Class/mechanism: Synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione, intercalates into DNA, causing crosslinking and strand breaks. Mitoxantrone inhibits topoisomerase II, which helps to uncoil and repair damaged DNA. It also has been observed to interfere with RNA and has activity against resting and proliferating cells. In vitro, it has been observed to interfere with antigen presentation; inhibit B-cell, T-cell, and macrophage proliferation; and decrease secretion of interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2).
Extravasation: irritant (usually), vesicant (rare)
For conciseness and simplicity, HemOnc.org currently will focus on treatment regimens and not list information such as: renal/hepatic dose adjustments, metabolism (including CYP450), excretion, monitoring parameters (although this will be considered for checklists), or manufacturer. Instead, for the most current information, please refer to your preferred pharmacopeias such as Micromedex, Lexicomp, UpToDate (courtesy of Lexicomp), or the prescribing information.
Diseases for which it is used
- B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Acute promyelocytic leukemia
- Breast cancer
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
- Prostate cancer
- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Diseases for which it was used
Patient drug information
- Mitoxantrone (Novantrone) patient drug information (Chemocare)
- Mitoxantrone (Novantrone) patient drug information (UpToDate)
History of changes in FDA indication
- 12/23/1987: Initial FDA approval for the initial therapy of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in adults. This category includes myelogenous, promyelocytic, monocytic, and erythroid acute leukemias
- 11/13/1996: Approved in combination with corticosteroids as initial chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with pain related to advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Also known as
- Generic name: mitozantrone
- Brand names: Nitrol, Novantron, Novantrone