, His P, Riggi M, Hurteloup P. Adjuvant vinorelbine plus cisplatin versus observation in patients with completely resected stage IB-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association [ANITA]): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006 Sep;7(9):719-27. link to original article PubMed
  4. Kreuter M, Vansteenkiste J, Fischer JR, Eberhardt W, Zabeck H, Kollmeier J, Serke M, Frickhofen N, Reck M, Engel-Riedel W, Neumann S, Thomeer M, Schumann C, De Leyn P, Graeter T, Stamatis G, Zuna I, Griesinger F, Thomas M; TREAT investigators. Randomized phase 2 trial on refinement of early-stage NSCLC adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed versus cisplatin and vinorelbine: the TREAT study. Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr;24(4):986-92. Epub 2012 Nov 15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Kreuter M, Vansteenkiste J, Fischer JR, Eberhardt WE, Zabeck H, Kollmeier J, Serke M, Frickhofen N, Reck M, Engel-Riedel W, Neumann S, Thomeer M, Schumann C, De Leyn P, Graeter T, Stamatis G, Griesinger F, Thomas M; TREAT investigators. Three-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Phase II Trial on Refinement of Early-Stage NSCLC Adjuvant Chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Pemetrexed versus Cisplatin and Vinorelbine (the TREAT Study). J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Jan;11(1):85-93. link to original article PubMed

Observation

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Arriagada et al. 2004 Phase III Cisplatin & Etoposide Seems to have inferior OS
Cisplatin & Vinblastine Seems to have inferior OS
Cisplatin & Vindesine Seems to have inferior OS
Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems to have inferior OS
Winton et al. 2006 (JBR.10) Phase III Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems to have inferior OS
Douillard et al. 2006 (ANITA) Phase III Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems to have inferior OS
Strauss et al. 2008 (CALGB 9633) Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior

No systemic treatment after surgery. Placed here because one or more randomized clinical trials included a placebo or observation arm in this disease context.

References

  1. Arriagada R, Bergman B, Dunant A, Le Chevalier T, Pignon JP, Vansteenkiste J; International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial Collaborative Group. Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 22;350(4):351-60. link to original article PubMed
  2. Winton T, Livingston R, Johnson D, Rigas J, Johnston M, Butts C, Cormier Y, Goss G, Inculet R, Vallieres E, Fry W, Bethune D, Ayoub J, Ding K, Seymour L, Graham B, Tsao MS, Gandara D, Kesler K, Demmy T, Shepherd F; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group; National Cancer Institute of the United States Intergroup JBR.10 Trial Investigators. Vinorelbine plus cisplatin vs. observation in resected non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 23;352(25):2589-97. link to original article PubMed
  3. Douillard JY, Rosell R, De Lena M, Carpagnano F, Ramlau R, Gonzáles-Larriba JL, Grodzki T, Pereira JR, Le Groumellec A, Lorusso V, Clary C, Torres AJ, Dahabreh J, Souquet PJ, Astudillo J, Fournel P, Artal-Cortes A, Jassem J, Koubkova L, His P, Riggi M, Hurteloup P. Adjuvant vinorelbine plus cisplatin versus observation in patients with completely resected stage IB-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association [ANITA]): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006 Sep;7(9):719-27. link to original article PubMed
  4. Strauss GM, Herndon JE 2nd, Maddaus MA, Johnstone DW, Johnson EA, Harpole DH, Gillenwater HH, Watson DM, Sugarbaker DJ, Schilsky RL, Vokes EE, Green MR. Adjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin compared with observation in stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer: CALGB 9633 with the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study Groups. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Nov 1;26(31):5043-51. Epub 2008 Sep 22. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced disease

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, RT

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PC: Paclitaxel & Carboplatin
RT: RadioTherapy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Belani et al. 2005 Phase II
Bradley et al. 2015 (RTOG 0617) Phase III Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Cetuximab, concurrent RT Seems not superior
Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, high-dose RT
Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Cetuximab, high-dose RT
Superior OS
Liang et al. 2017 Phase III EP & RT Might have inferior OS

Chemoradiotherapy

  • Carboplatin (Paraplatin) AUC 2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15, given second
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 45 mg/m2 IV over 1 to 3 hours once per day on days 1, 8, 15, given first
  • Concurrent radiation therapy, as follows:
    • Belani et al. 2005: 1.8 Gy fractions x 25 fractions given 5 days per week, then 2 Gy fractions x 9 fractions given 5 days per week. Total dose: 63 Gy over a 7 week course of treatment.
    • RTOG 0617: 2 Gy fractions x 30 fractions given 5 days per week (total dose: 60 Gy)

21-day cycle for 2 cycles

Treatment in some protocols followed by carboplatin & paclitaxel consolidation.

References

  1. Belani CP, Choy H, Bonomi P, Scott C, Travis P, Haluschak J, Curran WJ Jr. Combined chemoradiotherapy regimens of paclitaxel and carboplatin for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomized phase II locally advanced multi-modality protocol. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5883-91. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Bradley JD, Paulus R, Komaki R, Masters G, Blumenschein G, Schild S, Bogart J, Hu C, Forster K, Magliocco A, Kavadi V, Garces YI, Narayan S, Iyengar P, Robinson C, Wynn RB, Koprowski C, Meng J, Beitler J, Gaur R, Curran W Jr, Choy H. Standard-dose versus high-dose conformal radiotherapy with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin plus paclitaxel with or without cetuximab for patients with stage IIIA or IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (RTOG 0617): a randomised, two-by-two factorial phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):187-99. Epub 2015 Jan 16. contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Liang J, Bi N, Wu S, Chen M, Lv C, Zhao L, Shi A, Jiang W, Xu Y, Zhou Z, Wang W, Chen D, Hui Z, Lv J, Zhang H, Feng Q, Xiao Z, Wang X, Liu L, Zhang T, Du L, Chen W, Shyr Y, Yin W, Li J, He J, Wang L. Etoposide and cisplatin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy in unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a multicenter randomized phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2017 Apr 1;28(4):777-783. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carboplatin & Paclitaxel, then RT

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Belani et al. 2005 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 2 cycles, then proceed to radiation therapy:

Radiation therapy

  • Sequential radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy fractions x 25 fractions (total dose: 45 Gy), given once per day 5 days per week, then 2 Gy fractions x 9 fractions (additional dose: 18 Gy), given once per day 5 days per week. Total dose: 63 Gy over a total 7 week course of treatment.

References

  1. Belani CP, Choy H, Bonomi P, Scott C, Travis P, Haluschak J, Curran WJ Jr. Combined chemoradiotherapy regimens of paclitaxel and carboplatin for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomized phase II locally advanced multi-modality protocol. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5883-91. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Cisplatin, Etoposide, RT

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EP: Etoposide and Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Senan et al. 2016 (PROCLAIM) Phase III Cisplatin, Pemetrexed, RT, then Pemetrexed consolidation Seems not superior
Liang et al. 2017 Phase III PC & RT Might have superior OS

Chemoradiotherapy

  • Cisplatin (Platinol) 50 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1 & 8
  • Etoposide (Vepesid) 50 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1 to 5
  • Concurrent radiation therapy, 2 Gy fractions x 30 to 33 fractions (total dose: 60 to 66 Gy), given 5 days per week, started on day 1

28-day cycle for 2 cycles

Treatment followed by cisplatin & etoposide consolidation or cisplatin & vinorelbine consolidation or carboplatin & paclitaxel consolidation (investigator's choice).

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Curran et al. 2011 (RTOG 9410) Phase III Cisplatin, Vinblastine, RT Seems not superior
Cisplatin, Vinblastine, then RT Might have superior OS

Chemoradiotherapy

  • Cisplatin (Platinol) 50 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 29, 36
  • Etoposide (Vepesid) 50 mg PO BID on days 1 to 5, 8 to 12, 29 to 33, 36 to 40
  • Concurrent radiation therapy, 1.2 Gy fractions (total dose: 69.6 Gy), given twice per day for 5 days per week, starting on day 1

5-week course

Regimen #3

Study Evidence
Albain et al. 2002 (SWOG 9019) Phase II

Chemoradiotherapy

  • Cisplatin (Platinol) 50 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 29, 36
  • Etoposide (Vepesid) 50 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1 to 5, 29 to 33
  • Concurrent radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy fractions x 25 fractions (total dose: 45 Gy), given 5 days per week, to start within 24 hours of chemotherapy
    • Patients were reimaged with CT scan (bone scan and head imaging were only done if patients had new symptoms), and those without progression or new metastatic disease received an additional 2 Gy per day x 8 fractions for a total of 61 Gy administered overall

5-week course

References

  1. Albain KS, Crowley JJ, Turrisi AT 3rd, Gandara DR, Farrar WB, Clark JI, Beasley KR, Livingston RB. Concurrent cisplatin, etoposide, and chest radiotherapy in pathologic stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group phase II study, SWOG 9019. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Aug 15;20(16):3454-60. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Curran WJ Jr, Paulus R, Langer CJ, Komaki R, Lee JS, Hauser S, Movsas B, Wasserman T, Rosenthal SA, Gore E, Machtay M, Sause W, Cox JD. Sequential vs. concurrent chemoradiation for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: randomized phase III trial RTOG 9410. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Oct 5;103(19):1452-60. Epub 2011 Sep 8. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(1):79. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Senan S, Brade A, Wang LH, Vansteenkiste J, Dakhil S, Biesma B, Martinez Aguillo M, Aerts J, Govindan R, Rubio-Viqueira B, Lewanski C, Gandara D, Choy H, Mok T, Hossain A, Iscoe N, Treat J, Koustenis A, San Antonio B, Chouaki N, Vokes E. PROCLAIM: randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed-cisplatin or etoposide-cisplatin plus thoracic radiation therapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 20;34(9):953-62. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Liang J, Bi N, Wu S, Chen M, Lv C, Zhao L, Shi A, Jiang W, Xu Y, Zhou Z, Wang W, Chen D, Hui Z, Lv J, Zhang H, Feng Q, Xiao Z, Wang X, Liu L, Zhang T, Du L, Chen W, Shyr Y, Yin W, Li J, He J, Wang L. Etoposide and cisplatin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy in unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a multicenter randomized phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2017 Apr 1;28(4):777-783. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin, Vinblastine, RT

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Curran et al. 2011 (RTOG 9410) Phase III Cisplatin, Etoposide, RT Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Vinblastine, then RT Seems to have superior OS

Chemoradiotherapy

5-week course of chemotherapy

References

  1. Curran WJ Jr, Paulus R, Langer CJ, Komaki R, Lee JS, Hauser S, Movsas B, Wasserman T, Rosenthal SA, Gore E, Machtay M, Sause W, Cox JD. Sequential vs. concurrent chemoradiation for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: randomized phase III trial RTOG 9410. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Oct 5;103(19):1452-60. Epub 2011 Sep 8. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(1):79. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Cisplatin & Vinblastine, then RT

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Curran et al. 2011 (RTOG 9410) Phase III Cisplatin, Etoposide, RT Might have inferior OS
Cisplatin, Vinblastine, RT Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

5-week total course of chemotherapy, followed by:

Radiotherapy

  • Radiation therapy given after chemotherapy is complete

References

  1. Curran WJ Jr, Paulus R, Langer CJ, Komaki R, Lee JS, Hauser S, Movsas B, Wasserman T, Rosenthal SA, Gore E, Machtay M, Sause W, Cox JD. Sequential vs. concurrent chemoradiation for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: randomized phase III trial RTOG 9410. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Oct 5;103(19):1452-60. Epub 2011 Sep 8. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(1):79. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Consolidation after definitive chemoradiotherapy

Carboplatin & Paclitaxel

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Belani et al. 2005 Phase II
Bradley et al. 2015 (RTOG 0617) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Senan et al. 2016 (PROCLAIM) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 2 cycles

References

  1. Belani CP, Choy H, Bonomi P, Scott C, Travis P, Haluschak J, Curran WJ Jr. Combined chemoradiotherapy regimens of paclitaxel and carboplatin for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomized phase II locally advanced multi-modality protocol. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5883-91. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Bradley JD, Paulus R, Komaki R, Masters G, Blumenschein G, Schild S, Bogart J, Hu C, Forster K, Magliocco A, Kavadi V, Garces YI, Narayan S, Iyengar P, Robinson C, Wynn RB, Koprowski C, Meng J, Beitler J, Gaur R, Curran W Jr, Choy H. Standard-dose versus high-dose conformal radiotherapy with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin plus paclitaxel with or without cetuximab for patients with stage IIIA or IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (RTOG 0617): a randomised, two-by-two factorial phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):187-99. Epub 2015 Jan 16. contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Senan S, Brade A, Wang LH, Vansteenkiste J, Dakhil S, Biesma B, Martinez Aguillo M, Aerts J, Govindan R, Rubio-Viqueira B, Lewanski C, Gandara D, Choy H, Mok T, Hossain A, Iscoe N, Treat J, Koustenis A, San Antonio B, Chouaki N, Vokes E. PROCLAIM: randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed-cisplatin or etoposide-cisplatin plus thoracic radiation therapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 20;34(9):953-62. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Etoposide

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Senan et al. 2016 (PROCLAIM) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 2 cycles

References

  1. Senan S, Brade A, Wang LH, Vansteenkiste J, Dakhil S, Biesma B, Martinez Aguillo M, Aerts J, Govindan R, Rubio-Viqueira B, Lewanski C, Gandara D, Choy H, Mok T, Hossain A, Iscoe N, Treat J, Koustenis A, San Antonio B, Chouaki N, Vokes E. PROCLAIM: randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed-cisplatin or etoposide-cisplatin plus thoracic radiation therapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 20;34(9):953-62. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Vinorelbine

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Senan et al. 2016 (PROCLAIM) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 2 cycles

References

  1. Senan S, Brade A, Wang LH, Vansteenkiste J, Dakhil S, Biesma B, Martinez Aguillo M, Aerts J, Govindan R, Rubio-Viqueira B, Lewanski C, Gandara D, Choy H, Mok T, Hossain A, Iscoe N, Treat J, Koustenis A, San Antonio B, Chouaki N, Vokes E. PROCLAIM: randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed-cisplatin or etoposide-cisplatin plus thoracic radiation therapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 20;34(9):953-62. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Durvalumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Antonia et al. 2017 (PACIFIC) Phase III Placebo Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

  • "Two or more cycles (defined according to local practice) of platinum-based chemotherapy (containing etoposide, vinblastine, vinorelbine, a taxane [paclitaxel or docetaxel], or pemetrexed) concurrently with definitive radiation therapy (54 to 66 Gy), in which the mean dose to the lung was less than 20 Gy, the V20 (the volume of lung parenchyma that received 20 Gy or more) was less than 35%, or both."

Immunotherapy

Up to 12-month course

References

  1. Antonia SJ, Villegas A, Daniel D, Vicente D, Murakami S, Hui R, Yokoi T, Chiappori A, Lee KH, de Wit M, Cho BC, Bourhaba M, Quantin X, Tokito T, Mekhail T, Planchard D, Kim YC, Karapetis CS, Hiret S, Ostoros G, Kubota K, Gray JE, Paz-Ares L, de Castro Carpeño J, Wadsworth C, Melillo G, Jiang H, Huang Y, Dennis PA, Özgüroğlu M; PACIFIC Investigators. Durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 16;377(20):1919-1929. Epub 2017 Sep 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Antonia et al. 2017 (PACIFIC) Phase III Durvalumab Inferior PFS

Preceding treatment

  • "Two or more cycles (defined according to local practice) of platinum-based chemotherapy (containing etoposide, vinblastine, vinorelbine, a taxane [paclitaxel or docetaxel], or pemetrexed) concurrently with definitive radiation therapy (54 to 66 Gy), in which the mean dose to the lung was less than 20 Gy, the V20 (the volume of lung parenchyma that received 20 Gy or more) was less than 35%, or both."

Treatment

Up to 12-month course

References

  1. Antonia SJ, Villegas A, Daniel D, Vicente D, Murakami S, Hui R, Yokoi T, Chiappori A, Lee KH, de Wit M, Cho BC, Bourhaba M, Quantin X, Tokito T, Mekhail T, Planchard D, Kim YC, Karapetis CS, Hiret S, Ostoros G, Kubota K, Gray JE, Paz-Ares L, de Castro Carpeño J, Wadsworth C, Melillo G, Jiang H, Huang Y, Dennis PA, Özgüroğlu M; PACIFIC Investigators. Durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 16;377(20):1919-1929. Epub 2017 Sep 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Advanced or metastatic disease, all lines of therapy

Afatinib monotherapy

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Soria et al. 2015 (LUX-Lung 8) Phase III Erlotinib Superior OS

Chemotherapy

  • Afatinib (Gilotrif) 40 mg PO once per day, given 1 hour before eating food (Yang et al. 2012: "no food intake immediately before or after afatinib")
    • In LUX-Lung 3, patients could be increased to 50 mg PO once per day if they did not experience any grade 2 or higher rash, diarrhea, mucositis, or other drug-related adverse event.

Given until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Miller et al. 2012 (LUX-Lung 1) Phase III Placebo Superior PFS
Katakami et al. 2013 (LUX-Lung 4) Phase II ORR: 8% (95% CI: 3-18)

In LUX-Lung 4, 72.6% of patients were EGFR mutation positive. This was third or fourth line therapy for participants, who had progressed while receiving erlotinib and/or gefitinib and had received one or two previous lines of chemotherapy, including at least one platinum-based regimen.

Chemotherapy

Given until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent

References

  1. Miller VA, Hirsh V, Cadranel J, Chen YM, Park K, Kim SW, Zhou C, Su WC, Wang M, Sun Y, Heo DS, Crino L, Tan EH, Chao TY, Shahidi M, Cong XJ, Lorence RM, Yang JC. Afatinib versus placebo for patients with advanced, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of erlotinib, gefitinib, or both, and one or two lines of chemotherapy (LUX-Lung 1): a phase 2b/3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 May;13(5):528-38. Epub 2012 Mar 26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Katakami N, Atagi S, Goto K, Hida T, Horai T, Inoue A, Ichinose Y, Koboyashi K, Takeda K, Kiura K, Nishio K, Seki Y, Ebisawa R, Shahidi M, Yamamoto N. LUX-Lung 4: A Phase II Trial of Afatinib in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Who Progressed During Prior Treatment With Erlotinib, Gefitinib, or Both. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 20;31(27):3335-41. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Soria JC, Felip E, Cobo M, Lu S, Syrigos K, Lee KH, Göker E, Georgoulias V, Li W, Isla D, Guclu SZ, Morabito A, Min YJ, Ardizzoni A, Gadgeel SM, Wang B, Chand VK, Goss GD; LUX-Lung 8 Investigators. Afatinib versus erlotinib as second-line treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (LUX-Lung 8): an open-label randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Aug;16(8):897-907. Epub 2015 Jul 5. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Atezolizumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fehrenbacher et al. 2016 (POPLAR) Randomized Phase II Docetaxel Seems to have superior OS
Rittmeyer et al. 2017 (OAK) Phase III Docetaxel Superior OS

Immunotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Fehrenbacher L, Spira A, Ballinger M, Kowanetz M, Vansteenkiste J, Mazieres J, Park K, Smith D, Artal-Cortes A, Lewanski C, Braiteh F, Waterkamp D, He P, Zou W, Chen DS, Yi J, Sandler A, Rittmeyer A; POPLAR Study Group. Atezolizumab versus docetaxel for patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (POPLAR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Apr 30;387(10030):1837-46. Epub 2016 Mar 9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Rittmeyer A, Barlesi F, Waterkamp D, Park K, Ciardiello F, von Pawel J, Gadgeel SM, Hida T, Kowalski DM, Dols MC, Cortinovis DL, Leach J, Polikoff J, Barrios C, Kabbinavar F, Frontera OA, De Marinis F, Turna H, Lee JS, Ballinger M, Kowanetz M, He P, Chen DS, Sandler A, Gandara DR; OAK Study Group. Atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (OAK): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017 Jan 21;389(10066):255-265. link to origial article PubMed

Best supportive care

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Elderly Lung Cancer Vinorelbine Italian Study Group, 1999 Phase III Vinorelbine Seems to have inferior OS

No active antineoplastic treatment. This trial did NOT include a placebo.

References

  1. The Elderly Lung Cancer Vinorelbine Italian Study Group. Effects of vinorelbine on quality of life and survival of elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Jan 6;91(1):66-72. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cabozantinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Neal et al. 2016 (ECOG-ACRIN 1512) Randomized Phase II Cabozantinib & Erlotinib Not reported
Erlotinib Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression or intolerance

References

  1. Neal JW, Dahlberg SE, Wakelee HA, Aisner SC, Bowden M, Huang Y, Carbone DP, Gerstner GJ, Lerner RE, Rubin JL, Owonikoko TK, Stella PJ, Steen PD, Khalid AA, Ramalingam SS; ECOG-ACRIN 1512 Investigators. Erlotinib, cabozantinib, or erlotinib plus cabozantinib as second-line or third-line treatment of patients with EGFR wild-type advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ECOG-ACRIN 1512): a randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Dec;17(12):1661-1671. Epub 2016 Nov 4. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Cabozantinib & Erlotinib

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Neal et al. 2016 (ECOG-ACRIN 1512) Randomized Phase II Cabozantinib Not reported
Erlotinib Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression or intolerance

References

  1. Neal JW, Dahlberg SE, Wakelee HA, Aisner SC, Bowden M, Huang Y, Carbone DP, Gerstner GJ, Lerner RE, Rubin JL, Owonikoko TK, Stella PJ, Steen PD, Khalid AA, Ramalingam SS; ECOG-ACRIN 1512 Investigators. Erlotinib, cabozantinib, or erlotinib plus cabozantinib as second-line or third-line treatment of patients with EGFR wild-type advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ECOG-ACRIN 1512): a randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Dec;17(12):1661-1671. Epub 2016 Nov 4. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Carboplatin & Docetaxel

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fossella et al. 2003 (TAX 326) Phase III Cisplatin & Docetaxel Not reported
Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior
Rossell et al. 2012 (EURTAC) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS

Patients in EURTAC had EGFR exon 19 deletion or p.L858R mutation in exon 21.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Fossella F, Pereira JR, von Pawel J, Pluzanska A, Gorbounova V, Kaukel E, Mattson KV, Ramlau R, Szczesna A, Fidias P, Millward M, Belani CP. Randomized, multinational, phase III study of docetaxel plus platinum combinations versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the TAX 326 study group. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Aug 15;21(16):3016-24. Epub 2003 Jul 1. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Rosell R, Carcereny E, Gervais R, Vergnenegre A, Massuti B, Felip E, Palmero R, Garcia-Gomez R, Pallares C, Sanchez JM, Porta R, Cobo M, Garrido P, Longo F, Moran T, Insa A, De Marinis F, Corre R, Bover I, Illiano A, Dansin E, de Castro J, Milella M, Reguart N, Altavilla G, Jimenez U, Provencio M, Moreno MA, Terrasa J, Muñoz-Langa J, Valdivia J, Isla D, Domine M, Molinier O, Mazieres J, Baize N, Garcia-Campelo R, Robinet G, Rodriguez-Abreu D, Lopez-Vivanco G, Gebbia V, Ferrera-Delgado L, Bombaron P, Bernabe R, Bearz A, Artal A, Cortesi E, Rolfo C, Sanchez-Ronco M, Drozdowskyj A, Queralt C, de Aguirre I, Ramirez JL, Sanchez JJ, Molina MA, Taron M, Paz-Ares L; Spanish Lung Cancer Group in collaboration with Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie and Associazione Italiana Oncologia Toracica. Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar;13(3):239-46. Epub 2012 Jan 26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Carboplatin & Etoposide

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Klastersky et al. 1990 (EORTC 07861) Phase III Carboplatin & Etoposide Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

3- to 4-week cycles

References

  1. Klastersky J, Sculier JP, Lacroix H, Dabouis G, Bureau G, Libert P, Richez M, Ravez P, Vandermoten G, Thiriaux J, et al. A randomized study comparing cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Protocol 07861. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Sep;8(9):1556-62. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carboplatin & Gemcitabine

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GC: Gemcitabine and Carboplatin GCb: Gemcitabine and Cbarboplatin

Regimen #1, 6/1250 ("GCb6")

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS
Ferry et al. 2017 (BTOG2) Phase III GC50 Seems to have superior OS
GC80 Non-inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles

Regimen #2, 5/1000

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Grønberg et al. 2009 Phase III Carboplatin & Pemetrexed Seems not superior
Zhou et al. 2011 (OPTIMAL) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS
Rossell et al. 2012 (EURTAC) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS

Patients in EURTAC had EGFR exon 19 deletion or p.L858R mutation in exon 21.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Patients in OPTIMAL received up to 4 cycles.

Regimen #3, 5/1250

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Sederholm et al. 2005 Phase III Gemcitabine Seems to have superior OS
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles

Regimen #4, 5/1000, 28-day cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Danson et al. 2003 Phase III MIC
MVP
Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Danson S, Middleton MR, O'Byrne KJ, Clemons M, Ranson M, Hassan J, Anderson H, Burt PA, Fairve-Finn C, Stout R, Dowd I, Ashcroft L, Beresford C, Thatcher N. Phase III trial of gemcitabine and carboplatin versus mitomycin, ifosfamide, and cisplatin or mitomycin, vinblastine, and cisplatin in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. Cancer. 2003 Aug 1;98(3):542-53. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Sederholm C, Hillerdal G, Lamberg K, Kölbeck K, Dufmats M, Westberg R, Gawande SR. Phase III trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin versus single-agent gemcitabine in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: the Swedish Lung Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8380-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Grønberg BH, Bremnes RM, Fløtten O, Amundsen T, Brunsvig PF, Hjelde HH, Kaasa S, von Plessen C, Stornes F, Tollåli T, Wammer F, Aasebø U, Sundstrøm S. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group: pemetrexed plus carboplatin compared with gemcitabine plus carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jul 1;27(19):3217-24. Epub 2009 May 11. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G, Feng J, Liu XQ, Wang C, Zhang S, Wang J, Zhou S, Ren S, Lu S, Zhang L, Hu C, Hu C, Luo Y, Chen L, Ye M, Huang J, Zhi X, Zhang Y, Xiu Q, Ma J, Zhang L, You C. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Aug;12(8):735-42. Epub 2011 Jul 23. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G, Feng J, Liu XQ, Wang C, Zhang S, Wang J, Zhou S, Ren S, Lu S, Zhang L, Hu C, Hu C, Luo Y, Chen L, Ye M, Huang J, Zhi X, Zhang Y, Xiu Q, Ma J, Zhang L, You C. Final overall survival results from a randomised, phase III study of erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment of EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802). Ann Oncol. 2015 Sep;26(9):1877-83. Epub 2015 Jul 3. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Rosell R, Carcereny E, Gervais R, Vergnenegre A, Massuti B, Felip E, Palmero R, Garcia-Gomez R, Pallares C, Sanchez JM, Porta R, Cobo M, Garrido P, Longo F, Moran T, Insa A, De Marinis F, Corre R, Bover I, Illiano A, Dansin E, de Castro J, Milella M, Reguart N, Altavilla G, Jimenez U, Provencio M, Moreno MA, Terrasa J, Muñoz-Langa J, Valdivia J, Isla D, Domine M, Molinier O, Mazieres J, Baize N, Garcia-Campelo R, Robinet G, Rodriguez-Abreu D, Lopez-Vivanco G, Gebbia V, Ferrera-Delgado L, Bombaron P, Bernabe R, Bearz A, Artal A, Cortesi E, Rolfo C, Sanchez-Ronco M, Drozdowskyj A, Queralt C, de Aguirre I, Ramirez JL, Sanchez JJ, Molina MA, Taron M, Paz-Ares L; Spanish Lung Cancer Group in collaboration with Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie and Associazione Italiana Oncologia Toracica. Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar;13(3):239-46. Epub 2012 Jan 26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Gottfried M, Peled N, Tafreshi A, Cuffe S, O'Brien M, Rao S, Hotta K, Leiby MA, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Rangwala R, Brahmer JR; KEYNOTE-024 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for PD-L1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1823-1833. Epub 2016 Oct 8. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Ferry D, Billingham L, Jarrett H, Dunlop D, Woll PJ, Nicolson M, Shah R, Thompson J, Spicer J, Muthukumar D, Skailes G, Leonard P, Chetiyawardana AD, Wells P, Lewanski C, Crosse B, Hill M, Gaunt P, O'Byrne K. Carboplatin versus two doses of cisplatin in combination with gemcitabine in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Results from a British Thoracic Oncology Group randomised phase III trial. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Sep;83:302-312. Epub 2017 Aug 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carboplatin & Paclitaxel

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TC: Taxol (Paclitaxel) and Carboplatin

Regimen #1, 6/200

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Johnson et al. 2004 Randomized Phase II PacCBev Seems to have inferior TTP
Ohe et al. 2006 Phase III Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Irinotecan Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior
Sandler et al. 2006 (ECOG 4599) Phase III PacCBev, then Maintenance Bev Inferior OS
Lilenbaum et al. 2008 Phase III Erlotinib Seems to have superior OS
Mok et al. 2009 (IPASS) Phase III Gefitinib Inferior PFS
Maemondo et al. 2010 Phase III Gefitinib Inferior PFS
Socinski et al. 2012 Phase III Carboplatin & nabPaclitaxel Inferior ORR
Langer et al. 2014 Phase III Carboplatin, Figitumumab, Paclitaxel Might have superior OS
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS
Ramalingam et al. 2016 Randomized Phase II Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Veliparib Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 or more cycles

Patients in KEYNOTE-024 with nonsquamous histology could optionally proceed, after 4 to 6 cycles, to pemetrexed switch maintenance.

Regimen #2, 6/175

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Lynch et al. 2012 Randomized Phase II Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Ipilimumab Seems to have inferior PFS
Govindan et al. 2017 Phase III Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Ipilimumab Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Regimen #3, 6/90

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Quoix et al. 2011 (IFCT-0501) Phase III Gemcitabine Superior OS
Vinorelbine Superior OS

Study involved only patients 70 to 89 years old

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Growth factor support was not recommended as primary prophylaxis during cycle 1, but could be used if the patient develops grade 3-4 neutropenia

28-day cycle for up to 4 cycles

Regimen #4, 5/200

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Mok et al. 2009 (IPASS) Phase III Gefitinib Inferior PFS
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles

Patients in KEYNOTE-024 with nonsquamous histology could optionally proceed, after 4 to 6 cycles, to pemetrexed switch maintenance.

Regimen #5, 6/225

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Schiller et al. 2002 Phase III Cisplatin & Docetaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Lilenbaum et al. 2005 (CALGB 9730) Phase III Paclitaxel Superior FFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Schiller JH, Harrington D, Belani CP, Langer C, Sandler A, Krook J, Zhu J, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 10;346(2):92-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Johnson DH, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny WF, Herbst RS, Nemunaitis JJ, Jablons DM, Langer CJ, DeVore RF 3rd, Gaudreault J, Damico LA, Holmgren E, Kabbinavar F. Randomized phase II trial comparing bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel with carboplatin and paclitaxel alone in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2184-91. link to original article PubMed
  3. Lilenbaum RC, Herndon JE 2nd, List MA, Desch C, Watson DM, Miller AA, Graziano SL, Perry MC, Saville W, Chahinian P, Weeks JC, Holland JC, Green MR. Single-agent versus combination chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the cancer and leukemia group B (study 9730). J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 1;23(1):190-6. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Ohe Y, Ohashi Y, Kubota K, Tamura T, Nakagawa K, Negoro S, Nishiwaki Y, Saijo N, Ariyoshi Y, Fukuoka M. Randomized phase III study of cisplatin plus irinotecan versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel, cisplatin plus gemcitabine, and cisplatin plus vinorelbine for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Four-Arm Cooperative Study in Japan. Ann Oncol. 2007 Feb;18(2):317-23. Epub 2006 Nov 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, Brahmer J, Schiller JH, Dowlati A, Lilenbaum R, Johnson DH. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2542-50. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Ramalingam SS, Dahlberg SE, Langer CJ, Gray R, Belani CP, Brahmer JR, Sandler AB, Schiller JH, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Outcomes for elderly, advanced-stage non small-cell lung cancer patients treated with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel: analysis of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial 4599. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 1;26(1):60-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. Lilenbaum R, Axelrod R, Thomas S, Dowlati A, Seigel L, Albert D, Witt K, Botkin D. Randomized phase II trial of erlotinib or standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and a performance status of 2. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 20;26(6):863-9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  7. Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, Yang CH, Chu DT, Saijo N, Sunpaweravong P, Han B, Margono B, Ichinose Y, Nishiwaki Y, Ohe Y, Yang JJ, Chewaskulyong B, Jiang H, Duffield EL, Watkins CL, Armour AA, Fukuoka M. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2009 Sep 3;361(10):947-57. Epub 2009 Aug 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Fukuoka M, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, Sunpaweravong P, Leong SS, Sriuranpong V, Chao TY, Nakagawa K, Chu DT, Saijo N, Duffield EL, Rukazenkov Y, Speake G, Jiang H, Armour AA, To KF, Yang JC, Mok TS. Biomarker analyses and final overall survival results from a phase III, randomized, open-label, first-line study of gefitinib versus carboplatin/paclitaxel in clinically selected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in Asia (IPASS). J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jul 20;29(21):2866-74. Epub 2011 Jun 13. link to original article PubMed
  8. Maemondo M, Inoue A, Kobayashi K, Sugawara S, Oizumi S, Isobe H, Gemma A, Harada M, Yoshizawa H, Kinoshita I, Fujita Y, Okinaga S, Hirano H, Yoshimori K, Harada T, Ogura T, Ando M, Miyazawa H, Tanaka T, Saijo Y, Hagiwara K, Morita S, Nukiwa T; North-East Japan Study Group. Gefitinib or chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer with mutated EGFR. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 24;362(25):2380-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. Quoix E, Zalcman G, Oster JP, Westeel V, Pichon E, Lavolé A, Dauba J, Debieuvre D, Souquet PJ, Bigay-Game L, Dansin E, Poudenx M, Molinier O, Vaylet F, Moro-Sibilot D, Herman D, Bennouna J, Tredaniel J, Ducoloné A, Lebitasy MP, Baudrin L, Laporte S, Milleron B; Intergroupe Francophone de Cancérologie Thoracique. Carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel doublet chemotherapy compared with monotherapy in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: IFCT-0501 randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Sep 17;378(9796):1079-88. Epub 2011 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. Lynch TJ, Bondarenko I, Luft A, Serwatowski P, Barlesi F, Chacko R, Sebastian M, Neal J, Lu H, Cuillerot JM, Reck M. Ipilimumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line treatment in stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun 10;30(17):2046-54. Epub 2012 Apr 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  11. Socinski MA, Bondarenko I, Karaseva NA, Makhson AM, Vynnychenko I, Okamoto I, Hon JK, Hirsh V, Bhar P, Zhang H, Iglesias JL, Renschler MF. Weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus solvent-based paclitaxel plus carboplatin as first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: final results of a phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun 10;30(17):2055-62. Epub 2012 Apr 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  12. Langer CJ, Novello S, Park K, Krzakowski M, Karp DD, Mok T, Benner RJ, Scranton JR, Olszanski AJ, Jassem J. Randomized, phase III trial of first-line figitumumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin alone in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jul 1;32(19):2059-66. Epub 2014 Jun 2. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  13. Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Gottfried M, Peled N, Tafreshi A, Cuffe S, O'Brien M, Rao S, Hotta K, Leiby MA, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Rangwala R, Brahmer JR; KEYNOTE-024 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for PD-L1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1823-1833. Epub 2016 Oct 8. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  14. Ramalingam SS, Blais N, Mazieres J, Reck M, Jones CM, Juhasz E, Urban L, Orlov S, Barlesi F, Kio E, Keiholz U, Qin Q, Qian J, Nickner C, Dziubinski J, Xiong H, Ansell P, McKee M, Giranda V, Gorbunova V. Randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study of veliparib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel for advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Apr 15;23(8):1937-1944. Epub 2016 Oct 10. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  15. Govindan R, Szczesna A, Ahn MJ, Schneider CP, Gonzalez Mella PF, Barlesi F, Han B, Ganea DE, Von Pawel J, Vladimirov V, Fadeeva N, Lee KH, Kurata T, Zhang L, Tamura T, Postmus PE, Jassem J, O'Byrne K, Kopit J, Li M, Tschaika M, Reck M. Phase III trial of ipilimumab combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Oct 20;35(30):3449-3457. Epub 2017 Aug 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carboplatin & Paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Socinski et al. 2012 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Superior ORR

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles; treatment could continue at physician's discretion if there was no progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Socinski MA, Bondarenko I, Karaseva NA, Makhson AM, Vynnychenko I, Okamoto I, Hon JK, Hirsh V, Bhar P, Zhang H, Iglesias JL, Renschler MF. Weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus solvent-based paclitaxel plus carboplatin as first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: final results of a phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun 10;30(17):2055-62. Epub 2012 Apr 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab

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PacCBev: Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, Bevacizumab

Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Patel et al. 2013 (PointBreak) Phase III PemCBev, then PemBev maint. Seems to have inferior PFS
Zinner et al. 2015 (PRONOUNCE) Phase III Carboplatin & Pemetrexed, then Pemetrexed maint. Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Premedications per paclitaxel label
  • Erythropoietic agents or granulocyte colony-stimulating factors allowed per ASCO & NCCN guidelines

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Patients with complete response, partial response, or stable disease proceeded to bevacizumab maintenance therapy.

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Johnson et al. 2004 Randomized Phase II Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems to have superior TTP
Sandler et al. 2006 (ECOG 4599) Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Superior OS

Chemotherapy

  • Carboplatin (Paraplatin) AUC 6 IV over 15 to 30 minutes once on day 1, given second, starting 60 minutes after the completion of paclitaxel
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 200 mg/m2 IV over 3 hours once on day 1, given first
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin) 15 mg/kg IV on day 1, given third, starting 60 minutes after the completion of carboplatin
    • Infusion time per Johnson, et al. 2004 was over 90 minutes for cycle 1; if tolerated, given over 30 to 60 minutes for cycles 2 and later

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles, or until progression of disease, or unacceptable toxicity

After 6 cycles, patients in ECOG 4599 who had stable disease or response continued to bevacizumab maintenance therapy.

References

  1. Johnson DH, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny WF, Herbst RS, Nemunaitis JJ, Jablons DM, Langer CJ, DeVore RF 3rd, Gaudreault J, Damico LA, Holmgren E, Kabbinavar F. Randomized phase II trial comparing bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel with carboplatin and paclitaxel alone in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2184-91. link to original article PubMed
  2. Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, Brahmer J, Schiller JH, Dowlati A, Lilenbaum R, Johnson DH. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2542-50. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Ramalingam SS, Dahlberg SE, Langer CJ, Gray R, Belani CP, Brahmer JR, Sandler AB, Schiller JH, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Outcomes for elderly, advanced-stage non small-cell lung cancer patients treated with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel: analysis of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial 4599. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 1;26(1):60-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Patel JD, Socinski MA, Garon EB, Reynolds CH, Spigel DR, Olsen MR, Hermann RC, Jotte RM, Beck T, Richards DA, Guba SC, Liu J, Frimodt-Moller B, John WJ, Obasaju CK, Pennella EJ, Bonomi P, Govindan R. PointBreak: a randomized phase III study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients with stage IIIB or IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Dec 1;31(34):4349-57. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Zinner RG, Obasaju CK, Spigel DR, Weaver RW, Beck JT, Waterhouse DM, Modiano MR, Hrinczenko B, Nikolinakos PG, Liu J, Koustenis AG, Winfree KB, Melemed SA, Guba SC, Ortuzar WI, Desaiah D, Treat JA, Govindan R, Ross HJ. PRONOUNCE: randomized, open-label, phase III study of first-line pemetrexed + carboplatin followed by maintenance pemetrexed versus paclitaxel + carboplatin + bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients ith advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Jan;10(1):134-42. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Ipilimumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Lynch et al. 2012 Randomized Phase II Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems to have superior PFS
Govindan et al. 2017 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior

Note: this is the "phased" approach to this regimen.

Chemoimmunotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Patients without progressive disease proceeded to receive maintenance ipilimumab therapy.

References

  1. Lynch TJ, Bondarenko I, Luft A, Serwatowski P, Barlesi F, Chacko R, Sebastian M, Neal J, Lu H, Cuillerot JM, Reck M. Ipilimumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line treatment in stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun 10;30(17):2046-54. Epub 2012 Apr 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Govindan R, Szczesna A, Ahn MJ, Schneider CP, Gonzalez Mella PF, Barlesi F, Han B, Ganea DE, Von Pawel J, Vladimirov V, Fadeeva N, Lee KH, Kurata T, Zhang L, Tamura T, Postmus PE, Jassem J, O'Byrne K, Kopit J, Li M, Tschaika M, Reck M. Phase III trial of ipilimumab combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Oct 20;35(30):3449-3457. Epub 2017 Aug 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carboplatin & Pemetrexed

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Example orders

Regimen #1, 5/500

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ardizzoni et al. 2012 (GOIRC 02-2006) Randomized Phase II Pemetrexed Seems not superior
Zukin et al. 2013 Phase III Pemetrexed Superior OS
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS
Langer et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-021) Randomized Phase II Carboplatin, Pemetrexed, Pembrolizumab, then pembrolizumab maintenance +/- pemetrexed maintenance Inferior ORR
Mok et al. 2016 (AURA3) Phase III Osimertinib Inferior PFS
Soria et al. 2017 (ASCEND-4) Phase III Ceritinib Inferior PFS

Patients enrolled in AURA3 had locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with progression after first-line EGFR TKI therapy, and were required to have presence of an EGFR p.T790M mutation. Patients enrolled in ASCEND-4 had ALK-rearranged NSCLC.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • (Ardizzoni et al. 2012 contained more details):
  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 4 mg or equivalent corticosteroid PO BID on the day before, the day of, and day after each dose of pemetrexed
  • Folic acid 350 to 600 mcg PO once per day, starting 1 to 2 weeks before the first dose of pemetrexed, to be taken throughout pemetrexed therapy.
  • Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 1000 mcg IM once every 9 weeks, first dose 1 to 2 weeks before the first dose of pemetrexed, to be given throughout pemetrexed therapy

21-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles, or until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or patient refusal

Treatment in KEYNOTE-024, KEYNOTE-021 and AURA3 followed by optional pemetrexed maintenance. Patients in ASCEND-4 proceeded to pemetrexed maintenance after 4 cycles.

Regimen #2, 6/500

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Grønberg et al. 2009 Phase III Carboplatin & Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Zinner et al. 2015 (PRONOUNCE) Phase III PacCBev, then Bevacizumab maint. Seems not superior
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycles

Patients in PRONOUNCE proceeded to pemetrexed maintenance after 4 cycles. Treatment in KEYNOTE-024 followed, after 4 to 6 cycles, by optional pemetrexed maintenance.

References

  1. Grønberg BH, Bremnes RM, Fløtten O, Amundsen T, Brunsvig PF, Hjelde HH, Kaasa S, von Plessen C, Stornes F, Tollåli T, Wammer F, Aasebø U, Sundstrøm S. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group: pemetrexed plus carboplatin compared with gemcitabine plus carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jul 1;27(19):3217-24. Epub 2009 May 11. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Ardizzoni A, Tiseo M, Boni L, Vincent AD, Passalacqua R, Buti S, Amoroso D, Camerini A, Labianca R, Genestreti G, Boni C, Ciuffreda L, Di Costanzo F, de Marinis F, Crinò L, Santo A, Pazzola A, Barbieri F, Zilembo N, Colantonio I, Tibaldi C, Mattioli R, Cafferata MA, Camisa R, Smit EF. Pemetrexed versus pemetrexed and carboplatin as second-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of the GOIRC 02-2006 randomized phase II study and pooled analysis with the NVALT7 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Dec 20;30(36):4501-7. Epub 2012 Oct 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Zukin M, Barrios CH, Rodrigues Pereira J, De Albuquerque Ribeiro R, de Mendonça Beato CA, do Nascimento YN, Murad A, Franke FA, Precivale M, de Lima Araujo LH, Da Rocha Baldotto CS, Vieira FM, Small IA, Ferreira CG, Lilenbaum RC. Randomized phase III trial of single-agent pemetrexed versus carboplatin and pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2849-53. Epub 2013 Jun 17. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Solomon BJ, Mok T, Kim DW, Wu YL, Nakagawa K, Mekhail T, Felip E, Cappuzzo F, Paolini J, Usari T, Iyer S, Reisman A, Wilner KD, Tursi J, Blackhall F; PROFILE 1014 Investigators. First-line crizotinib versus chemotherapy in ALK-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014 Dec 4;371(23):2167-77. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 15;373(16):1582. link to original article does not contain specific protocol PubMed
    1. Supgroup analysis: Solomon BJ, Cappuzzo F, Felip E, Blackhall FH, Costa DB, Kim DW, Nakagawa K, Wu YL, Mekhail T, Paolini J, Tursi J, Usari T, Wilner KD, Selaru P, Mok TS. Intracranial efficacy of crizotinib versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: results from PROFILE 1014. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug 20;34(24):2858-65. Epub 2016 Mar 28. link to original article PubMed
  5. Zinner RG, Obasaju CK, Spigel DR, Weaver RW, Beck JT, Waterhouse DM, Modiano MR, Hrinczenko B, Nikolinakos PG, Liu J, Koustenis AG, Winfree KB, Melemed SA, Guba SC, Ortuzar WI, Desaiah D, Treat JA, Govindan R, Ross HJ. PRONOUNCE: randomized, open-label, phase III study of first-line pemetrexed + carboplatin followed by maintenance pemetrexed versus paclitaxel + carboplatin + bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients ith advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Jan;10(1):134-42. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Gottfried M, Peled N, Tafreshi A, Cuffe S, O'Brien M, Rao S, Hotta K, Leiby MA, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Rangwala R, Brahmer JR; KEYNOTE-024 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for PD-L1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1823-1833. Epub 2016 Oct 8. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Langer CJ, Gadgeel SM, Borghaei H, Papadimitrakopoulou VA, Patnaik A, Powell SF, Gentzler RD, Martins RG, Stevenson JP, Jalal SI, Panwalkar A, Yang JC, Gubens M, Sequist LV, Awad MM, Fiore J, Ge Y, Raftopoulos H, Gandhi L; KEYNOTE-021 investigators. Carboplatin and pemetrexed with or without pembrolizumab for advanced, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 2 cohort of the open-label KEYNOTE-021 study. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Nov;17(11):1497-1508. Epub 2016 Oct 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. Mok TS, Wu YL, Ahn MJ, Garassino MC, Kim HR, Ramalingam SS, Shepherd FA, He Y, Akamatsu H, Theelen WS, Lee CK, Sebastian M, Templeton A, Mann H, Marotti M, Ghiorghiu S, Papadimitrakopoulou VA; AURA3 Investigators. Osimertinib or platinum-pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 16;376(7):629-640. Epub 2016 Dec 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. Soria JC, Tan DS, Chiari R, Wu YL, Paz-Ares L, Wolf J, Geater SL, Orlov S, Cortinovis D, Yu CJ, Hochmair M, Cortot AB, Tsai CM, Moro-Sibilot D, Campelo RG, McCulloch T, Sen P, Dugan M, Pantano S, Branle F, Massacesi C, de Castro G Jr. First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2017 Mar 4;389(10072):917-929. Epub 2017 Jan 24. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Carboplatin, Pemetrexed, Bevacizumab

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PemCBev: Pemetrexed, Carboplatin, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Patel et al. 2013 (PointBreak) Phase III PacCBev, then Maintenance Bev Seems to have superior PFS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Premedications, folic acid, and vitamin supplementation per pemetrexed label
  • Erythropoietic agents or granulocyte colony-stimulating factors allowed per ASCO & NCCN guidelines

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Patients with complete response, partial response, or stable disease proceeded to bevacizumab & pemetrexed maintenance therapy.

References

  1. Patel JD, Socinski MA, Garon EB, Reynolds CH, Spigel DR, Olsen MR, Hermann RC, Jotte RM, Beck T, Richards DA, Guba SC, Liu J, Frimodt-Moller B, John WJ, Obasaju CK, Pennella EJ, Bonomi P, Govindan R. PointBreak: a randomized phase III study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients with stage IIIB or IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Dec 1;31(34):4349-57. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Carboplatin, Pemetrexed, Pembrolizumab

Source: Carboplatin, Pemetrexed, Pembrolizumab in advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

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Regimen

Study Evidence ORR Comparator Efficacy
Langer et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-021) Randomized Phase II 71% Carboplatin & Pemetrexed +/- pemetrexed maintenance Superior ORR

Chemoimmunotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 4 cycles. Followed by pembolizumab +/- pemetrexed maintenance therapy

References

  1. Langer CJ, Gadgeel SM, Borghaei H, Papadimitrakopoulou VA, Patnaik A, Powell SF, Gentzler RD, Martins RG, Stevenson JP, Jalal SI, Panwalkar A, Yang JC, Gubens M, Sequist LV, Awad MM, Fiore J, Ge Y, Raftopoulos H, Gandhi L; KEYNOTE-021 investigators. Carboplatin and pemetrexed with or without pembrolizumab for advanced, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 2 cohort of the open-label KEYNOTE-021 study. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Nov;17(11):1497-1508 link to original article contains verified protocol supplementary appendix; PubMed

Cisplatin & Docetaxel

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DC: Docetaxel & Cisplatin

Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Mitsudomi et al. 2016 (WJTOG3405) Phase III Gefitinib Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 to 6 cycles

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Schiller et al. 2002 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Fossella et al. 2003 (TAX 326) Phase III Carboplatin & Docetaxel Not reported
Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems to have superior OS
Rossell et al. 2012 (EURTAC) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS

Patients in EURTAC had EGFR exon 19 deletion or p.L858R mutation in exon 21.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Schiller JH, Harrington D, Belani CP, Langer C, Sandler A, Krook J, Zhu J, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 10;346(2):92-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Fossella F, Pereira JR, von Pawel J, Pluzanska A, Gorbounova V, Kaukel E, Mattson KV, Ramlau R, Szczesna A, Fidias P, Millward M, Belani CP. Randomized, multinational, phase III study of docetaxel plus platinum combinations versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the TAX 326 study group. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Aug 15;21(16):3016-24. Epub 2003 Jul 1. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Mitsudomi T, Morita S, Yatabe Y, Negoro S, Okamoto I, Tsurutani J, Seto T, Satouchi M, Tada H, Hirashima T, Asami K, Katakami N, Takada M, Yoshioka H, Shibata K, Kudoh S, Shimizu E, Saito H, Toyooka S, Nakagawa K, Fukuoka M; West Japan Oncology Group. Gefitinib versus cisplatin plus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (WJTOG3405): an open label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Feb;11(2):121-8. Epub 2009 Dec 18. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Rosell R, Carcereny E, Gervais R, Vergnenegre A, Massuti B, Felip E, Palmero R, Garcia-Gomez R, Pallares C, Sanchez JM, Porta R, Cobo M, Garrido P, Longo F, Moran T, Insa A, De Marinis F, Corre R, Bover I, Illiano A, Dansin E, de Castro J, Milella M, Reguart N, Altavilla G, Jimenez U, Provencio M, Moreno MA, Terrasa J, Muñoz-Langa J, Valdivia J, Isla D, Domine M, Molinier O, Mazieres J, Baize N, Garcia-Campelo R, Robinet G, Rodriguez-Abreu D, Lopez-Vivanco G, Gebbia V, Ferrera-Delgado L, Bombaron P, Bernabe R, Bearz A, Artal A, Cortesi E, Rolfo C, Sanchez-Ronco M, Drozdowskyj A, Queralt C, de Aguirre I, Ramirez JL, Sanchez JJ, Molina MA, Taron M, Paz-Ares L; Spanish Lung Cancer Group in collaboration with Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie and Associazione Italiana Oncologia Toracica. Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar;13(3):239-46. Epub 2012 Jan 26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Etoposide

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cardenal et al. 1999 Phase III Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Inferior TTP

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Klastersky et al. 1990 (EORTC 07861) Phase III Carboplatin & Etoposide Might have superior ORR

Chemotherapy

3- to 4-week cycles

References

  1. Klastersky J, Sculier JP, Lacroix H, Dabouis G, Bureau G, Libert P, Richez M, Ravez P, Vandermoten G, Thiriaux J, et al. A randomized study comparing cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Protocol 07861. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Sep;8(9):1556-62. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Cardenal F, López-Cabrerizo MP, Antón A, Alberola V, Massuti B, Carrato A, Barneto I, Lomas M, García M, Lianes P, Montalar J, Vadell C, González-Larriba JL, Nguyen B, Artal A, Rosell R. Randomized phase III study of gemcitabine-cisplatin versus etoposide-cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jan;17(1):12-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Gemcitabine

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GC: Gemcitabine & Cisplatin GP: Gemcitabine & Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen #1, 80/1250 ("GC80")

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pérol et al. 2012 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Ferry et al. 2017 (BTOG2) Phase III GC50 Seems to have superior OS
GCb6 Non-inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Treatment in Pérol et al. 2012 followed by erlotinib switch maintenance versus gemcitabine maintenance versus observation.

Regimen #2, 75/1250

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Rossell et al. 2012 (EURTAC) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS
Thatcher et al. 2015 (SQUIRE) Phase III Cisplatin, Gemcitabine, Necitumumab Seems to have inferior OS
Wu et al. 2015 (ENSURE) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS

Patients in EURTAC had EGFR exon 19 deletion or p.L858R mutation in exon 21.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Patients in ENSURE received up to 4 cycles. Patients in KEYNOTE-024 received 4 to 6 cycles.

Regimen #3, 75/1000

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Wu et al. 2014 (LUX-Lung 6) Phase III Afatinib Inferior PFS

Tumor specimen was required to be EGFR mutation-positive.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Regimen #4, 100/1000

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Schiller et al. 2002 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Docetaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Paclitaxel Superior PFS
Scagliotti et al. 2008 Phase III Cisplatin & Pemetrexed Seems non-inferior

Note: the subgroup of Scagliotti et al. 2008 with adenocarcinoma seemed to have superior OS with this regimen.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Regimen #5, 80/1000

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ohe et al. 2006 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Irinotecan Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Regimen #6, 100/1250

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cardenal et al. 1999 Phase III Cisplatin & Etoposide Superior TTP

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Cardenal F, López-Cabrerizo MP, Antón A, Alberola V, Massuti B, Carrato A, Barneto I, Lomas M, García M, Lianes P, Montalar J, Vadell C, González-Larriba JL, Nguyen B, Artal A, Rosell R. Randomized phase III study of gemcitabine-cisplatin versus etoposide-cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jan;17(1):12-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Schiller JH, Harrington D, Belani CP, Langer C, Sandler A, Krook J, Zhu J, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 10;346(2):92-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Ohe Y, Ohashi Y, Kubota K, Tamura T, Nakagawa K, Negoro S, Nishiwaki Y, Saijo N, Ariyoshi Y, Fukuoka M. Randomized phase III study of cisplatin plus irinotecan versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel, cisplatin plus gemcitabine, and cisplatin plus vinorelbine for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Four-Arm Cooperative Study in Japan. Ann Oncol. 2007 Feb;18(2):317-23. Epub 2006 Nov 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Scagliotti GV, Parikh P, von Pawel J, Biesma B, Vansteenkiste J, Manegold C, Serwatowski P, Gatzemeier U, Digumarti R, Zukin M, Lee JS, Mellemgaard A, Park K, Patil S, Rolski J, Goksel T, de Marinis F, Simms L, Sugarman KP, Gandara D. Phase III study comparing cisplatin plus gemcitabine with cisplatin plus pemetrexed in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jul 20;26(21):3543-51. Epub 2008 May 27. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Rosell R, Carcereny E, Gervais R, Vergnenegre A, Massuti B, Felip E, Palmero R, Garcia-Gomez R, Pallares C, Sanchez JM, Porta R, Cobo M, Garrido P, Longo F, Moran T, Insa A, De Marinis F, Corre R, Bover I, Illiano A, Dansin E, de Castro J, Milella M, Reguart N, Altavilla G, Jimenez U, Provencio M, Moreno MA, Terrasa J, Muñoz-Langa J, Valdivia J, Isla D, Domine M, Molinier O, Mazieres J, Baize N, Garcia-Campelo R, Robinet G, Rodriguez-Abreu D, Lopez-Vivanco G, Gebbia V, Ferrera-Delgado L, Bombaron P, Bernabe R, Bearz A, Artal A, Cortesi E, Rolfo C, Sanchez-Ronco M, Drozdowskyj A, Queralt C, de Aguirre I, Ramirez JL, Sanchez JJ, Molina MA, Taron M, Paz-Ares L; Spanish Lung Cancer Group in collaboration with Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie and Associazione Italiana Oncologia Toracica. Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar;13(3):239-46. Epub 2012 Jan 26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. Pérol M, Chouaid C, Pérol D, Barlési F, Gervais R, Westeel V, Crequit J, Léna H, Vergnenègre A, Zalcman G, Monnet I, Le Caer H, Fournel P, Falchero L, Poudenx M, Vaylet F, Ségura-Ferlay C, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Taron M, Milleron B. Randomized, phase III study of gemcitabine or erlotinib maintenance therapy versus observation, with predefined second-line treatment, after cisplatin-gemcitabine induction chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 1;30(28):3516-24. Epub 2012 Sep 4. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Wu YL, Zhou C, Hu CP, Feng J, Lu S, Huang Y, Li W, Hou M, Shi JH, Lee KY, Xu CR, Massey D, Kim M, Shi Y, Geater SL. Afatinib versus cisplatin plus gemcitabine for first-line treatment of Asian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring EGFR mutations (LUX-Lung 6): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Feb;15(2):213-22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Yang JC, Wu YL, Schuler M, Sebastian M, Popat S, Yamamoto N, Zhou C, Hu CP, O'Byrne K, Feng J, Lu S, Huang Y, Geater SL, Lee KY, Tsai CM, Gorbunova V, Hirsh V, Bennouna J, Orlov S, Mok T, Boyer M, Su WC, Lee KH, Kato T, Massey D, Shahidi M, Zazulina V, Sequist LV. Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6): analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):141-51. link to original article PubMed
    2. Subgroup analysis: Schuler M, Wu YL, Hirsh V, O'Byrne K, Yamamoto N, Mok T, Popat S, Sequist LV, Massey D, Zazulina V, Yang JC. First-line afatinib versus chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and common epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and brain metastases. J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Mar;11(3):380-90. link to original article PubMed
  8. Thatcher N, Hirsch FR, Luft AV, Szczesna A, Ciuleanu TE, Dediu M, Ramlau R, Galiulin RK, Bálint B, Losonczy G, Kazarnowicz A, Park K, Schumann C, Reck M, Depenbrock H, Nanda S, Kruljac-Letunic A, Kurek R, Paz-Ares L, Socinski MA; SQUIRE Investigators. Necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (SQUIRE): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jul;16(7):763-74. Epub 2015 Jun 1. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  9. Wu YL, Zhou C, Liam CK, Wu G, Liu X, Zhong Z, Lu S, Cheng Y, Han B, Chen L, Huang C, Qin S, Zhu Y, Pan H, Liang H, Li E, Jiang G, How SH, Fernando MC, Zhang Y, Xia F, Zuo Y. First-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: analyses from the phase III, randomized, open-label, ENSURE study. Ann Oncol. 2015 Sep;26(9):1883-9. Epub 2015 Jun 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Gottfried M, Peled N, Tafreshi A, Cuffe S, O'Brien M, Rao S, Hotta K, Leiby MA, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Rangwala R, Brahmer JR; KEYNOTE-024 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for PD-L1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1823-1833. Epub 2016 Oct 8. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  11. Ferry D, Billingham L, Jarrett H, Dunlop D, Woll PJ, Nicolson M, Shah R, Thompson J, Spicer J, Muthukumar D, Skailes G, Leonard P, Chetiyawardana AD, Wells P, Lewanski C, Crosse B, Hill M, Gaunt P, O'Byrne K. Carboplatin versus two doses of cisplatin in combination with gemcitabine in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Results from a British Thoracic Oncology Group randomised phase III trial. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Sep;83:302-312. Epub 2017 Aug 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin, Gemcitabine, Necitumumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Thatcher et al. 2015 (SQUIRE) Phase III Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems to have superior OS

Patients had stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Antiemetic premedications for gemcitabine and cisplatin "according to local practice."
  • "Pre-emptive treatment for skin toxicity was allowed only after the first cycle."

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Patients who were free of disease progression proceeded to maintenance necitumumab.

References

  1. Thatcher N, Hirsch FR, Luft AV, Szczesna A, Ciuleanu TE, Dediu M, Ramlau R, Galiulin RK, Bálint B, Losonczy G, Kazarnowicz A, Park K, Schumann C, Reck M, Depenbrock H, Nanda S, Kruljac-Letunic A, Kurek R, Paz-Ares L, Socinski MA; SQUIRE Investigators. Necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (SQUIRE): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jul;16(7):763-74. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Irinotecan

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IP: Irinotecan and Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ohe et al. 2006 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Ohe Y, Ohashi Y, Kubota K, Tamura T, Nakagawa K, Negoro S, Nishiwaki Y, Saijo N, Ariyoshi Y, Fukuoka M. Randomized phase III study of cisplatin plus irinotecan versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel, cisplatin plus gemcitabine, and cisplatin plus vinorelbine for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Four-Arm Cooperative Study in Japan. Ann Oncol. 2007 Feb;18(2):317-23. Epub 2006 Nov 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Paclitaxel

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Schiller et al. 2002 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Docetaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Schiller JH, Harrington D, Belani CP, Langer C, Sandler A, Krook J, Zhu J, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 10;346(2):92-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Pemetrexed

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Scagliotti et al. 2008 Phase III Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems non-inferior
Paz-Ares et al. 2012 (PARAMOUNT) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Sequist et al. 2013 (LUX-Lung 3) Phase III Afatinib Inferior PFS
Solomon et al. 2014 (PROFILE 1014) Phase III Crizotinib Inferior PFS
Paz-Ares et al. 2015 (INSPIRE) Phase III Cisplatin, Pemetrexed, Necitumumab Seems not superior
Soria et al. 2015 (IMPRESS) Phase III Cisplatin, Pemetrexed, Gefitinib Seems not superior
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS
Mok et al. 2016 (AURA3) Phase III Osimertinib Inferior PFS
Soria et al. 2017 (ASCEND-4) Phase III Ceritinib Inferior PFS

Note: the subgroup of Scagliotti et al. 2008 with adenocarcinoma seemed to have inferior OS with this regimen. Patients in LUX-Lung 3 had activating mutations in EGFR. Patients in PROFILE 1014 had ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Patients enrolled in AURA3 had locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with progression after first-line EGFR TKI therapy, and were required to have presence of an EGFR p.T790M mutation. Patients in ASCEND-4 had ALK-rearranged NSCLC.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles

Subsequently patients in PARAMOUNT were randomized to placebo versus pemetrexed maintenance. Patients without disease progression in KEYNOTE-024 and AURA3 could optionally proceed to pemetrexed maintenance after 4 cycles. Patients in ASCEND-4 proceeded to pemetrexed maintenance

References

  1. Scagliotti GV, Parikh P, von Pawel J, Biesma B, Vansteenkiste J, Manegold C, Serwatowski P, Gatzemeier U, Digumarti R, Zukin M, Lee JS, Mellemgaard A, Park K, Patil S, Rolski J, Goksel T, de Marinis F, Simms L, Sugarman KP, Gandara D. Phase III study comparing cisplatin plus gemcitabine with cisplatin plus pemetrexed in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jul 20;26(21):3543-51. Epub 2008 May 27. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Paz-Ares L, de Marinis F, Dediu M, Thomas M, Pujol JL, Bidoli P, Molinier O, Sahoo TP, Laack E, Reck M, Corral J, Melemed S, John W, Chouaki N, Zimmermann AH, Visseren-Grul C, Gridelli C. Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care after induction therapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (PARAMOUNT): a double-blind, phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar;13(3):247-55. Epub 2012 Feb 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Paz-Ares LG, de Marinis F, Dediu M, Thomas M, Pujol JL, Bidoli P, Molinier O, Sahoo TP, Laack E, Reck M, Corral J, Melemed S, John W, Chouaki N, Zimmermann AH, Visseren-Grul C, Gridelli C. PARAMOUNT: final overall survival results of the phase III study of maintenance pemetrexed versus placebo immediately after induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2895-902. Epub 2013 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Sequist LV, Yang JC, Yamamoto N, O'Byrne K, Hirsh V, Mok T, Geater SL, Orlov S, Tsai CM, Boyer M, Su WC, Bennouna J, Kato T, Gorbunova V, Lee KH, Shah R, Massey D, Zazulina V, Shahidi M, Schuler M. Phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin plus pemetrexed in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 20;31(27):3327-34. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Yang JC, Hirsh V, Schuler M, Yamamoto N, O'Byrne KJ, Mok TS, Zazulina V, Shahidi M, Lungershausen J, Massey D, Palmer M, Sequist LV. Symptom control and quality of life in LUX-Lung 3: a phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin/pemetrexed in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 20;31(27):3342-50. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    2. Update: Yang JC, Wu YL, Schuler M, Sebastian M, Popat S, Yamamoto N, Zhou C, Hu CP, O'Byrne K, Feng J, Lu S, Huang Y, Geater SL, Lee KY, Tsai CM, Gorbunova V, Hirsh V, Bennouna J, Orlov S, Mok T, Boyer M, Su WC, Lee KH, Kato T, Massey D, Shahidi M, Zazulina V, Sequist LV. Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6): analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):141-51. link to original article PubMed
    3. Subgroup analysis: Schuler M, Wu YL, Hirsh V, O'Byrne K, Yamamoto N, Mok T, Popat S, Sequist LV, Massey D, Zazulina V, Yang JC. First-line afatinib versus chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and common epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and brain metastases. J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Mar;11(3):380-90. link to original article PubMed
  4. Solomon BJ, Mok T, Kim DW, Wu YL, Nakagawa K, Mekhail T, Felip E, Cappuzzo F, Paolini J, Usari T, Iyer S, Reisman A, Wilner KD, Tursi J, Blackhall F; PROFILE 1014 Investigators. First-line crizotinib versus chemotherapy in ALK-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014 Dec 4;371(23):2167-77. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 15;373(16):1582. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Supgroup analysis: Solomon BJ, Cappuzzo F, Felip E, Blackhall FH, Costa DB, Kim DW, Nakagawa K, Wu YL, Mekhail T, Paolini J, Tursi J, Usari T, Wilner KD, Selaru P, Mok TS. Intracranial efficacy of crizotinib versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: results from PROFILE 1014. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug 20;34(24):2858-65. Epub 2016 Mar 28. link to original article PubMed
  5. Paz-Ares L, Mezger J, Ciuleanu TE, Fischer JR, von Pawel J, Provencio M, Kazarnowicz A, Losonczy G, de Castro G Jr, Szczesna A, Crino L, Reck M, Ramlau R, Ulsperger E, Schumann C, Miziara JE, Lessa ÁE, Dediu M, Bálint B, Depenbrock H, Soldatenkova V, Kurek R, Hirsch FR, Thatcher N, Socinski MA; INSPIRE investigators. Necitumumab plus pemetrexed and cisplatin as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (INSPIRE): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Mar;16(3):328-37. Epub 2015 Feb 18. link to original article PubMed
  6. Soria JC, Wu YL, Nakagawa K, Kim SW, Yang JJ, Ahn MJ, Wang J, Yang JC, Lu Y, Atagi S, Ponce S, Lee DH, Liu Y, Yoh K, Zhou JY, Shi X, Webster A, Jiang H, Mok TS. Gefitinib plus chemotherapy versus placebo plus chemotherapy in EGFR-mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer after progression on first-line gefitinib (IMPRESS): a phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Aug;16(8):990-8. Epub 2015 Jul 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Gottfried M, Peled N, Tafreshi A, Cuffe S, O'Brien M, Rao S, Hotta K, Leiby MA, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Rangwala R, Brahmer JR; KEYNOTE-024 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for PD-L1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1823-1833. Epub 2016 Oct 8. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. Mok TS, Wu YL, Ahn MJ, Garassino MC, Kim HR, Ramalingam SS, Shepherd FA, He Y, Akamatsu H, Theelen WS, Lee CK, Sebastian M, Templeton A, Mann H, Marotti M, Ghiorghiu S, Papadimitrakopoulou VA; AURA3 Investigators. Osimertinib or platinum-pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 16;376(7):629-640. Epub 2016 Dec 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. Soria JC, Tan DS, Chiari R, Wu YL, Paz-Ares L, Wolf J, Geater SL, Orlov S, Cortinovis D, Yu CJ, Hochmair M, Cortot AB, Tsai CM, Moro-Sibilot D, Campelo RG, McCulloch T, Sen P, Dugan M, Pantano S, Branle F, Massacesi C, de Castro G Jr. First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2017 Mar 4;389(10072):917-929. Epub 2017 Jan 24. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Cisplatin, Pemetrexed, Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Barlesi et al. 2013 (AVAPERL) Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Cisplatin (Platinol) 75 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours once on day 1
  • Pemetrexed (Alimta) 500 mg/m2 IV over 10 minutes once on day 1
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin) 7.5 mg/kg IV once on day 1; administered over 90 minutes for the first dose, and if well tolerated, subsequent infusions were given over 60 minutes, then 30 minutes

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Patients with complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) were randomized to bevacizumab maintenance versus bevacizumab & pemetrexed maintenance.

References

  1. Barlesi F, Scherpereel A, Rittmeyer A, Pazzola A, Ferrer Tur N, Kim JH, Ahn MJ, Aerts JG, Gorbunova V, Vikström A, Wong EK, Perez-Moreno P, Mitchell L, Groen HJ. Randomized phase III trial of maintenance bevacizumab with or without pemetrexed after first-line induction with bevacizumab, cisplatin, and pemetrexed in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: AVAPERL (MO22089). J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 20;31(24):3004-11. Epub 2013 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Vinorelbine

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NP: Navelbine (Vinorelbine) & Platinol (Cisplatin) CV: Cisplation & Vinorelbine

Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ohe et al. 2006 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Irinotecan Seems not superior
Pirker et al. 2009 (FLEX) Phase III Cisplatin, Vinorelbine, Cetuximab Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles (FLEX) or until progression (Ohe et al. 2006)

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pujol et al. 2005 Phase III Docetaxel & Gemcitabine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Regimen #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fossella et al. 2003 (TAX 326) Phase III Carboplatin & Docetaxel Seems not superior
Cisplatin & Docetaxel Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Fossella F, Pereira JR, von Pawel J, Pluzanska A, Gorbounova V, Kaukel E, Mattson KV, Ramlau R, Szczesna A, Fidias P, Millward M, Belani CP. Randomized, multinational, phase III study of docetaxel plus platinum combinations versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the TAX 326 study group. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Aug 15;21(16):3016-24. Epub 2003 Jul 1. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Pujol JL, Breton JL, Gervais R, Rebattu P, Depierre A, Morère JF, Milleron B, Debieuvre D, Castéra D, Souquet PJ, Moro-Sibilot D, Lemarié E, Kessler R, Janicot H, Braun D, Spaeth D, Quantin X, Clary C. Gemcitabine-docetaxel versus cisplatin-vinorelbine in advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III study addressing the case for cisplatin. Ann Oncol. 2005 Apr;16(4):602-10. Epub 2005 Mar 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Ohe Y, Ohashi Y, Kubota K, Tamura T, Nakagawa K, Negoro S, Nishiwaki Y, Saijo N, Ariyoshi Y, Fukuoka M. Randomized phase III study of cisplatin plus irinotecan versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel, cisplatin plus gemcitabine, and cisplatin plus vinorelbine for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Four-Arm Cooperative Study in Japan. Ann Oncol. 2007 Feb;18(2):317-23. Epub 2006 Nov 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Pirker R, Pereira JR, Szczesna A, von Pawel J, Krzakowski M, Ramlau R, Vynnychenko I, Park K, Yu CT, Ganul V, Roh JK, Bajetta E, O'Byrne K, de Marinis F, Eberhardt W, Goddemeier T, Emig M, Gatzemeier U; FLEX Study Team. Cetuximab plus chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (FLEX): an open-label randomised phase III trial. Lancet. 2009 May 2;373(9674):1525-31. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin, Vinorelbine, Cetuximab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pirker et al. 2009 (FLEX) Phase III Cisplatin & Vinorelbine Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Cetuximab was then to continue until progression or intolerable toxicity.

References

  1. Pirker R, Pereira JR, Szczesna A, von Pawel J, Krzakowski M, Ramlau R, Vynnychenko I, Park K, Yu CT, Ganul V, Roh JK, Bajetta E, O'Byrne K, de Marinis F, Eberhardt W, Goddemeier T, Emig M, Gatzemeier U; FLEX Study Team. Cetuximab plus chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (FLEX): an open-label randomised phase III trial. Lancet. 2009 May 2;373(9674):1525-31. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Docetaxel monotherapy

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Example orders

Regimen #1, 3-week docetaxel

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fossella et al. 2000 (TAX 320) Phase III Docetaxel 100 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Ifosfamide
Vinorelbine
Seems not superior
Hanna et al. 2004 Phase III Pemetrexed Inconclusive whether non-inferior
Chen et al. 2006 Phase III Docetaxel 35 mg/m2, 3 out of 4 wks Seems not superior
Docetaxel 40 mg/m2, 2 out of 3 wks Seems not superior
Kim et al. 2008 (INTEREST) Phase III Gefitinib Seems non-inferior
Fidias et al. 2008 Phase III Docetaxel consolidation Might have inferior OS
Shaw et al. 2013 Phase III Crizotinib Inferior PFS
Garassino et al. 2013 (TAILOR) Phase III Erlotinib Seems to have superior OS
Reck et al. 2014 (LUME-Lung 1) Phase III Docetaxel & Nintedanib Inferior PFS
Garon et al. 2014 (REVEL) Phase III Docetaxel & Ramucirumab Seems to have inferior OS
Brahmer et al. 2015 (CheckMate 017) Phase III Nivolumab Inferior OS
Borghaei et al. 2015 (CheckMate 057) Phase III Nivolumab Inferior OS
Herbst et al. 2015 (KEYNOTE-010) Phase II/III Pembrolizumab Inferior OS
Fehrenbacher et al. 2016 (POPLAR) Randomized Phase II Atezolizumab Seems to have inferior OS
Rittmeyer et al. 2016 (OAK) Phase III Atezolizumab Inferior OS
Shaw et al. 2017 (ASCEND-5) Phase III Ceritinib Inferior PFS

Patients in ASCEND-5 had ALK-rearranged NSCLC progressed after crizotinib.

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 75 mg/m2 IV over 1 hour once on day 1
    • In REVEL, East Asian patients were later recommended to receive 60 mg/m2 IV once on day 1

Supportive medications

  • Per Hanna et al. 2004: Dexamethasone (Decadron) 8 mg PO BID the day before, the day of, and the day after docetaxel
  • Per Chem et al. 2006: Dexamethasone (Decadron) 8 mg PO once 12 hours before docetaxel, 10 mg IV once 30 minutes before docetaxel, and 8 mg PO 12 hours after docetaxel

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease, unacceptable toxicity, or patient/physician choice

Regimen #2, 35 mg/m2, 3 out of 4 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Chen et al. 2006 Phase III Docetaxel 40 mg/m2, 2 out of 3 wks Seems not superior
Docetaxel 75 mg/m2, every 3 wks Seems not superior
Garassino et al. 2013 (TAILOR) Phase III Erlotinib Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 8 mg PO once 12 hours before docetaxel, 10 mg IV once 30 minutes before docetaxel, and 8 mg PO 12 hours after docetaxel

28-day cycles

References

  1. Fossella FV, DeVore R, Kerr RN, Crawford J, Natale RR, Dunphy F, Kalman L, Miller V, Lee JS, Moore M, Gandara D, Karp D, Vokes E, Kris M, Kim Y, Gamza F, Hammershaimb L. Randomized phase III trial of docetaxel versus vinorelbine or ifosfamide in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens. The TAX 320 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Jun;18(12):2354-62. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jan 1;22(1):209. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Hanna N, Shepherd FA, Fossella FV, Pereira JR, De Marinis F, von Pawel J, Gatzemeier U, Tsao TC, Pless M, Muller T, Lim HL, Desch C, Szondy K, Gervais R, Shaharyar, Manegold C, Paul S, Paoletti P, Einhorn L, Bunn PA Jr. Randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2004 May 1;22(9):1589-97. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Chen YM, Shih JF, Perng RP, Tsai CM, Whang-Peng J. A randomized trial of different docetaxel schedules in non-small cell lung cancer patients who failed previous platinum-based chemotherapy. Chest. 2006 Apr;129(4):1031-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Kim ES, Hirsh V, Mok T, Socinski MA, Gervais R, Wu YL, Li LY, Watkins CL, Sellers MV, Lowe ES, Sun Y, Liao ML, Osterlind K, Reck M, Armour AA, Shepherd FA, Lippman SM, Douillard JY. Gefitinib versus docetaxel in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (INTEREST): a randomised phase III trial. Lancet. 2008 Nov 22;372(9652):1809-18. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Fidias PM, Dakhil SR, Lyss AP, Loesch DM, Waterhouse DM, Bromund JL, Chen R, Hristova-Kazmierski M, Treat J, Obasaju CK, Marciniak M, Gill J, Schiller JH. Phase III study of immediate compared with delayed docetaxel after front-line therapy with gemcitabine plus carboplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Feb 1;27(4):591-8. Epub 2008 Dec 15. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed
  6. Shaw AT, Kim DW, Nakagawa K, Seto T, Crinó L, Ahn MJ, De Pas T, Besse B, Solomon BJ, Blackhall F, Wu YL, Thomas M, O'Byrne KJ, Moro-Sibilot D, Camidge DR, Mok T, Hirsh V, Riely GJ, Iyer S, Tassell V, Polli A, Wilner KD, Jänne PA. Crizotinib versus chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 20;368(25):2385-94. Epub 2013 Jun 1. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Garassino MC, Martelli O, Broggini M, Farina G, Veronese S, Rulli E, Bianchi F, Bettini A, Longo F, Moscetti L, Tomirotti M, Marabese M, Ganzinelli M, Lauricella C, Labianca R, Floriani I, Giaccone G, Torri V, Scanni A, Marsoni S; TAILOR trialists. Erlotinib versus docetaxel as second-line treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and wild-type EGFR tumours (TAILOR): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Sep;14(10):981-8. Epub 2013 Jul 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. Reck M, Kaiser R, Mellemgaard A, Douillard JY, Orlov S, Krzakowski M, von Pawel J, Gottfried M, Bondarenko I, Liao M, Gann CN, Barrueco J, Gaschler-Markefski B, Novello S; LUME-Lung 1 Study Group. Docetaxel plus nintedanib versus docetaxel plus placebo in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (LUME-Lung 1): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Feb;15(2):143-55. 2. Epub 2014 Jan 9. link to original article PubMed
  9. Garon EB, Ciuleanu TE, Arrieta O, Prabhash K, Syrigos KN, Goksel T, Park K, Gorbunova V, Kowalyszyn RD, Pikiel J, Czyzewicz G, Orlov SV, Lewanski CR, Thomas M, Bidoli P, Dakhil S, Gans S, Kim JH, Grigorescu A, Karaseva N, Reck M, Cappuzzo F, Alexandris E, Sashegyi A, Yurasov S, Pérol M. Ramucirumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus docetaxel for second-line treatment of stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer after disease progression on platinum-based therapy (REVEL): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2014 Aug 23;384(9944):665-73. Epub 2014 Jun 2.link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. Brahmer J, Reckamp KL, Baas P, Crinò L, Eberhardt WE, Poddubskaya E, Antonia S, Pluzanski A, Vokes EE, Holgado E, Waterhouse D, Ready N, Gainor J, Arén Frontera O, Havel L, Steins M, Garassino MC, Aerts JG, Domine M, Paz-Ares L, Reck M, Baudelet C, Harbison CT, Lestini B, Spigel DR. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 9;373(2):123-35. Epub 2015 May 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  11. Borghaei H, Paz-Ares L, Horn L, Spigel DR, Steins M, Ready NE, Chow LQ, Vokes EE, Felip E, Holgado E, Barlesi F, Kohlhäufl M, Arrieta O, Burgio MA, Fayette J, Lena H, Poddubskaya E, Gerber DE, Gettinger SN, Rudin CM, Rizvi N, Crinò L, Blumenschein GR Jr, Antonia SJ, Dorange C, Harbison CT, Graf Finckenstein F, Brahmer JR. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 22;373(17):1627-39. Epub 2015 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed
  12. Herbst RS, Baas P, Kim DW, Felip E, Pérez-Gracia JL, Han JY, Molina J, Kim JH, Arvis CD, Ahn MJ, Majem M, Fidler MJ, de Castro G Jr, Garrido M, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Im E, Dolled-Filhart M, Garon EB. Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Apr 9;387(10027):1540-50. Epub 2015 Dec 19. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  13. Fehrenbacher L, Spira A, Ballinger M, Kowanetz M, Vansteenkiste J, Mazieres J, Park K, Smith D, Artal-Cortes A, Lewanski C, Braiteh F, Waterkamp D, He P, Zou W, Chen DS, Yi J, Sandler A, Rittmeyer A; POPLAR Study Group. Atezolizumab versus docetaxel for patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (POPLAR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Apr 30;387(10030):1837-46. Epub 2016 Mar 9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  14. Rittmeyer A, Barlesi F, Waterkamp D, Park K, Ciardiello F, von Pawel J, Gadgeel SM, Hida T, Kowalski DM, Dols MC, Cortinovis DL, Leach J, Polikoff J, Barrios C, Kabbinavar F, Frontera OA, De Marinis F, Turna H, Lee JS, Ballinger M, Kowanetz M, He P, Chen DS, Sandler A, Gandara DR; OAK Study Group. Atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (OAK): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017 Jan 21;389(10066):255-265. Epub 2016 Dec 13. link to origial article contains protocol PubMed
  15. Jänne PA, van den Heuvel MM, Barlesi F, Cobo M, Mazieres J, Crinò L, Orlov S, Blackhall F, Wolf J, Garrido P, Poltoratskiy A, Mariani G, Ghiorghiu D, Kilgour E, Smith P, Kohlmann A, Carlile DJ, Lawrence D, Bowen K, Vansteenkiste J. Selumetinib plus docetaxel compared with docetaxel alone and progression-free survival in patients with KRAS-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer: The SELECT-1 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 May 9;317(18):1844-1853. link to original article PubMed
  16. Shaw AT, Kim TM, Crinò L, Gridelli C, Kiura K, Liu G, Novello S, Bearz A, Gautschi O, Mok T, Nishio M, Scagliotti G, Spigel DR, Deudon S, Zheng C, Pantano S, Urban P, Massacesi C, Viraswami-Appanna K, Felip E. Ceritinib versus chemotherapy in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer previously given chemotherapy and crizotinib (ASCEND-5): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jul;18(7):874-886. Epub 2017 Jun 9. link to original articlecontains protocolPubMed

Docetaxel & Ramucirumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Garon et al. 2014 (REVEL) Phase III Docetaxel Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Colony-stimulating factors and erythroid-stimulating factor use per investigator discretion.

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal, or death

References

  1. Garon EB, Ciuleanu TE, Arrieta O, Prabhash K, Syrigos KN, Goksel T, Park K, Gorbunova V, Kowalyszyn RD, Pikiel J, Czyzewicz G, Orlov SV, Lewanski CR, Thomas M, Bidoli P, Dakhil S, Gans S, Kim JH, Grigorescu A, Karaseva N, Reck M, Cappuzzo F, Alexandris E, Sashegyi A, Yurasov S, Pérol M. Ramucirumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus docetaxel for second-line treatment of stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer after disease progression on platinum-based therapy (REVEL): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2014 Aug 23;384(9944):665-73. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Erlotinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Shepherd et al. 2005 (NCIC CTG BR.21) Phase III Placebo Superior OS
Lilenbaum et al. 2008 Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Seems to have inferior OS
Ramalingam et al. 2012 Randomized Phase II Dacomitinib Seems to have inferior PFS
Garassino et al. 2013 (TAILOR) Phase III Docetaxel Seems to have inferior OS
Ramalingam et al. 2014 (ARCHER 1009) Phase III Dacomitinib Seems not superior
Scagliotti et al. 2015 Phase III Erlotinib & Figitumumab Seems not superior
Soria et al. 2015 (LUX-Lung 8) Phase III Afatinib Inferior OS
Urata et al. 2016 (WJOG 5108L) Phase III Gefitinib Inconclusive whether non-inferior
Smit et al. 2016 (CurrentS) Phase III High-dose Erlotinib Seems not superior
Neal et al. 2016 (ECOG-ACRIN 1512) Randomized Phase II Cabozantinib Inferior PFS
Cabozantinib & Erlotinib Inferior PFS
Spigel et al. 2016 (METLung) Phase III Erlotinib & Onartuzumab Might have superior OS

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression or intolerance

References

  1. Shepherd FA, Rodrigues Pereira J, Ciuleanu T, Tan EH, Hirsh V, Thongprasert S, Campos D, Maoleekoonpiroj S, Smylie M, Martins R, van Kooten M, Dediu M, Findlay B, Tu D, Johnston D, Bezjak A, Clark G, Santabárbara P, Seymour L; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jul 14;353(2):123-32. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Lilenbaum R, Axelrod R, Thomas S, Dowlati A, Seigel L, Albert D, Witt K, Botkin D. Randomized phase II trial of erlotinib or standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and a performance status of 2. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 20;26(6):863-9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Ramalingam SS, Blackhall F, Krzakowski M, Barrios CH, Park K, Bover I, Seog Heo D, Rosell R, Talbot DC, Frank R, Letrent SP, Ruiz-Garcia A, Taylor I, Liang JQ, Campbell AK, O'Connell J, Boyer M. Randomized phase II study of dacomitinib (PF-00299804), an irreversible pan-human epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, versus erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Sep 20;30(27):3337-44. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Garassino MC, Martelli O, Broggini M, Farina G, Veronese S, Rulli E, Bianchi F, Bettini A, Longo F, Moscetti L, Tomirotti M, Marabese M, Ganzinelli M, Lauricella C, Labianca R, Floriani I, Giaccone G, Torri V, Scanni A, Marsoni S; TAILOR trialists. Erlotinib versus docetaxel as second-line treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and wild-type EGFR tumours (TAILOR): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Sep;14(10):981-8. Epub 2013 Jul 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Ramalingam SS, Jänne PA, Mok T, O'Byrne K, Boyer MJ, Von Pawel J, Pluzanski A, Shtivelband M, Docampo LI, Bennouna J, Zhang H, Liang JQ, Doherty JP, Taylor I, Mather CB, Goldberg Z, O'Connell J, Paz-Ares L. Dacomitinib versus erlotinib in patients with advanced-stage, previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (ARCHER 1009): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Nov;15(12):1369-78. Epub 2014 Oct 15.link to original article PubMed
  6. Scagliotti GV, Bondarenko I, Blackhall F, Barlesi F, Hsia TC, Jassem J, Milanowski J, Popat S, Sanchez-Torres JM, Novello S, Benner RJ, Green S, Molpus K, Soria JC, Shepherd FA. Randomized, phase III trial of figitumumab in combination with erlotinib versus erlotinib alone in patients with nonadenocarcinoma nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol. 2015 Mar;26(3):497-504. Epub 2014 Nov 13. link to original article PubMed
  7. Soria JC, Felip E, Cobo M, Lu S, Syrigos K, Lee KH, Göker E, Georgoulias V, Li W, Isla D, Guclu SZ, Morabito A, Min YJ, Ardizzoni A, Gadgeel SM, Wang B, Chand VK, Goss GD; LUX-Lung 8 Investigators. Afatinib versus erlotinib as second-line treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (LUX-Lung 8): an open-label randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Aug;16(8):897-907. Epub 2015 Jul 5. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  8. Urata Y, Katakami N, Morita S, Kaji R, Yoshioka H, Seto T, Satouchi M, Iwamoto Y, Kanehara M, Fujimoto D, Ikeda N, Murakami H, Daga H, Oguri T, Goto I, Imamura F, Sugawara S, Saka H, Nogami N, Negoro S, Nakagawa K, Nakanishi Y. Randomized phase III study comparing gefitinib with erlotinib in patients with previously treated advanced lung adenocarcinoma: WJOG 5108L. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep 20;34(27):3248-57. Epub 2016 Mar 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. Smit EF, Wu YL, Gervais R, Zhou C, Felip E, Feng J, Guclu SZ, Hoiczyk M, Dorokhova E, Freudensprung U, Grange S, Perez-Moreno PD, Mitchell L, Reck M. A randomized, double-blind, phase III study comparing two doses of erlotinib for second-line treatment of current smokers with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (CurrentS). Lung Cancer. 2016 Sep;99:94-101. Epub 2016 Jun 27. link to SD article PubMed
  10. Neal JW, Dahlberg SE, Wakelee HA, Aisner SC, Bowden M, Huang Y, Carbone DP, Gerstner GJ, Lerner RE, Rubin JL, Owonikoko TK, Stella PJ, Steen PD, Khalid AA, Ramalingam SS; ECOG-ACRIN 1512 Investigators. Erlotinib, cabozantinib, or erlotinib plus cabozantinib as second-line or third-line treatment of patients with EGFR wild-type advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ECOG-ACRIN 1512): a randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Dec;17(12):1661-1671. Epub 2016 Nov 4. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  11. Spigel DR, Edelman MJ, O'Byrne K, Paz-Ares L, Mocci S, Phan S, Shames DS, Smith D, Yu W, Paton VE, Mok T. Results from the phase III randomized trial of onartuzumab plus erlotinib versus erlotinib in previously treated stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer: METLung. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Feb;35(4):412-420. Epub 2016 Dec 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gefitinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kris et al. 2003 (IDEAL2) Randomized Phase II Gefitinib 500 mg/day Seems not superior
Kim et al. 2008 (INTEREST) Phase III Docetaxel Seems non-inferior
Mok et al. 2009 (IPASS) Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Superior PFS
Han et al. 2011 Randomized Phase II Gefitinib & Simvastatin Seems not superior
Shi et al. 2013 (ICOGEN) Phase III Icotinib Seems non-inferior
Urata et al. 2016 (WJOG 5108L) Phase III Erlotinib Inconclusive whether non-inferior

Chemotherapy

Given until progression of objective disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Kris MG, Natale RB, Herbst RS, Lynch TJ Jr, Prager D, Belani CP, Schiller JH, Kelly K, Spiridonidis H, Sandler A, Albain KS, Cella D, Wolf MK, Averbuch SD, Ochs JJ, Kay AC. Efficacy of gefitinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in symptomatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Oct 22;290(16):2149-58. link to original article PubMed
  2. Kim ES, Hirsh V, Mok T, Socinski MA, Gervais R, Wu YL, Li LY, Watkins CL, Sellers MV, Lowe ES, Sun Y, Liao ML, Osterlind K, Reck M, Armour AA, Shepherd FA, Lippman SM, Douillard JY. Gefitinib versus docetaxel in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (INTEREST): a randomised phase III trial. Lancet. 2008 Nov 22;372(9652):1809-18. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, Yang CH, Chu DT, Saijo N, Sunpaweravong P, Han B, Margono B, Ichinose Y, Nishiwaki Y, Ohe Y, Yang JJ, Chewaskulyong B, Jiang H, Duffield EL, Watkins CL, Armour AA, Fukuoka M. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2009 Sep 3;361(10):947-57. Epub 2009 Aug 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Fukuoka M, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, Sunpaweravong P, Leong SS, Sriuranpong V, Chao TY, Nakagawa K, Chu DT, Saijo N, Duffield EL, Rukazenkov Y, Speake G, Jiang H, Armour AA, To KF, Yang JC, Mok TS. Biomarker analyses and final overall survival results from a phase III, randomized, open-label, first-line study of gefitinib versus carboplatin/paclitaxel in clinically selected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in Asia (IPASS). J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jul 20;29(21):2866-74. Epub 2011 Jun 13. link to original article PubMed
  4. Han JY, Lee SH, Yoo NJ, Hyung LS, Moon YJ, Yun T, Kim HT, Lee JS. A randomized phase II study of gefitinib plus simvastatin versus gefitinib alone in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 15;17(6):1553-60. link to orinigal article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Shi Y, Zhang L, Liu X, Zhou C, Zhang L, Zhang S, Wang D, Li Q, Qin S, Hu C, Zhang Y, Chen J, Cheng Y, Feng J, Zhang H, Song Y, Wu YL, Xu N, Zhou J, Luo R, Bai C, Jin Y, Liu W, Wei Z, Tan F, Wang Y, Ding L, Dai H, Jiao S, Wang J, Liang L, Zhang W, Sun Y. Icotinib versus gefitinib in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ICOGEN): a randomised, double-blind phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Sep;14(10):953-61. Epub 2013 Aug 13. link to original article PubMed
  6. Urata Y, Katakami N, Morita S, Kaji R, Yoshioka H, Seto T, Satouchi M, Iwamoto Y, Kanehara M, Fujimoto D, Ikeda N, Murakami H, Daga H, Oguri T, Goto I, Imamura F, Sugawara S, Saka H, Nogami N, Negoro S, Nakagawa K, Nakanishi Y. Randomized phase III study comparing gefitinib with erlotinib in patients with previously treated advanced lung adenocarcinoma: WJOG 5108L. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep 20;34(27):3248-57. Epub 2016 Mar 28. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine monotherapy

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Quoix et al. 2011 (IFCT-0501) Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Inferior OS

Study involved only patients 70 to 89 years old

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Growth factor support was not recommended as primary prophylaxis during cycle 1, but could be used if the patient develops grade 3 to 4 neutropenia

21-day cycle for up to 5 cycles

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Sederholm et al. 2005 Phase III Carboplatin & Gemcitabine Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Regimen #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gridelli et al. 2003 (MILES) Phase III Gemcitabine & Vinorelbine Seems not superior
Vinorelbine Seems not superior

Study involved only patients at least 70 years old

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • "Antiemetic agents and other supportive treatments were provided at the discretion of the treating physician."

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Gridelli C, Perrone F, Gallo C, Cigolari S, Rossi A, Piantedosi F, Barbera S, Ferraù F, Piazza E, Rosetti F, Clerici M, Bertetto O, Robbiati SF, Frontini L, Sacco C, Castiglione F, Favaretto A, Novello S, Migliorino MR, Gasparini G, Galetta D, Iaffaioli RV, Gebbia V; MILES Investigators. Chemotherapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the Multicenter Italian Lung Cancer in the Elderly Study (MILES) phase III randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Mar 5;95(5):362-72. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Sederholm C, Hillerdal G, Lamberg K, Kölbeck K, Dufmats M, Westberg R, Gawande SR. Phase III trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin versus single-agent gemcitabine in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: the Swedish Lung Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8380-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Quoix E, Zalcman G, Oster JP, Westeel V, Pichon E, Lavolé A, Dauba J, Debieuvre D, Souquet PJ, Bigay-Game L, Dansin E, Poudenx M, Molinier O, Vaylet F, Moro-Sibilot D, Herman D, Bennouna J, Tredaniel J, Ducoloné A, Lebitasy MP, Baudrin L, Laporte S, Milleron B; Intergroupe Francophone de Cancérologie Thoracique. Carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel doublet chemotherapy compared with monotherapy in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: IFCT-0501 randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Sep 17;378(9796):1079-88. Epub 2011 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine & Vinorelbine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gridelli et al. 2003 (MILES) Phase III Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Vinorelbine Seems not superior
Tan et al. 2005 (GLOB 2) Phase III Carboplatin & Vinorelbine Seems not superior

MILES involved only patients at least 70 years old

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • "Antiemetic agents and other supportive treatments were provided at the discretion of the treating physician."

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles (MILES) or until progression (GLOB 2)

References

  1. Gridelli C, Perrone F, Gallo C, Cigolari S, Rossi A, Piantedosi F, Barbera S, Ferraù F, Piazza E, Rosetti F, Clerici M, Bertetto O, Robbiati SF, Frontini L, Sacco C, Castiglione F, Favaretto A, Novello S, Migliorino MR, Gasparini G, Galetta D, Iaffaioli RV, Gebbia V; MILES Investigators. Chemotherapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the Multicenter Italian Lung Cancer in the Elderly Study (MILES) phase III randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Mar 5;95(5):362-72. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Tan EH, Szczesna A, Krzakowski M, Macha HN, Gatzemeier U, Mattson K, Wernli M, Reiterer P, Hui R, Pawel JV, Bertetto O, Pouget JC, Burillon JP, Parlier Y, Abratt R; GLOB 2 group. Randomized study of vinorelbine--gemcitabine versus vinorelbine--carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2005 Aug;49(2):233-40. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Nivolumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence ORR Comparator Efficacy Pt Population
Rizvi et al. 2015 (CheckMate 063) Phase II 14% (95% CI 9 - 22) Chemo exposed
Brahmer et al. 2015 (CheckMate 017) Phase III 20% (95% CI 14 - 28) Docetaxel Superior OS Squamous only, chemo exposed
Borghaei et al. 2015 (CheckMate 057) Phase III 19% (95% CI 15 - 24) Docetaxel Superior OS Non-squamous only, chemo exposed
Carbone et al. 2017 (CheckMate 026) Phase III 26% (95% CI 20 - 33) Platinum doublet Seems not superior Untreated

Note: control arm patients in CheckMate 026 received investigator's choice of platinum doublet; the most commonly used regimen was carboplatin & paclitaxel.

Immunotherapy

  • Nivolumab (Opdivo) 3 mg/kg IV once on day 1
    • Notably, on 9/13/16 the FDA recommended that dosing for this indication be changed to 240 mg with the same schedule based on updated pharmacokinetic data.

14-day cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Rizvi NA, Mazières J, Planchard D, Stinchcombe TE, Dy GK, Antonia SJ, Horn L, Lena H, Minenza E, Mennecier B, Otterson GA, Campos LT, Gandara DR, Levy BP, Nair SG, Zalcman G, Wolf J, Souquet PJ, Baldini E, Cappuzzo F, Chouaid C, Dowlati A, Sanborn R, Lopez-Chavez A, Grohe C, Huber RM, Harbison CT, Baudelet C, Lestini BJ, Ramalingam SS. Activity and safety of nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, for patients with advanced, refractory squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 063): a phase 2, single-arm trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Brahmer J, Reckamp KL, Baas P, Crinò L, Eberhardt WE, Poddubskaya E, Antonia S, Pluzanski A, Vokes EE, Holgado E, Waterhouse D, Ready N, Gainor J, Arén Frontera O, Havel L, Steins M, Garassino MC, Aerts JG, Domine M, Paz-Ares L, Reck M, Baudelet C, Harbison CT, Lestini B, Spigel DR. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 9;373(2):123-35. Epub 2015 May 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Borghaei H, Paz-Ares L, Horn L, Spigel DR, Steins M, Ready NE, Chow LQ, Vokes EE, Felip E, Holgado E, Barlesi F, Kohlhäufl M, Arrieta O, Burgio MA, Fayette J, Lena H, Poddubskaya E, Gerber DE, Gettinger SN, Rudin CM, Rizvi N, Crinò L, Blumenschein GR Jr, Antonia SJ, Dorange C, Harbison CT, Graf Finckenstein F, Brahmer JR. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 22;373(17):1627-39. Epub 2015 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed
  4. Carbone DP, Reck M, Paz-Ares L, Creelan B, Horn L, Steins M, Felip E, van den Heuvel MM, Ciuleanu TE, Badin F, Ready N, Hiltermann TJN, Nair S, Juergens R, Peters S, Minenza E, Wrangle JM, Rodriguez-Abreu D, Borghaei H, Blumenschein GR Jr, Villaruz LC, Havel L, Krejci J, Corral Jaime J, Chang H, Geese WJ, Bhagavatheeswaran P, Chen AC, Socinski MA; CheckMate 026 Investigators. First-line nivolumab in stage IV or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun 22;376(25):2415-2426. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed

Pembrolizumab monotherapy

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence ORR Comparator Efficacy
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Phase III 45% (95% CI: 37-53) Carboplatin & Gemcitabine
Carboplatin & Paclitaxel
Carboplatin & Pemetrexed
Cisplatin & Gemcitabine
Cisplatin & Pemetrexed
Superior OS

Treatment choice for patients in the comparator arm was up to the investigators; most with nonsquamous histology received carboplatin & pemetrexed, whereas most with squamous histology received carboplatin & gemcitabine. First-line therapy, PD-L1 expressed on at least 50% of tumor cells, no EGFR/ALK mutations.

Immunotherapy

21-day cycles for up to 35 cycles

Regimen #2

Study Evidence ORR Comparator Efficacy Pt Population
Herbst et al. 2015 (KEYNOTE-010) Phase II/III 2 mg/kg: 18% (95% CI 14 - 23)

10 mg/kg: 19% (95% CI 15 - 23)

Docetaxel Superior OS Chemo exposed

Immunotherapy

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Phase 1: Garon EB, Rizvi NA, Hui R, Leighl N, Balmanoukian AS, Eder JP, Patnaik A, Aggarwal C, Gubens M, Horn L, Carcereny E, Ahn MJ, Felip E, Lee JS, Hellmann MD, Hamid O, Goldman JW, Soria JC, Dolled-Filhart M, Rutledge RZ, Zhang J, Lunceford JK, Rangwala R, Lubiniecki GM, Roach C, Emancipator K, Gandhi L; KEYNOTE-001 Investigators. Pembrolizumab for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 May 21;372(21):2018-28. Epub 2015 Apr 19. link to original article PubMed
  2. Herbst RS, Baas P, Kim DW, Felip E, Pérez-Gracia JL, Han JY, Molina J, Kim JH, Arvis CD, Ahn MJ, Majem M, Fidler MJ, de Castro G Jr, Garrido M, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Im E, Dolled-Filhart M, Garon EB. Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Apr 9;387(10027):1540-50. Epub 2015 Dec 19. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Gottfried M, Peled N, Tafreshi A, Cuffe S, O'Brien M, Rao S, Hotta K, Leiby MA, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Rangwala R, Brahmer JR; KEYNOTE-024 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for PD-L1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1823-1833. Epub 2016 Oct 8. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed

Pemetrexed monotherapy

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Example orders

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Hanna et al. 2004 Phase III Docetaxel Inconclusive whether non-inferior
Ardizzoni et al. 2012 (GOIRC 02-2006) Randomized Phase II Carboplatin & Pemetrexed Seems not superior
Shaw et al. 2013 Phase III Crizotinib Inferior PFS
Zukin et al. 2013 Phase III Carboplatin & Pemetrexed Inferior OS
Shaw et al. 2017 (ASCEND-5) Phase III Ceritinib Inferior PFS

Patients in ASCEND-5 had ALK-rearranged NSCLC progressed on crizotinib.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • (per Ardizzoni et al. 2012):
  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 4 mg or equivalent corticosteroid PO BID on the day before, the day of, and day after each dose of pemetrexed
  • Folic acid 350 to 600 mcg PO once per day, starting 1 to 2 weeks before the first dose of pemetrexed, to be taken throughout pemetrexed therapy.
    • Hanna et al. 2004 used folic acid 1 mg PO once per day
  • Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 1000 mcg IM once every 9 weeks, first dose 1 to 2 weeks before the first dose of pemetrexed, to be given throughout pemetrexed therapy

21-day cycles

Ardizzoni et al. 2012 & Zukin et al. 2013 treated patients for up to 4 cycles or until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or patient refusal.

References

  1. Hanna N, Shepherd FA, Fossella FV, Pereira JR, De Marinis F, von Pawel J, Gatzemeier U, Tsao TC, Pless M, Muller T, Lim HL, Desch C, Szondy K, Gervais R, Shaharyar, Manegold C, Paul S, Paoletti P, Einhorn L, Bunn PA Jr. Randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2004 May 1;22(9):1589-97. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Ardizzoni A, Tiseo M, Boni L, Vincent AD, Passalacqua R, Buti S, Amoroso D, Camerini A, Labianca R, Genestreti G, Boni C, Ciuffreda L, Di Costanzo F, de Marinis F, Crinò L, Santo A, Pazzola A, Barbieri F, Zilembo N, Colantonio I, Tibaldi C, Mattioli R, Cafferata MA, Camisa R, Smit EF. Pemetrexed versus pemetrexed and carboplatin as second-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of the GOIRC 02-2006 randomized phase II study and pooled analysis with the NVALT7 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Dec 20;30(36):4501-7. Epub 2012 Oct 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Shaw AT, Kim DW, Nakagawa K, Seto T, Crinó L, Ahn MJ, De Pas T, Besse B, Solomon BJ, Blackhall F, Wu YL, Thomas M, O'Byrne KJ, Moro-Sibilot D, Camidge DR, Mok T, Hirsh V, Riely GJ, Iyer S, Tassell V, Polli A, Wilner KD, Jänne PA. Crizotinib versus chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 20;368(25):2385-94. Epub 2013 Jun 1. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Zukin M, Barrios CH, Rodrigues Pereira J, De Albuquerque Ribeiro R, de Mendonça Beato CA, do Nascimento YN, Murad A, Franke FA, Precivale M, de Lima Araujo LH, Da Rocha Baldotto CS, Vieira FM, Small IA, Ferreira CG, Lilenbaum RC. Randomized phase III Trial of single-agent pemetrexed versus carboplatin and pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2849-53. Epub 2013 Jun 17. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Shaw AT, Kim TM, Crinò L, Gridelli C, Kiura K, Liu G, Novello S, Bearz A, Gautschi O, Mok T, Nishio M, Scagliotti G, Spigel DR, Deudon S, Zheng C, Pantano S, Urban P, Massacesi C, Viraswami-Appanna K, Felip E. Ceritinib versus chemotherapy in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer previously given chemotherapy and crizotinib (ASCEND-5): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jul;18(7):874-886. Epub 2017 Jun 9. link to original articlecontains protocolPubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Shepherd et al. 2005 (NCIC CTG BR.21) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior OS
Miller et al. 2012 (LUX-Lung 1) Phase III Afatinib Inferior PFS
Ellis et al. 2014 (NCIC CTG BR.26) Phase III Dacomitinib Seems not superior
Paz-Ares et al. 2015 (MISSION) Phase III Sorafenib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Placed here because one or more randomized clinical trials included a placebo arm in this disease context.

References

  1. Shepherd FA, Rodrigues Pereira J, Ciuleanu T, Tan EH, Hirsh V, Thongprasert S, Campos D, Maoleekoonpiroj S, Smylie M, Martins R, van Kooten M, Dediu M, Findlay B, Tu D, Johnston D, Bezjak A, Clark G, Santabárbara P, Seymour L; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jul 14;353(2):123-32. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Miller VA, Hirsh V, Cadranel J, Chen YM, Park K, Kim SW, Zhou C, Su WC, Wang M, Sun Y, Heo DS, Crino L, Tan EH, Chao TY, Shahidi M, Cong XJ, Lorence RM, Yang JC. Afatinib versus placebo for patients with advanced, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of erlotinib, gefitinib, or both, and one or two lines of chemotherapy (LUX-Lung 1): a phase 2b/3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 May;13(5):528-38. Epub 2012 Mar 26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Ellis PM, Shepherd FA, Millward M, Perrone F, Seymour L, Liu G, Sun S, Cho BC, Morabito A, Leighl NB, Stockler MR, Lee CW, Wierzbicki R, Cohen V, Blais N, Sangha RS, Favaretto AG, Kang JH, Tsao MS, Wilson CF, Goldberg Z, Ding K, Goss GD, Bradbury PA; NCIC CTG; Australasian Lung Cancer Trials Group; NCI Naples Clinical Trials Unit. Dacomitinib compared with placebo in pretreated patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NCIC CTG BR.26): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Nov;15(12):1379-88. Epub 2014 Oct 15. link to original article PubMed
  4. Paz-Ares L, Hirsh V, Zhang L, de Marinis F, Yang JC, Wakelee HA, Seto T, Wu YL, Novello S, Juhász E, Arén O, Sun Y, Schmelter T, Ong TJ, Peña C, Smit EF, Mok TS. Monotherapy administration of sorafenib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (MISSION) trial: A phase III, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of sorafenib in patients with relapsed or refractory predominantly nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer after 2 or 3 previous treatment regimens. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Dec;10(12):1745-53. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Sorafenib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Paz-Ares et al. 2015 (MISSION) Phase III Placebo Superior PFS

Note: although the primary endpoint (OS) was negative overall, the authors note that the subgroup of patients with known EGFR mutations treated with sorafenib had significantly superior survival (p=0.002).

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression

References

  1. Paz-Ares L, Hirsh V, Zhang L, de Marinis F, Yang JC, Wakelee HA, Seto T, Wu YL, Novello S, Juhász E, Arén O, Sun Y, Schmelter T, Ong TJ, Peña C, Smit EF, Mok TS. Monotherapy administration of sorafenib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (MISSION) trial: A phase III, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of sorafenib in patients with relapsed or refractory predominantly nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer after 2 or 3 previous treatment regimens. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Dec;10(12):1745-53. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Vinorelbine monotherapy

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Regimen #1, 25 mg/m2 2 out of 3 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Quoix et al. 2011 (IFCT-0501) Phase III Carboplatin & Paclitaxel Inferior OS

Study involved only patients 70 to 89 years old

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Growth factor support was not recommended as primary prophylaxis during cycle 1, but could be used if the patient develops grade 3 to 4 neutropenia

21-day cycle for up to 5 cycles

Regimen #2, 30 mg/m2 2 out of 3 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Elderly Lung Cancer Vinorelbine Italian Study Group, 1999 Phase III Best supportive care Seems to have superior OS
Gridelli et al. 2003 (MILES) Phase III Gemcitabine Seems not superior
Gemcitabine & Vinorelbine Seems not superior

Study involved only patients at least 70 years old

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • (varies depending on reference):
  • Elderly Lung Cancer Vinorelbine Italian Study Group, 1999: Metoclopramide (Reglan) 20 mg IV bolus prior to Vinorelbine (Navelbine)
  • Gridelli et al. 2003: "Antiemetic agents and other supportive treatments were provided at the discretion of the treating physician."

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Regimen #3, weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Fossella et al. 2000 (TAX 320) Phase III Docetaxel 100 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 Seems not superior
Jassem et al. 2001 Randomized Phase II Oral vinorelbine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Patients who had either grade 4 neutropenia lasting at least 5 days or both fever and grade 3 or 4 neutropenia could receive G-CSF (dose/schedule/duration not specified)
  • Metoclopramide (Reglan) (dose/schedule/route not specified) used first for nausea
  • Nausea despite metoclopramide was treated with a 5-HT3 antagonist such as Ondansetron (Zofran) or Granisetron (Kytril) (dose/schedule/route not specified) prn nausea

Continued until progression

Regimen #4, high-dose

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Jassem et al. 2001 Randomized Phase II Intravenous vinorelbine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine) 60 mg/m2 PO once per week, increased to 80 mg/m2 PO once per week with 4th dose, if no severe neutropenia

Supportive medications

  • Patients who had either grade 4 neutropenia lasting at least 5 days or both fever and grade 3 or 4 neutropenia could receive G-CSF (dose/schedule/duration not specified)
  • Metoclopramide (Reglan) (dose/schedule/route not specified) used first for nausea
  • Nausea despite metoclopramide was treated with a 5-HT3 antagonist such as Ondansetron (Zofran) or Granisetron (Kytril) (dose/schedule/route not specified) prn nausea

Continued until progression

References

  1. The Elderly Lung Cancer Vinorelbine Italian Study Group. Effects of vinorelbine on quality of life and survival of elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Jan 6;91(1):66-72. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Fossella FV, DeVore R, Kerr RN, Crawford J, Natale RR, Dunphy F, Kalman L, Miller V, Lee JS, Moore M, Gandara D, Karp D, Vokes E, Kris M, Kim Y, Gamza F, Hammershaimb L. Randomized phase III trial of docetaxel versus vinorelbine or ifosfamide in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens. The TAX 320 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Jun;18(12):2354-62. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jan 1;22(1):209. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Jassem J, Ramlau R, Karnicka-Mlodkowska H, Krawczyk K, Krzakowski M, Zatloukal P, Lemarié E, Hartmann W, Novakova L, O'Brien M, Depierr A. A multicenter randomized phase II study of oral vs. intravenous vinorelbine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2001 Oct;12(10):1375-81. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Gridelli C, Perrone F, Gallo C, Cigolari S, Rossi A, Piantedosi F, Barbera S, Ferraù F, Piazza E, Rosetti F, Clerici M, Bertetto O, Robbiati SF, Frontini L, Sacco C, Castiglione F, Favaretto A, Novello S, Migliorino MR, Gasparini G, Galetta D, Iaffaioli RV, Gebbia V; MILES Investigators. Chemotherapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the Multicenter Italian Lung Cancer in the Elderly Study (MILES) phase III randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Mar 5;95(5):362-72. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. Quoix E, Zalcman G, Oster JP, Westeel V, Pichon E, Lavolé A, Dauba J, Debieuvre D, Souquet PJ, Bigay-Game L, Dansin E, Poudenx M, Molinier O, Vaylet F, Moro-Sibilot D, Herman D, Bennouna J, Tredaniel J, Ducoloné A, Lebitasy MP, Baudrin L, Laporte S, Milleron B; Intergroupe Francophone de Cancérologie Thoracique. Carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel doublet chemotherapy compared with monotherapy in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: IFCT-0501 randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011 Sep 17;378(9796):1079-88. Epub 2011 Aug 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Maintenance

Bevacizumab monotherapy

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence
Sandler et al. 2006 (ECOG 4599) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Patel et al. 2013 (PointBreak) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Zinner et al. 2015 (PRONOUNCE) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Barlesi et al. 2013 (AVAPERL (MO22089)) Phase III Bevacizumab & Pemetrexed maintenance Inferior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, Brahmer J, Schiller JH, Dowlati A, Lilenbaum R, Johnson DH. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2542-50. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Ramalingam SS, Dahlberg SE, Langer CJ, Gray R, Belani CP, Brahmer JR, Sandler AB, Schiller JH, Johnson DH; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Outcomes for elderly, advanced-stage non small-cell lung cancer patients treated with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel: analysis of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial 4599. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 1;26(1):60-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Barlesi F, Scherpereel A, Rittmeyer A, Pazzola A, Ferrer Tur N, Kim JH, Ahn MJ, Aerts JG, Gorbunova V, Vikström A, Wong EK, Perez-Moreno P, Mitchell L, Groen HJ. Randomized phase III trial of maintenance bevacizumab with or without pemetrexed after first-line induction with bevacizumab, cisplatin, and pemetrexed in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: AVAPERL (MO22089). J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 20;31(24):3004-11. Epub 2013 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Patel JD, Socinski MA, Garon EB, Reynolds CH, Spigel DR, Olsen MR, Hermann RC, Jotte RM, Beck T, Richards DA, Guba SC, Liu J, Frimodt-Moller B, John WJ, Obasaju CK, Pennella EJ, Bonomi P, Govindan R. PointBreak: a randomized phase III study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients with stage IIIB or IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Dec 1;31(34):4349-57. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Zinner RG, Obasaju CK, Spigel DR, Weaver RW, Beck JT, Waterhouse DM, Modiano MR, Hrinczenko B, Nikolinakos PG, Liu J, Koustenis AG, Winfree KB, Melemed SA, Guba SC, Ortuzar WI, Desaiah D, Treat JA, Govindan R, Ross HJ. PRONOUNCE: randomized, open-label, phase III study of first-line pemetrexed + carboplatin followed by maintenance pemetrexed versus paclitaxel + carboplatin + bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients ith advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Jan;10(1):134-42. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

Erlotinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cappuzzo et al. 2010 (SATURN) Phase III Placebo Superior PFS
Pérol et al. 2012 Phase III Gemcitabine Not reported
Observation Superior PFS

Note: while SATURN was technically a positive study for erlotinib, the median PFS gain was 1.2 weeks.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression or intolerance

References

  1. Cappuzzo F, Ciuleanu T, Stelmakh L, Cicenas S, Szczésna A, Juhász E, Esteban E, Molinier O, Brugger W, Melezínek I, Klingelschmitt G, Klughammer B, Giaccone G; SATURN investigators. Erlotinib as maintenance treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Jun;11(6):521-9. Epub 2010 May 20. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Pérol M, Chouaid C, Pérol D, Barlési F, Gervais R, Westeel V, Crequit J, Léna H, Vergnenègre A, Zalcman G, Monnet I, Le Caer H, Fournel P, Falchero L, Poudenx M, Vaylet F, Ségura-Ferlay C, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Taron M, Milleron B. Randomized, phase III study of gemcitabine or erlotinib maintenance therapy versus observation, with predefined second-line treatment, after cisplatin-gemcitabine induction chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 1;30(28):3516-24. Epub 2012 Sep 4. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pérol et al. 2012 Phase III Erlotinib Not reported
Observation Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles until progression

References

  1. Pérol M, Chouaid C, Pérol D, Barlési F, Gervais R, Westeel V, Crequit J, Léna H, Vergnenègre A, Zalcman G, Monnet I, Le Caer H, Fournel P, Falchero L, Poudenx M, Vaylet F, Ségura-Ferlay C, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Taron M, Milleron B. Randomized, phase III study of gemcitabine or erlotinib maintenance therapy versus observation, with predefined second-line treatment, after cisplatin-gemcitabine induction chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 1;30(28):3516-24. Epub 2012 Sep 4. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed

Ipilimumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Lynch et al. 2012 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Govindan et al. 2017 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Immunotherapy

12-week cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Lynch TJ, Bondarenko I, Luft A, Serwatowski P, Barlesi F, Chacko R, Sebastian M, Neal J, Lu H, Cuillerot JM, Reck M. Ipilimumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line treatment in stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun 10;30(17):2046-54. Epub 2012 Apr 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Govindan R, Szczesna A, Ahn MJ, Schneider CP, Gonzalez Mella PF, Barlesi F, Han B, Ganea DE, Von Pawel J, Vladimirov V, Fadeeva N, Lee KH, Kurata T, Zhang L, Tamura T, Postmus PE, Jassem J, O'Byrne K, Kopit J, Li M, Tschaika M, Reck M. Phase III trial of ipilimumab combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Oct 20;35(30):3449-3457. Epub 2017 Aug 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Necitumumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Thatcher et al. 2015 (SQUIRE) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Patients had stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Thatcher N, Hirsch FR, Luft AV, Szczesna A, Ciuleanu TE, Dediu M, Ramlau R, Galiulin RK, Bálint B, Losonczy G, Kazarnowicz A, Park K, Schumann C, Reck M, Depenbrock H, Nanda S, Kruljac-Letunic A, Kurek R, Paz-Ares L, Socinski MA; SQUIRE Investigators. Necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (SQUIRE): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jul;16(7):763-74. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Observation

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pérol et al. 2012 Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS
Gemcitabine Inferior PFS

No further treatment after first-line therapy.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. Pérol M, Chouaid C, Pérol D, Barlési F, Gervais R, Westeel V, Crequit J, Léna H, Vergnenègre A, Zalcman G, Monnet I, Le Caer H, Fournel P, Falchero L, Poudenx M, Vaylet F, Ségura-Ferlay C, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Taron M, Milleron B. Randomized, phase III study of gemcitabine or erlotinib maintenance therapy versus observation, with predefined second-line treatment, after cisplatin-gemcitabine induction chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 1;30(28):3516-24. Epub 2012 Sep 4. link to original articlecontains verified protocol PubMed

Pemetrexed monotherapy

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Example orders

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Paz-Ares et al. 2012 (PARAMOUNT) Phase III Placebo Superior PFS
Zinner et al. 2015 (PRONOUNCE) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Reck et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-024) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Langer et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-021) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Folic acid, Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12), prophylactic Dexamethasone (Decadron)
  • "Investigators followed current American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines for use of colony-stimulating factors and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents."

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease, unacceptable toxicity, or physician/patient choice

References

  1. Paz-Ares L, de Marinis F, Dediu M, Thomas M, Pujol JL, Bidoli P, Molinier O, Sahoo TP, Laack E, Reck M, Corral J, Melemed S, John W, Chouaki N, Zimmermann AH, Visseren-Grul C, Gridelli C. Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care after induction therapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (PARAMOUNT): a double-blind, phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar;13(3):247-55. Epub 2012 Feb 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Paz-Ares LG, de Marinis F, Dediu M, Thomas M, Pujol JL, Bidoli P, Molinier O, Sahoo TP, Laack E, Reck M, Corral J, Melemed S, John W, Chouaki N, Zimmermann AH, Visseren-Grul C, Gridelli C. PARAMOUNT: Final overall survival results of the phase III study of maintenance pemetrexed versus placebo immediately after induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2895-902. Epub 2013 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Zinner RG, Obasaju CK, Spigel DR, Weaver RW, Beck JT, Waterhouse DM, Modiano MR, Hrinczenko B, Nikolinakos PG, Liu J, Koustenis AG, Winfree KB, Melemed SA, Guba SC, Ortuzar WI, Desaiah D, Treat JA, Govindan R, Ross HJ. PRONOUNCE: randomized, open-label, phase III study of first-line pemetrexed + carboplatin followed by maintenance pemetrexed versus paclitaxel + carboplatin + bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients ith advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Jan;10(1):134-42. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csőszi T, Fülöp A, Gottfried M, Peled N, Tafreshi A, Cuffe S, O'Brien M, Rao S, Hotta K, Leiby MA, Lubiniecki GM, Shentu Y, Rangwala R, Brahmer JR; KEYNOTE-024 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for PD-L1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1823-1833. Epub 2016 Oct 8. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Langer CJ, Gadgeel SM, Borghaei H, Papadimitrakopoulou VA, Patnaik A, Powell SF, Gentzler RD, Martins RG, Stevenson JP, Jalal SI, Panwalkar A, Yang JC, Gubens M, Sequist LV, Awad MM, Fiore J, Ge Y, Raftopoulos H, Gandhi L; KEYNOTE-021 investigators. Carboplatin and pemetrexed with or without pembrolizumab for advanced, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 2 cohort of the open-label KEYNOTE-021 study. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Nov;17(11):1497-1508. Epub 2016 Oct 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Pemetrexed & Bevacizumab

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Barlesi et al. 2013 (AVAPERL (MO22089)) Phase III Bevacizumab maintenance Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

Regimen #2

Study Evidence
Patel et al. 2013 (PointBreak) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Premedications, folic acid, and vitamin supplementation per pemetrexed label
  • Erythropoietic agents or granulocyte colony-stimulating factors allowed per ASCO & NCCN guidelines

21-day cycles, given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Barlesi F, Scherpereel A, Rittmeyer A, Pazzola A, Ferrer Tur N, Kim JH, Ahn MJ, Aerts JG, Gorbunova V, Vikström A, Wong EK, Perez-Moreno P, Mitchell L, Groen HJ. Randomized phase III trial of maintenance bevacizumab with or without pemetrexed after first-line induction with bevacizumab, cisplatin, and pemetrexed in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: AVAPERL (MO22089). J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 20;31(24):3004-11. Epub 2013 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Patel JD, Socinski MA, Garon EB, Reynolds CH, Spigel DR, Olsen MR, Hermann RC, Jotte RM, Beck T, Richards DA, Guba SC, Liu J, Frimodt-Moller B, John WJ, Obasaju CK, Pennella EJ, Bonomi P, Govindan R. PointBreak: a randomized phase III study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin and bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients with stage IIIB or IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Dec 1;31(34):4349-57. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Pemetrexed & Pembrolizumab

Source: Pembrolizumab & Pemetrexed maintenance therapy for advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Langer et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-021) Randomized Phase II Carboplatin & Pemetrexed +/- pemetrexed maintenance Superior ORR

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) 200 mg IV over 30 minutes once on day 1, given first, at least 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy
  • Pemetrexed (Alimta) 500 mg/m2 IV over 10 minutes once on day 1, given last
    • This is optional, to be used "at the discretion of the investigator"

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 2 years

References

  1. Langer CJ, Gadgeel SM, Borghaei H, Papadimitrakopoulou VA, Patnaik A, Powell SF, Gentzler RD, Martins RG, Stevenson JP, Jalal SI, Panwalkar A, Yang JC, Gubens M, Sequist LV, Awad MM, Fiore J, Ge Y, Raftopoulos H, Gandhi L; KEYNOTE-021 investigators. Carboplatin and pemetrexed with or without pembrolizumab for advanced, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 2 cohort of the open-label KEYNOTE-021 study. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Nov;17(11):1497-1508 link to original article contains verified protocol supplementary appendix; PubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cappuzzo et al. 2010 (SATURN) Phase III Erlotinib Inferior PFS
Paz-Ares et al. 2012 (PARAMOUNT) Phase III Pemetrexed Inferior PFS
Giaccone et al. 2015 Phase III Belagenpumatucel-L Seems not superior

No further antineoplastic treatment after first-line therapy. Note: while SATURN was technically a positive study for erlotinib, the median PFS gain was 1.2 weeks.

Preceding treatment

  • SATURN: 4 cycles of platinum-doublet therapy
  • PARAMOUNT: Cisplatin & Pemetrexed x 4
  • Giaccone et al. 2015: Platinum-based chemotherapy

References

  1. Cappuzzo F, Ciuleanu T, Stelmakh L, Cicenas S, Szczésna A, Juhász E, Esteban E, Molinier O, Brugger W, Melezínek I, Klingelschmitt G, Klughammer B, Giaccone G; SATURN investigators. Erlotinib as maintenance treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Jun;11(6):521-9. Epub 2010 May 20. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Paz-Ares L, de Marinis F, Dediu M, Thomas M, Pujol JL, Bidoli P, Molinier O, Sahoo TP, Laack E, Reck M, Corral J, Melemed S, John W, Chouaki N, Zimmermann AH, Visseren-Grul C, Gridelli C. Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care after induction therapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (PARAMOUNT): a double-blind, phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Mar;13(3):247-55. Epub 2012 Feb 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Paz-Ares LG, de Marinis F, Dediu M, Thomas M, Pujol JL, Bidoli P, Molinier O, Sahoo TP, Laack E, Reck M, Corral J, Melemed S, John W, Chouaki N, Zimmermann AH, Visseren-Grul C, Gridelli C. PARAMOUNT: Final overall survival results of the phase III study of maintenance pemetrexed versus placebo immediately after induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2895-902. Epub 2013 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Giaccone G, Bazhenova LA, Nemunaitis J, Tan M, Juhász E, Ramlau R, van den Heuvel MM, Lal R, Kloecker GH, Eaton KD, Chu Q, Dunlop DJ, Jain M, Garon EB, Davis CS, Carrier E, Moses SC, Shawler DL, Fakhrai H. A phase III study of belagenpumatucel-L, an allogeneic tumour cell vaccine, as maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Nov;51(16):2321-9. Epub 2015 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed