Breast cancer - historical

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to regimens that are obsolete, outdated, or of historical interest only. As a general rule, this includes the inferior arm(s) of a randomized study, unless said regimens continue to be recommended by trustworthy sources such as the NCCN Guidelines. Is there a regimen missing from this list? See the main breast cancer page for current regimens.

43 regimens on this page
46 variants on this page

Contents


Neoadjuvant therapy

CVAP

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CVAP: Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Prednisolone
VACP: Vincristine, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Prednisolone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Smith et al. 2002 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Thomas E et al. 2004 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Smith IC, Heys SD, Hutcheon AW, Miller ID, Payne S, Gilbert FJ, Ah-See AK, Eremin O, Walker LG, Sarkar TK, Eggleton SP, Ogston KN. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: significantly enhanced response with docetaxel. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Mar 15;20(6):1456-66. link to original article PubMed
  2. Thomas E, Holmes FA, Smith TL, Buzdar AU, Frye DK, Fraschini G, Singletary SE, Theriault RL, McNeese MD, Ames F, Walters R, Hortobagyi GN. The use of alternate, non-cross-resistant adjuvant chemotherapy on the basis of pathologic response to a neoadjuvant doxorubicin-based regimen in women with operable breast cancer: long-term results from a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 15;22(12):2294-302. link to original article PubMed

Epirubicin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Bottini et al. 2005 Phase III (C) Epirubicin & Tamoxifen Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Bottini A, Berruti A, Brizzi MP, Bersiga A, Generali D, Allevi G, Aguggini S, Bolsi G, Bonardi S, Tondelli B, Vana F, Tampellini M, Alquati P, Dogliotti L. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of the single agent epirubicin versus epirubicin plus tamoxifen as primary chemotherapy in human breast cancer: a single-institution phase III trial. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005 Jun;12(2):383-92. link to original article PubMed

Adjuvant therapy

ACT

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ACT: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Tamoxifen

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1990 (NSABP B-16) Phase III (E) 1. PFT Not reported
2. Tamoxifen Seems to have superior OS
Shien et al. 2014 (JCOG9401) Phase III (E) Tamoxifen Seems to have superior RFS
Shien et al. 2014 (JCOG9404) Phase III (E) TUFT Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. NSABP B-16: Fisher B, Redmond C, Legault-Poisson S, Dimitrov NV, Brown AM, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Margolese RG, Bowman D, Glass AG, Kardinal CG, Robidoux A, Jochimsen P, Cronin W, Deutsch M, Fisher ER, Myers DB, Hoehn JL. Postoperative chemotherapy and tamoxifen compared with tamoxifen alone in the treatment of positive-node breast cancer patients aged 50 years and older with tumors responsive to tamoxifen: results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-16. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Jun;8(6):1005-18. link to original article PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Taghian A, Jeong JH, Mamounas E, Anderson S, Bryant J, Deutsch M, Wolmark N. Patterns of locoregional failure in patients with operable breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen and without radiotherapy: results from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Nov 1;22(21):4247-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed
  2. JCOG9401: Shien T, Iwata H, Aogi K, Fukutomi T, Inoue K, Kinoshita T, Takahashi M, Matsui A, Shibata T, Fukuda H. Tamoxifen versus tamoxifen plus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as adjuvant therapy for node-positive postmenopausal breast cancer: results of a Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG9401). Int J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec;19(6):982-8. Epub 2014 Jan 7. link to original article PubMed
  3. JCOG9404: Shien T, Iwata H, Fukutomi T, Inoue K, Aogi K, Kinoshita T, Ando J, Takashima S, Nakamura K, Shibata T, Fukuda H. Tamoxifen plus tegafur-uracil (TUFT) versus tamoxifen plus Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and cyclophosphamide (ACT) as adjuvant therapy to treat node-positive premenopausal breast cancer (PreMBC): results of Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study 9404. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014 Sep;74(3):603-9. Epub 2014 Jul 24. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

CAMFP

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CAMFP: Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Recht et al. 1996 Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this was a trial examining sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy; see text for efficacy details.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Recht A, Come SE, Henderson IC, Gelman RS, Silver B, Hayes DF, Shulman LN, Harris JR. The sequencing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy after conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 23;334(21):1356-61. link to original article PubMed

CEF/CMF

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CEF/CMF: Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin, Fluorouracil alternating with Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Bedognetti et al. 2011 Phase III (C) CEFT/CMFT Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy, CEF portion

Chemotherapy, CMF portion

References

  1. Bedognetti D, Sertoli MR, Pronzato P, Del Mastro L, Venturini M, Taveggia P, Zanardi E, Siffredi G, Pastorino S, Queirolo P, Gardin G, Wang E, Monzeglio C, Boccardo F, Bruzzi P. Concurrent vs sequential adjuvant chemotherapy and hormone therapy in breast cancer: a multicenter randomized phase III trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Oct 19;103(20):1529-39. Epub 2011 Sep 15. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

CFP

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CFP: Cyclophosphamide, Fluorouracil, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Ahmann et al. 1978 Phase III (E) Melphalan Seems to have superior OS
Caprini et al. 1980 Phase III (E) 1. Melphalan Seems to have superior DFS
2. CFP & BCG Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Ahmann DL, Scanlon PW, Bisel HF, Edmonson JH, Frytak S, Payne WS, O'Fallon JR, Hahn RG, Ingle JN, O'Connell MJ, Rubin J. Repeated adjuvant chemotherapy with phenylalanine mustard or 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone with or without radiation, after mastectomy for breast cancer. Lancet. 1978 Apr 29;1(8070):893-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. Caprini JA, Oviedo MA, Cunningham MP, Cohen E, Trueheart RS, Khandekar JD, Scanlon EF. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and III breast carcinoma. JAMA. 1980 Jul 18;244(3):243-6. link to original article PubMed

CFP & Oophorectomy

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CFP & Oophorectomy: Cyclophosphamide, Fluorouracil, Prednisone & Bilateral Oophorectomy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Ahmann et al. 1977 Phase III (E) Oophorectomy Seems to have superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. Ahmann DL, O'Connell MJ, Hahn RG, Bisel HF, Lee RA, Edmonson JH. An evaluation of early or delayed adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer undergoing oophorectomy. N Engl J Med. 1977 Aug 18;297(7):356-60. link to original article PubMed

CMFL

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CMFL: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin (Folinic acid)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Goldhirsch et al. 1989 (LCBS V) Phase III (E) No further treatment Seems to have superior DFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

8-day course

References

  1. LCBS V: Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Prolonged disease-free survival after one course of perioperative adjuvant chemotherapy for node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):491-6. link to original article PubMed

CMFP

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CMFP: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Goldhirsch et al. 1988 (IBCSG V) Phase III (C) CMFL x 1 Seems to have superior OS
Mansour et al. 1989 (INT-0011) Phase III (E) No further treatment Superior DFS
Tormey et al. 1990 (ECOG E5177) Phase III (E) 1. CMF
2. CMFPT
Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 to 12 cycles

References

  1. IBCSG V: Goldhirsch A; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Combination adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: inadequacy of a single perioperative cycle. N Engl J Med. 1988 Sep 15;319(11):677-83. link to original article PubMed
  2. ECOG E1180: Mansour EG, Gray R, Shatila AH, Osborne CK, Tormey DC, Gilchrist KW, Cooper MR, Falkson G. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk node-negative breast cancer: an intergroup study. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):485-90. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Mansour EG, Eudey L, Tormey DC, Shatila AH, Osborne CK, Gilchrist KW, Cooper MR, Falkson G. Chemotherapy versus observation in high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1992;(11):97-104. PubMed
  3. ECOG E5177: Tormey DC, Gray R, Gilchrist K, Grage T, Carbone PP, Wolter J, Woll JE, Cummings FJ. Adjuvant chemohormonal therapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and prednisone (CMFP) or CMFP plus tamoxifen compared with CMF for premenopausal breast cancer patients: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial. Cancer. 1990 Jan 15;65(2):200-6. link to original article PubMed

CMFPT

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CMFPT: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Prednisone, Tamoxifen

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS III) Phase III (E) 1. Observation Superior DFS
2. PT Seems to have superior DFS
Goldhirsch et al. 1988 (IBCSG V) Phase III (C) CMFL x 1 Seems to have superior OS
Tormey et al. 1990 (ECOG E5177) Phase III (E) 1. CMF
2. CMFP
Seems not superior
Falkson et al. 1990 Phase III (C) CMFPT x 4 Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Hormonotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 to 12 cycles

References

  1. LBCS III/IV: Goldhirsch A; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Randomised trial of chemo-endocrine therapy, endocrine therapy, and mastectomy alone in postmenopausal patients with operable breast cancer and axillary node metastasis. Lancet. 1984 Jun 9;1(8389):1256-60. link to original article PubMed
  2. IBCSG V: Goldhirsch A; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Combination adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: inadequacy of a single perioperative cycle. N Engl J Med. 1988 Sep 15;319(11):677-83. link to original article PubMed
  3. ECOG E5177: Tormey DC, Gray R, Gilchrist K, Grage T, Carbone PP, Wolter J, Woll JE, Cummings FJ. Adjuvant chemohormonal therapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and prednisone (CMFP) or CMFP plus tamoxifen compared with CMF for premenopausal breast cancer patients: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial. Cancer. 1990 Jan 15;65(2):200-6. link to original article PubMed
  4. Falkson HC, Gray R, Wolberg WH, Gillchrist KW, Harris JE, Tormey DC, Falkson G. Adjuvant trial of 12 cycles of CMFPT followed by observation or continuous tamoxifen versus four cycles of CMFPT in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Apr;8(4):599-607. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol 1990 Sep;8(9):1603. link to original article PubMed

CMFVP

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CMFVP: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Vincristine, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Hoogstraten et al. 1976 Phase III (E) Doxorubicin Seems to have superior ORR
Carmo-Pereira et al. 1980 Phase III (E) 5-FU Superior OS
Glucksberg et al. 1982 (SWOG S7436) Phase III (E) Melphalan Superior OS
Tormey et al. 1983a Phase III (E) CMF Superior DFS
CMF-MER Not reported
Rivkin et al. 1993 (SWOG S7827ER-) Phase III (C) CMFVP x 2 y Seems not superior
Budd et al. 1995 (SWOG S8313) Phase III (C) FAC-M Seems not superior
Rivkin et al. 1996 (SWOG S7821) Phase III (C) CMFVP & Oophorectomy Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Hoogstraten B, George SL, Samal B, Rivkin SE, Costanzi JJ, Bonnet JD, Thigpen T, Braine H. Combination chemotherapy and adriamycin in patients with advanced breast cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer. 1976 Jul;38(1):13-20. link to original article PubMed
  2. Carmo-Pereira J, Costa FO, Henriques E. Single-drug vs combination cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer: a randomized study. Eur J Cancer. 1980 Dec;16(12):1621-5. link to SD article PubMed
  3. SWOG S7436: Glucksberg H, Rivkin SE, Rasmussen S, Tranum B, Gad-el-Mawla N, Costanzi J, Hoogstraten B, Athens J, Maloney T, McCracken J, Vaughn C. Combination chemotherapy (CMFVP) versus L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) for operable breast cancer with positive axillary nodes: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Cancer. 1982 Aug 1;50(3):423-34. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Rivkin SE, Green SJ, Lew D, Costanzi JJ, Athens JW, Osborne CK, Vaughn CB, Martino S. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, and prednisone compared with single-agent L-phenylalanine mustard for patients with operable breast carcinoma and positive axillary lymph nodes: 20-year results of a Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer. 2003 Jan 1;97(1):21-9. link to original article PubMed
  4. Tormey DC, Weinberg VE, Holland JF, Weiss RB, Glidewell OJ, Perloff M, Falkson G, Falkson HC, Henry PH, Leone LA, Rafla S, Ginsberg SJ, Silver RT, Blom J, Carey RW, Schein PS, Lesnick GJ. A randomized trial of five and three drug chemotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy in women with operable node positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1983 Feb;1(2):138-45. link to original article PubMed
  5. SWOG S7827: Rivkin SE, Green S, Metch B, Jewell WR, Costanzi JJ, Altman SJ, Minton JP, O'Bryan RM, Osborne CK. One versus 2 years of CMFVP adjuvant chemotherapy in axillary node-positive and estrogen receptor-negative patients: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Sep;11(9):1710-6. link to original article PubMed
  6. SWOG S8313: Budd GT, Green S, O'Bryan RM, Martino S, Abeloff MD, Rinehart JJ, Hahn R, Harris J, Tormey D, O'Sullivan J, Osborne CK. Short-course FAC-M versus 1 year of CMFVP in node-positive, hormone receptor-negative breast cancer: an intergroup study. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Apr;13(4):831-9. link to original article PubMed
  7. SWOG S7821: Rivkin SE, Green S, O'Sullivan J, Cruz AB, Abeloff MD, Jewell WR, Costanzi JJ, Farrar WB, Osborne CK. Adjuvant CMFVP versus adjuvant CMFVP plus ovariectomy for premenopausal, node-positive, and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jan;14(1):46-51. link to original article PubMed

CPB

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CPB: Cyclophosphamide, Platinol (Cisplatin), BCNU (Carmustine)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Peters et al. 2005 (CALGB 9082) Phase III (E) HD-CPB with auto HSCT Seems not superior

Note: this trial is of important historic significance. Although neither arm was standard of care, the results established the non-value of high-dose therapy with autologous HSCT in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. CALGB 9082: Peters WP, Rosner GL, Vredenburgh JJ, Shpall EJ, Crump M, Richardson PG, Schuster MW, Marks LB, Cirrincione C, Norton L, Henderson IC, Schilsky RL, Hurd DD. Prospective, randomized comparison of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell support versus intermediate-dose chemotherapy after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy in women with high-risk primary breast cancer: a report of CALGB 9082, SWOG 9114, and NCIC MA-13. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2191-200. Epub 2005 Mar 14. link to original article PubMed

CTCb, then auto HSCT

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CTCb: Cyclophosphamide, Thiotepa, Carboplatin
STAMP-V

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Eder et al. 1990 Phase I/II
Rodenhuis et al. 1998 Randomized Phase II (E) Standard adjuvant therapy Seems not superior
Bergh et al. 2000 (SBG 9401) Phase III (C) See link See link
Rodenhuis et al. 2003 Phase III (E) FEC x 5 Might have superior RFS

No longer used, but of historical interest.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

References

  1. Eder JP, Elias A, Shea TC, Schryber SM, Teicher BA, Hunt M, Burke J, Siegel R, Schnipper LE, Frei E 3rd, Antman K. A phase I-II study of cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin with autologous bone marrow transplantation in solid tumor patients. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Jul;8(7):1239-45. link to original article PubMed
  2. Rodenhuis S, Richel DJ, van der Wall E, Schornagel JH, Baars JW, Koning CC, Peterse JL, Borger JH, Nooijen WJ, Bakx R, Dalesio O, Rutgers E. Randomised trial of high-dose chemotherapy and haemopoietic progenitor-cell support in operable breast cancer with extensive axillary lymph-node involvement. Lancet. 1998 Aug 15;352(9127):515-21. link to original article PubMed
  3. SBG 9401: Bergh J, Wiklund T, Erikstein B, Lidbrink E, Lindman H, Malmström P, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P, Bengtsson NO, Söderlund G, Anker G, Wist E, Ottosson S, Salminen E, Ljungman P, Holte H, Nilsson J, Blomqvist C, Wilking N; Scandinavian Breast Group 9401 study. Tailored fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide compared with marrow-supported high-dose chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment for high-risk breast cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000 Oct 21;356(9239):1384-91. Erratum in: Lancet 2000 Dec 23-30;356(9248):2196. link to SD article PubMed
  4. Rodenhuis S, Bontenbal M, Beex LV, Wagstaff J, Richel DJ, Nooij MA, Voest EE, Hupperets P, van Tinteren H, Peterse HL, TenVergert EM, de Vries EG; Netherlands Working Party on Autologous Transplantation in Solid Tumors. High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue for high-risk breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 3;349(1):7-16. link to original article PubMed

Cyclophosphamide monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Rubens et al. 1975 Phase III (C) CMFV Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Rubens RD, Knight RK, Hayward JL. Chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer: a controlled randomized trial of cyclophosphamide versus a four-drug combination. Br J Cancer. 1975 Dec;32(6):730-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. DBCG 77B: Brincker H, Mouridsen HT, Andersen KW. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or CMF in premenopausal women with stage II breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1983;3(1):91-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Andersen J, Andersson M, Kamby C, Knoop AS; Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil; oral cyclophosphamide; levamisole; or no adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk, premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer. 2010 May 1;116(9):2081-9. link to original article PubMed

ECT, then auto HSCT

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ECT: Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Thiotepa

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Nitz et al. 2005 (WSG AM-01) Phase III (E) ddEC x 4, then ddCMF x 3 Seems to have superior OS

No longer used, but of historical interest.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. WSG AM-01: Nitz UA, Mohrmann S, Fischer J, Lindemann W, Berdel WE, Jackisch C, Werner C, Ziske C, Kirchner H, Metzner B, Souchon R, Ruffert U, Schütt G, Pollmanns A, Schmoll HJ, Middecke C, Baltzer J, Schrader I, Wiebringhaus H, Ko Y, Rösel S, Schwenzer T, Wernet P, Hinke A, Bender HG, Frick M; West German Study Group. Comparison of rapidly cycled tandem high-dose chemotherapy plus peripheral-blood stem-cell support versus dose-dense conventional chemotherapy for adjuvant treatment of high-risk breast cancer: results of a multicentre phase III trial. Lancet. 2005 Dec 3;366(9501):1935-44. Erratum in: Lancet. 2006 Mar 4;367(9512):730. link to original article PubMed

FAC & BCG

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FAC & BCG: Fluorouracil, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, BCG

Regimen

Study Evidence
Buzdar et al. 1979 Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Buzdar AU, Blumenschein GR, Gutterman JU, Tashima CK, Hortobagyi GN, Smith TL, Campos LT, Wheeler WL, Hersh EM, Freireich EJ, Gehan EA. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and BCG vaccine: a follow-up report. JAMA. 1979 Oct 5;242(14):1509-13. link to original article PubMed

FNC

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FNC: Fluorouracil, Novantrone (Mitoxantrone), Cyclophosphamide
CNF: Cyclophosphamide, Novantrone (Mitoxantrone), Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Ron et al. 2001 Phase III (E) CMF Seems to have superior DFS
Fountzilas et al. 2004 (HE 10/92) Phase III (C) Tamoxifen Seems not superior
Toledano et al. 2007 (ARCOSEIN) Phase III (C) FNC & RT Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • ARCOSEIN: RT

References

  1. Ron IG, Wigler N, Borovik R, Brufman G, Rizel S, Shani A, Brenner J, Farbstein H, Dale A, Inbar MJ, Brenner HJ, Chaitchik S, Catane R. CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) versus CNF (cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, 5-fluorouracil) as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II lymph-node positive breast cancer: a phase III randomized multicenter study. Am J Clin Oncol. 2001 Aug;24(4):323-7. link to original article PubMed
  2. HE 10/92: Fountzilas G, Stathopoulos G, Kouvatseas G, Polychronis A, Klouvas G, Samantas E, Zamboglou N, Kyriakou K, Adamou A, Pectasidis D, Ekonomopoulos T, Kalofonos HP, Bafaloukos D, Georgoulias V, Razis E, Koukouras D, Zombolas V, Kosmidis P, Skarlos D, Pavlidis N; Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in pre- and postmenopausal patients with breast cancer and one to nine infiltrated nodes: five-year results of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group randomized HE 10/92 study. Am J Clin Oncol. 2004 Feb;27(1):57-67. link to original article PubMed
  3. ARCOSEIN: Toledano A, Azria D, Garaud P, Fourquet A, Serin D, Bosset JF, Miny-Buffet J, Favre A, Le Floch O, Calais G. Phase III trial of concurrent or sequential adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer: final results of the ARCOSEIN trial. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Feb 1;25(4):405-10. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jun 1;25(16):2334. link to original article PubMed

Levamisole monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Rojas et al. 1976 Randomized (E) Observation Seems to have superior OS
Brincker et al. 1980 Randomized (E) RT Seems to have inferior RFS

Note: Rojas et al. 1976 included patients with inoperable breast cancer; definitive therapy was RT.

Preceding treatment

  • Rojas et al. 1976: Radiotherapy
  • Brincker et al. 1980: Surgery

Immunotherapy

References

  1. Rojas AF, Feierstein JN, Mickiewicz E, Glait H, Olivari AJ. Levamisole in advanced human breast cancer. Lancet. 1976 Jan 31;1(7953):211-5. link to original article PubMed
  2. Brincker H, Mouridsen HT, Andersen KW, Andersen J, Castberg T, Fischermann K, Henriksen E, Hou-Jensen C, Johansen H, Rossing N, Rorth M; Executive Committee of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Increased breast-cancer recurrence rate after adjuvant therapy with levamisole: a preliminary report. Lancet. 1980 Oct 18;2(8199):824-7. link to original article PubMed

Melphalan monotherapy

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P: Phenylalanine mustard (Melphalan)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1975 (NSABP B-05) Phase III (E) Placebo Might have superior DFS (*)
Fisher et al. 1977 (NSABP B-07) Phase III (C) PF Seems to have inferior RFS
Rubens et al. 1983 Phase III (E) Observation Might have superior RFS

Note: Fisher et al. 1977 is an update for NSABP B-05 and also the primary results for NSABP B-07. Efficacy for NSABP B-05 is based on the 1986 update.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. NSABP B-05: Fisher B, Carbone P, Economou SG, Frelick R, Glass A, Lerner H, Redmond C, Zelen M, Band P, Katrych DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER. 1-Phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: a report of early findings. N Engl J Med. 1975 Jan 16;292(3):117-22. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Glass A, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Barton B, Such E, Carbone P, Economou S, Foster R, Frelick R, Lerner H, Levitt M, Margolese R, MacFarlane J, Plotkin D, Shibata H, Volk H. L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: an update of earlier findings and a comparison with those utilizing L-PAM plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2883-903. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Fisher ER, Redmond C. Ten-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) clinical trial evaluating the use of L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Jun;4(6):929-41. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-07: Fisher B, Glass A, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Barton B, Such E, Carbone P, Economou S, Foster R, Frelick R, Lerner H, Levitt M, Margolese R, MacFarlane J, Plotkin D, Shibata H, Volk H. L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: an update of earlier findings and a comparison with those utilizing L-PAM plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2883-903. link to original article PubMed
  3. Rubens RD, Hayward JL, Knight RK, Bulbrook RD, Fentiman IS, Chaudary M, Howell A, Bush H, Crowther D, Sellwood RA, George WD, Howat JM. Controlled trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with melphalan for breast cancer. Lancet. 1983 Apr 16;1(8329):839-43. link to original article PubMed

MF

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MF: Methotrexate & 5-Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-13) Phase III (E) Observation Superior DFS (*)
Shapiro et al. 1993 Phase III (C) CMF Seems not superior
Fisher et al. 1996 (NSABP B-19) Phase III (C) CMF Might have inferior OS

Note: Reported efficacy for NSABP B-13 is based on the 1996 update.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. NSABP B-13: Fisher B, Redmond C, Dimitrov NV, Bowman D, Legault-Poisson S, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER, Margolese R, Sutherland C, Glass A, Foster R, Caplan R. A randomized clinical trial evaluating sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-negative tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):473-8. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Mamounas EP, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond C, Wolmark N, Dimitrov NV, Bowman DM, Glass AG, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Sutherland CM, Aron BS, Margolese RG. Sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil for the treatment of node-negative breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors: eight-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-13 and first report of findings from NSABP B-19 comparing methotrexate and fluorouracil with conventional cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jul;14(7):1982-92. link to original article PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  2. Shapiro CL, Gelman RS, Hayes DF, Osteen R, Obando A, Canellos GP, Frei E 3rd, Henderson IC. Comparison of adjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate and fluorouracil with and without cyclophosphamide in breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 May 19;85(10):812-7. link to original article PubMed
  3. NSABP B-19: Fisher B, Dignam J, Mamounas EP, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond C, Wolmark N, Dimitrov NV, Bowman DM, Glass AG, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Sutherland CM, Aron BS, Margolese RG. Sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil for the treatment of node-negative breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors: eight-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-13 and first report of findings from NSABP B-19 comparing methotrexate and fluorouracil with conventional cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jul;14(7):1982-92. link to original article PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed

MV

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MV: Methotrexate & Vinblastine

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Assikis et al. 2003 Phase III (E) See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21- to 28-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Assikis V, Buzdar A, Yang Y, Smith T, Theriault R, Booser D, Valero V, Walters R, Singletary E, Ames F, Hortobagyi G. A phase III trial of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast carcinoma: final analysis with 10-year follow-up. Cancer. 2003 Jun 1;97(11):2716-23. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Observation

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Bonadonna et al. 1976 Phase III (C) CMF Inferior RFS
Lacour et al. 1980 Phase III (C) Polya.Polyu Might have inferior OS
Brinker et al. 1983 (DBCG 77B) Phase III (C) 1. CMF Seems to have inferior OS (*)
2. Cyclophosphamide Seems to have inferior OS (*)
3. Levamisole Seems not superior
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS III) Phase III (C) 1. CMFPT Inferior DFS
2. PT Inferior DFS
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS IV) Phase III (C) PT Seems to have inferior DFS
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-13) Phase III (C) Sequential MF Inferior DFS (*)
Mansour et al. 1989 (INT-0011) Phase III (C) CMFP Inferior DFS
Paradiso et al. 2001 Phase III (C) FEC Seems to have inferior DFS
Henderson et al. 2003 (INT 0148/CALGB 9344) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel q3wk Inferior OS
Mamounas et al. 2005 (NSABP B-28) Phase III (C) Paclitaxel q3wk Inferior DFS

No further systemic treatment; many of these trials incorporated RT, however (see individual papers for details). Reported efficacy for DBCG 77B is based on the 2010 update. Reported efficacy for NSABP B-13 is based on the 1996 update.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. Bonadonna G, Brusamolino E, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Brugnatelli L, Brambilla C, De Lena M, Tancini G, Bajetta E, Musumeci R, Veronesi U. Combination chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in operable breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 19;294(8):405-10. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Bonadonna G, Rossi A, Valagussa P, Banfi A, Veronesi U. The CMF program for operable breast cancer with positive axillary nodes: updated analysis on the disease-free interval, site of relapse and drug tolerance. Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2904-15. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Tancini G, Brambilla C, Zambetti M, Veronesi U. Ten-year experience with CMF-based adjuvant chemotherapy in resectable breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1985;5(2):95-115. PubMed
    3. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, Zambetti M, Brambilla C. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer: the results of 20 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med. 1995 Apr 6;332(14):901-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. Lacour J, Lacour F, Spira A, Michelson M, Petit JY, Delage G, Sarrazin D, Contesso G, Viguier J. Adjuvant treatment with polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid (Polya-Polyu) in operable breast cancer. Lancet. 1980 Jul 26;2(8187):161-4. link to original article PubMed
  3. DBCG 77B: Brincker H, Mouridsen HT, Andersen KW. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or CMF in premenopausal women with stage II breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1983;3(1):91-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Andersen J, Andersson M, Kamby C, Knoop AS; Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil; oral cyclophosphamide; levamisole; or no adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk, premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer. 2010 May 1;116(9):2081-9. link to original article PubMed
  4. LBCS III/IV: Goldhirsch A; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Randomised trial of chemo-endocrine therapy, endocrine therapy, and mastectomy alone in postmenopausal patients with operable breast cancer and axillary node metastasis. Lancet. 1984 Jun 9;1(8389):1256-60. link to original article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-13: Fisher B, Redmond C, Dimitrov NV, Bowman D, Legault-Poisson S, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER, Margolese R, Sutherland C, Glass A, Foster R, Caplan R. A randomized clinical trial evaluating sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-negative tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):473-8. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Mamounas EP, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond C, Wolmark N, Dimitrov NV, Bowman DM, Glass AG, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Sutherland CM, Aron BS, Margolese RG. Sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil for the treatment of node-negative breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors: eight-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-13 and first report of findings from NSABP B-19 comparing methotrexate and fluorouracil with conventional cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jul;14(7):1982-92. link to original article PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  6. INT-0011: Mansour EG, Gray R, Shatila AH, Osborne CK, Tormey DC, Gilchrist KW, Cooper MR, Falkson G. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk node-negative breast cancer: an intergroup study. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):485-90. link to original article PubMed
  7. LCBS V: Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Prolonged disease-free survival after one course of perioperative adjuvant chemotherapy for node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):491-6. link to original article PubMed
  8. Paradiso A, Schittulli F, Cellamare G, Mangia A, Marzullo F, Lorusso V, De Lena M. Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for patients with fast-proliferating, node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Oct 1;19(19):3929-37. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. INT 0148/CALGB 9344: Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, Cirrincione CT, Goldstein LJ, Martino S, Ingle JN, Cooper MR, Hayes DF, Tkaczuk KH, Fleming G, Holland JF, Duggan DB, Carpenter JT, Frei E 3rd, Schilsky RL, Wood WC, Muss HB, Norton L. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):976-83. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. NSABP B-28: Mamounas EP, Bryant J, Lembersky B, Fehrenbacher L, Sedlacek SM, Fisher B, Wickerham DL, Yothers G, Soran A, Wolmark N. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3686-96. Epub 2005 May 16. link to original article PubMed

Oophorectomy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Ahmann et al. 1977 Phase III (C) CFP & Oophorectomy Seems to have inferior PFS

Preceding treatment

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. Ahmann DL, O'Connell MJ, Hahn RG, Bisel HF, Lee RA, Edmonson JH. An evaluation of early or delayed adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer undergoing oophorectomy. N Engl J Med. 1977 Aug 18;297(7):356-60. link to original article PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy, q3wk

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T: Taxol (Paclitaxel)
P: Paclitaxel
pT: pacliTaxel

Variant #1, 175 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Henderson et al. 2003 (INT 0148/CALGB 9344) Phase III (E) Observation Superior OS
Citron et al. 2003 (CALGB 9741) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Romond et al. 2005 (NSABP B-31) Phase III (C) TH Inferior OS
Sparano et al. 2008 (ECOG E1199) Phase III (C) 1. Weekly Paclitaxel Inferior OS
2. Docetaxel q3wk Seems to have inferior DFS
3. Docetaxel weekly Seems not superior
Burnell et al. 2009 (NCIC CTG MA.21) Phase III (C) See link See link
Del Mastro et al. 2015 (GIM2) Phase III (C) See link See link
Earl et al. 2017 (tAnGo) Phase III (C) TG Seems not superior

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Patients in NSABP B-31 were HER2-positive.

Preceding treatment

  • INT 0148/CALGB 9344: Surgery, then AC x 4 versus high-dose AC x 4 versus very-high-dose AC x 4
  • CALGB 9741, NSABP B-31, and ECOG E1199: Surgery, then AC x 4
  • NCIC CTG MA.21: Surgery, then AC x 4 versus ddEC x 6
  • GIM2: Surgery, then EC x 4 versus FEC x 4
  • tAnGo: Surgery, then EC x 4

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Variant #2, 225 mg/m2 q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Mamounas et al. 2005 (NSABP B-28) Phase III (E) Observation Superior PFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. INT 0148/CALGB 9344: Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, Cirrincione CT, Goldstein LJ, Martino S, Ingle JN, Cooper MR, Hayes DF, Tkaczuk KH, Fleming G, Holland JF, Duggan DB, Carpenter JT, Frei E 3rd, Schilsky RL, Wood WC, Muss HB, Norton L. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):976-83. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. CALGB 9741: Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, Davidson NE, Martino S, Livingston R, Ingle JN, Perez EA, Carpenter J, Hurd D, Holland JF, Smith BL, Sartor CI, Leung EH, Abrams J, Schilsky RL, Muss HB, Norton L. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1431-9. Epub 2003 Feb 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. NSABP B-28: Mamounas EP, Bryant J, Lembersky B, Fehrenbacher L, Sedlacek SM, Fisher B, Wickerham DL, Yothers G, Soran A, Wolmark N. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3686-96. Epub 2005 May 16. link to original article PubMed
  4. NSABP B-31/NCCTG N9831: Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE Jr, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, Fehrenbacher L, Kutteh LA, Vogel VG, Visscher DW, Yothers G, Jenkins RB, Brown AM, Dakhil SR, Mamounas EP, Lingle WL, Klein PM, Ingle JN, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1673-84. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Davidson NE, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Mamounas EP, Kaufman PA, Wolmark N. Four-year follow-up of trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: joint analysis of data from NCCTG N9831 and NSABP B-31. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Sep 1;29(25):3366-73. Epub 2011 Jul 18. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Gralow JR, Kaufman PA, Visscher DW, Chen B, Ingle JN, Dakhil SR, Zujewski J, Moreno-Aspitia A, Pisansky TM, Jenkins RB. Sequential versus concurrent trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4491-7. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    3. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Sledge G, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Rastogi P, Gralow J, Swain SM, Winer EP, Colon-Otero G, Davidson NE, Mamounas E, Zujewski JA, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: planned joint analysis of overall survival from NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 20;32(33):3744-52. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    4. Update and HRQoL analysis: Ganz PA, Romond EH, Cecchini RS, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Swain SM, Jeong JH, Fehrenbacher L, Gross HM, Brufsky AM, Flynn PJ, Wahl TA, Seay TE, Wade JL 3rd, Biggs DD, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Zapas JL, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Long-term follow-up of cardiac function and quality of life for patients in NSABP protocol B-31/NRG Oncology: a randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by paclitaxel with AC followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with node-positive breast cancer with tumors overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Dec 10;35(35):3942-3948. Epub 2017 Oct 26. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  5. ECOG E1199: Sparano JA, Wang M, Martino S, Jones V, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Weekly paclitaxel in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 17;358(16):1663-71. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Sparano JA, Zhao F, Martino S, Ligibel JA, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Long-term follow-up of the E1199 phase III trial evaluating the role of taxane and schedule in operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2353-60. Epub 2015 Jun 15. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  6. NCIC CTG MA.21: Burnell M, Levine MN, Chapman JA, Bramwell V, Gelmon K, Walley B, Vandenberg T, Chalchal H, Albain KS, Perez EA, Rugo H, Pritchard K, O'Brien P, Shepherd LE. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil versus dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 1;28(1):77-82. Epub 2009 Nov 9. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. GIM2: Del Mastro L, De Placido S, Bruzzi P, De Laurentiis M, Boni C, Cavazzini G, Durando A, Turletti A, Nisticò C, Valle E, Garrone O, Puglisi F, Montemurro F, Barni S, Ardizzoni A, Gamucci T, Colantuoni G, Giuliano M, Gravina A, Papaldo P, Bighin C, Bisagni G, Forestieri V, Cognetti F; Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015 May 9;385(9980):1863-72. Epub 2015 Mar 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. tAnGo: Earl HM, Hiller L, Howard HC, Dunn JA, Young J, Bowden SJ, McDermaid M, Waterhouse AK, Wilson G, Agrawal R, O'Reilly S, Bowman A, Ritchie DM, Goodman A, Hickish T, McAdam K, Cameron D, Dodwell D, Rea DW, Caldas C, Provenzano E, Abraham JE, Canney P, Crown JP, Kennedy MJ, Coleman R, Leonard RC, Carmichael JA, Wardley AM, Poole CJ; tAnGo trial collaborators. Addition of gemcitabine to paclitaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early-stage breast cancer (tAnGo): final 10-year follow-up of an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jun;18(6):755-769. Epub 2017 May 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

PAF

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PAF: Phenylalanine mustard (Melphalan), Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-11) Phase III (E) PF Seems to have superior OS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. NSABP B-11: Fisher B, Redmond C, Wickerham DL, Bowman D, Schipper H, Wolmark N, Sass R, Fisher ER, Jochimsen P, Legault-Poisson S, Dimitrov N, Wolter J, Bornstein R, Elias EG, LiCalzi N, Paterson AHG, Sutherland CM. Doxorubicin-containing regimens for the treatment of stage II breast cancer: the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project experience. J Clin Oncol. 1989 May;7(5):572-82. link to original article PubMed

PF

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PF: Phenylalanine mustard (Melphalan) & Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1977 (NSABP B-07) Phase III (E) P Seems to have superior RFS
Fisher et al. 1980 (NSABP B-08) Phase III (C) PFM Seems not superior
Fisher et al. 1981 (NSABP B-09) Phase III (C) PFT Inferior RFS
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-11) Phase III (C) PAF Seems to have inferior OS
Fisher et al. 1990 (NSABP B-10) Phase III (C) PFCp Seems not superior

Note: Fisher et al. 1980 is more of a meta-analysis than a primary publication, but is to our knowledge the first manuscript to report the findings from NSABP B-08, which was a negative trial.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. NSABP B-07: Fisher B, Glass A, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Barton B, Such E, Carbone P, Economou S, Foster R, Frelick R, Lerner H, Levitt M, Margolese R, MacFarlane J, Plotkin D, Shibata H, Volk H. L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: an update of earlier findings and a comparison with those utilizing L-PAM plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2883-903. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-08: Fisher B, Redmond C, Fisher ER. The contribution of recent NSABP clinical trials of primary breast cancer therapy to an understanding of tumor biology--an overview of findings. Cancer. 1980 Aug 15;46(4 Suppl):1009-25. link to original article PubMed
  3. NSABP B-09: Fisher B, Redmond C, Brown A, Wolmark N, Wittliff J, Fisher ER, Plotkin D, Bowman D, Sachs S, Wolter J, Frelick R, Desser R, LiCalzi N, Geggie P, Campbell T, Elias EG, Prager D, Koontz P, Volk H, Dimitrov N, Gardner B, Lerner H, Shibata H. Treatment of primary breast cancer with chemotherapy and tamoxifen. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jul 2;305(1):1-6. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Redmond C, Brown A, Fisher ER, Wolmark N, Bowman D, Plotkin D, Wolter J, Bornstein R, Legault-Poisson S, Saffer EA. Adjuvant chemotherapy with and without tamoxifen in the treatment of primary breast cancer: 5-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Trial. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Apr;4(4):459-71. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Brown A, Wolmark N, Redmond C, Wickerham DL, Wittliff J, Dimitrov N, Legault-Poisson S, Schipper H, Prager D. Prolonging tamoxifen therapy for primary breast cancer: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 1987 May;106(5):649-54. link to original article PubMed
  4. NSABP B-11: Fisher B, Redmond C, Wickerham DL, Bowman D, Schipper H, Wolmark N, Sass R, Fisher ER, Jochimsen P, Legault-Poisson S, Dimitrov N, Wolter J, Bornstein R, Elias EG, LiCalzi N, Paterson AHG, Sutherland CM. Doxorubicin-containing regimens for the treatment of stage II breast cancer: the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project experience. J Clin Oncol. 1989 May;7(5):572-82. link to original article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-10: Fisher B, Brown A, Wolmark N, Fisher ER, Redmond C, Wickerham DL, Margolese R, Dimitrov N, Pilch Y, Glass A, Sutherland C, Foster R. Evaluation of the worth of corynebacterium parvum in conjunction with chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment for primary breast cancer: eight-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-10. Cancer. 1990 Jul 15;66(2):220-7. link to original article PubMed

PFT

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PFT: Phenylalanine mustard (Melphalan), 5-Fluorouracil, Tamoxifen

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1981 (NSABP B-09) Phase III (E) PF Superior RFS
Fisher et al. 1990 (NSABP B-16) Phase III (E) 1. ACT Not reported
2. Tamoxifen Seems to have superior DDFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. NSABP B-09: Fisher B, Redmond C, Brown A, Wolmark N, Wittliff J, Fisher ER, Plotkin D, Bowman D, Sachs S, Wolter J, Frelick R, Desser R, LiCalzi N, Geggie P, Campbell T, Elias EG, Prager D, Koontz P, Volk H, Dimitrov N, Gardner B, Lerner H, Shibata H. Treatment of primary breast cancer with chemotherapy and tamoxifen. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jul 2;305(1):1-6. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Redmond C, Brown A, Fisher ER, Wolmark N, Bowman D, Plotkin D, Wolter J, Bornstein R, Legault-Poisson S, Saffer EA. Adjuvant chemotherapy with and without tamoxifen in the treatment of primary breast cancer: 5-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Trial. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Apr;4(4):459-71. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Brown A, Wolmark N, Redmond C, Wickerham DL, Wittliff J, Dimitrov N, Legault-Poisson S, Schipper H, Prager D. Prolonging tamoxifen therapy for primary breast cancer: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 1987 May;106(5):649-54. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-16: Fisher B, Redmond C, Legault-Poisson S, Dimitrov NV, Brown AM, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Margolese RG, Bowman D, Glass AG, Kardinal CG, Robidoux A, Jochimsen P, Cronin W, Deutsch M, Fisher ER, Myers DB, Hoehn JL. Postoperative chemotherapy and tamoxifen compared with tamoxifen alone in the treatment of positive-node breast cancer patients aged 50 years and older with tumors responsive to tamoxifen: results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-16. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Jun;8(6):1005-18. link to original article PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Taghian A, Jeong JH, Mamounas E, Anderson S, Bryant J, Deutsch M, Wolmark N. Patterns of locoregional failure in patients with operable breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen and without radiotherapy: results from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Nov 1;22(21):4247-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1975 (NSABP B-05) Phase III (C) Melphalan Might have inferior DFS (*)

No active antineoplastic treatment after mastectomy. Used as a comparator arm, historically. Reported efficacy for NSABP B-05 is based on the 1986 update.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. NSABP B-05: Fisher B, Carbone P, Economou SG, Frelick R, Glass A, Lerner H, Redmond C, Zelen M, Band P, Katrych DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER. 1-Phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: a report of early findings. N Engl J Med. 1975 Jan 16;292(3):117-22. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Glass A, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Barton B, Such E, Carbone P, Economou S, Foster R, Frelick R, Lerner H, Levitt M, Margolese R, MacFarlane J, Plotkin D, Shibata H, Volk H. L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: an update of earlier findings and a comparison with those utilizing L-PAM plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2883-903. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Fisher ER, Redmond C. Ten-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) clinical trial evaluating the use of L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Jun;4(6):929-41. link to original article PubMed

PT

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PT: Prednisone & Tamoxifen

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS III) Phase III (E) 1. CMFPT Seems to have inferior DFS
2. Observation Superior DFS
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS IV) Phase III (E) Observation Seems to have superior DFS

Preceding treatment

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. LBCS III/IV: Goldhirsch A; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Randomised trial of chemo-endocrine therapy, endocrine therapy, and mastectomy alone in postmenopausal patients with operable breast cancer and axillary node metastasis. Lancet. 1984 Jun 9;1(8389):1256-60. link to original article PubMed

TMF

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TMF: Thiotepa, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence
Semiglazov et al. 1994 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Semiglazov VF, Topuzov EE, Bavli JL, Moiseyenko VM, Ivanova OA, Seleznev IK, Orlov AA, Barash NY, Golubeva OM, Chepic OF. Primary (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with primary radiotherapy alone in stage IIb-IIIa breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 1994 Sep;5(7):591-5. link to original article PubMed

Metastatic disease, all lines of therapy

Aminoglutethimide monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Smith et al. 1978 Non-randomized
Santen et al. 1981 Phase III (E) Adrenalectomy Seems not superior
Stuart-Harris et al. 1984 Phase II
Garcia-Giralt et al. 1992 Phase III (E) MPA Seems to have superior TTP
Robustelli della Cuna et al. 1993 Phase III (C) Higher-dose aminoglutethimide Seems not superior
Gale et al. 1994 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

References

  1. Smith IE, Fitzharris BM, McKinna JA, Fahmy DR, Nash AG, Neville AM, Gazet JC, Ford HT, Powles TJ. Aminoglutethimide in treatment of metastatic breast carcinoma. Lancet. 1978 Sep 23;2(8091):646-9. link to original article PubMed
  2. Santen RJ, Worgul TJ, Samojlik E, Interrante A, Boucher AE, Lipton A, Harvey HA, White DS, Smart E, Cox C, Wells SA. A randomized trial comparing surgical adrenalectomy with aminoglutethimide plus hydrocortisone in women with advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1981 Sep 3;305(10):545-51. link to original article PubMed
  3. Stuart-Harris R, Dowsett M, Bozek T, McKinna JA, Gazet JC, Jeffcoate SL, Kurkure A, Carr L, Smith IE. Low-dose aminoglutethimide in treatment of advanced breast cancer. Lancet. 1984 Sep 15;2(8403):604-7. link to original article PubMed
  4. Garcia-Giralt E, Ayme Y, Carton M, Daban A, Delozier T, Fargeot P, Fumoleau P, Gorins A, Guerin D, Guerin R, Maillart P, Mauriac L, May-Levin F, Metz R, Namer M, Olivier JP, Pommatau E, Pouillart P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Rouesse J, Serrou B, Vitse M, Zylberait D. Second and third line hormonotherapy in advanced post-menopausal breast cancer: a multicenter randomized trial comparing medroxyprogesterone acetate with aminoglutethimide in patients who have become resistant to tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1992;24(2):139-45. link to original article PubMed
  5. Robustelli della Cuna G, Pannuti F, Martoni A, Camaggi CM, Strocchi E, Da Prada GA, Tanneberger S; Italian Cooperative Group. Aminoglutethimide in advanced breast cancer: prospective, randomized comparison of two dose levels. Anticancer Res. 1993 Nov-Dec;13(6B):2367-71. PubMed
  6. Gale KE, Andersen JW, Tormey DC, Mansour EG, Davis TE, Horton J, Wolter JM, Smith TJ, Cummings FJ. Hormonal treatment for metastatic breast cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase III trial comparing aminoglutethimide to tamoxifen. Cancer. 1994 Jan 15;73(2):354-61. link to original article PubMed

CAMF

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CAMF: Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Methotrexate, Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Tranum et al. 1978 Randomized (E) 1. AF
2. FAC
Seems not superior
Lippman et al. 1984 Randomized (C) CAMFT Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Tranum B, Hoogstraten B, Kennedy A, Vaughn CB, Samal B, Thigpen T, Rivkin S, Smith F, Palmer RL, Costanzi J, Tucker WG, Wilson H, Maloney TR. Adriamycin in combination for the treatment of breast cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer. 1978 Jun;41(6):2078-83. link to original article PubMed
  2. Lippman ME, Cassidy J, Wesley M, Young RC. A randomized attempt to increase the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer by hormonal synchronization. J Clin Oncol. 1984 Jan;2(1):28-36. link to original article PubMed

CAF & MPA

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CAF & MPA: Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Fluorouracil, MedroxyProgesterone Acetate

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Tominaga et al. 1994 Phase III (E) CAF Seems to have superior ORR

Chemotherapy

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. Tominaga T, Abe O, Ohshima A, Hayasaka H, Uchino J, Abe R, Enomoto K, Izuo M, Watanabe H, Takatani O, Yoshida M, Sakai K, Koyama H, Hattori T, Senoo T, Monden Y, Nomura Y. Comparison of chemotherapy with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate for advanced or recurrent breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A(7):959-64. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

CFP

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CFP: Cyclophosphamide, Fluorouracil, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Creagan et al. 1984 Phase III (C) CAP, then CFP Seems not superior
Rosner et al. 1987 Phase III (C) 1. CA
2. CMFVP
Seems not superior
Marschke et al. 1989 Phase III (C) CMFP Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Creagan ET, Green SJ, Ahmann DL, Ingle JN, Edmonson JH, Marschke RF Jr. A phase III clinical trial comparing the combination cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, prednisone in patients with advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1984 Nov;2(11):1260-5. link to original article PubMed
  2. Rosner D, Nemoto T, Lane WW. A randomized study of intensive versus moderate chemotherapy programs in metastatic breast cancer. Cancer. 1987 Mar 1;59(5):874-83. link to original article PubMed
  3. Marschke RF Jr, Ingle JN, Schaid DJ, Krook JE, Mailliard JA, Cullinan SA, Pfeifle DM, Votava HJ, Ebbert LP, Windschitl HE. Randomized clinical trial of CFP versus CMFP in women with metastatic breast cancer. Cancer. 1989 May 15;63(10):1931-7. link to original article PubMed

Chlorambucil & Prednisolone

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Freckman et al. 1964 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Freckman HA, Fry HL, Mendez FL, Maurer ER. Chlorambucil-prednisolone therapy for disseminated breast carcinoma. JAMA. 1964 Jul 6;189:23-6. link to original article PubMed

CHUT, then auto HSCT

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Biron et al. 2007 (Pegase 03) Phase III (E) No further treatment Superior DFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Pegase 03: Biron P, Durand M, Roché H, Delozier T, Battista C, Fargeot P, Spaeth D, Bachelot T, Poiget E, Monnot F, Tanguy ML, Curé H. Pegase 03: a prospective randomized phase III trial of FEC with or without high-dose thiotepa, cyclophosphamide and autologous stem cell transplantation in first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008 Mar;41(6):555-62. Epub 2007 Nov 26. link to original article PubMed

CMFP

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CMFP: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Canellos et al. 1974 Non-randomized
Tormey et al. 1982 Phase III (E) 1. AV
2. CMF
Seems to have superior OS
Segaloff et al. 1985 Phase III (C) CMFVP Seems not superior
Cummings et al. 1985 Phase III (C) CAF Seems not superior
Marschke et al. 1989 Phase III (E) CFP Might have superior ORR
Bishop et al. 1999 Phase III (C) Paclitaxel Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Canellos GP, Devita VT, Gold GL, Chabner BA, Schein PS, Young RC. Cyclical combination chemotherapy for advanced breast carcinoma. Br Med J. 1974 Feb 9;1(5901):218-20. link to original article PubMed
  2. Tormey DC, Gelman R, Band PR, Sears M, Rosenthal SN, DeWys W, Perlia C, Rice MA. Comparison of induction chemotherapies for metastatic breast cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial. Cancer. 1982 Oct 1;50(7):1235-44. link to original article PubMed
  3. Segaloff A, Hankey BF, Carter AC, Escher GC, Ansfield FJ, Talley RW. An evaluation of the effect of vincristine added to cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, and prednisone in advanced breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1985;5(3):311-9. link to original article PubMed
  4. Cummings FJ, Gelman R, Horton J. Comparison of CAF versus CMFP in metastatic breast cancer: analysis of prognostic factors. J Clin Oncol. 1985 Jul;3(7):932-40. link to original article PubMed
  5. Marschke RF Jr, Ingle JN, Schaid DJ, Krook JE, Mailliard JA, Cullinan SA, Pfeifle DM, Votava HJ, Ebbert LP, Windschitl HE. Randomized clinical trial of CFP versus CMFP in women with metastatic breast cancer. Cancer. 1989 May 15;63(10):1931-7. link to original article PubMed
  6. Bishop JF, Dewar J, Toner GC, Smith J, Tattersall MH, Olver IN, Ackland S, Kennedy I, Goldstein D, Gurney H, Walpole E, Levi J, Stephenson J, Canetta R. Initial paclitaxel improves outcome compared with CMFP combination chemotherapy as front-line therapy in untreated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Aug;17(8):2355-64. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

CMFV

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CMFV: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Vinblastine
CVMF: Cyclophosphamide, Vinblastine, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Edelstyn et al. 1975 Randomized (E) 1-day CMFV Superior ORR
Bezwoda et al. 1979 Randomized (C) CAMF Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Edelstyn GA, Bates TD, Brinkley D, MacRae KD, Spittle MF, Wheeler T. Comparison of 5-day, 1-day, and 2-day cyclical combination chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer. Lancet. 1975 Aug 2;2(7927):209-11. link to SD article PubMed
  2. Bezwoda WR, de Moor NG, Derman D, Lange M, Saner R, Dando R. Combination chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer: a randomized trial comparing the use of adriamycin to that of Vinblastine. Cancer. 1979 Aug;44(2):392-7. link to original article PubMed

CMFVP

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CMFVP: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil, Vincristine, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Smalley et al. 1977 Phase III (C) CAF Might have inferior OS (*)
Muss et al. 1978 Phase III (C) CAFVP Might have inferior OS

Note: reported efficacy for Smalley et al. 1977 is based on the 1983 update.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Smalley RV, Carpenter J, Bartolucci A, Vogel C, Krauss S. A comparison of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil (CAF) and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, prednisone (CMFVP) in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a Southeastern Cancer Study Group project. Cancer. 1977 Aug;40(2):625-32. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Smalley RV, Lefante J, Bartolucci A, Carpenter J, Vogel C, Krauss S. A comparison of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, and prednisone (CMFVP) in patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1983;3(2):209-20. link to original article PubMed
  2. Muss HB, White DR, Richards F 2nd, Cooper MR, Stuart JJ, Jackson DV, Rhyne L, Spurr CL. Adriamycin versus methotrexate in five-drug combination chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer: a randomized trial. Cancer. 1978 Nov;42(5):2141-8. link to original article PubMed

DES monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Kennedy 1965 Randomized (E) Testosterone Not available
Carter et al. 1977 Phase III (E) Multiple DES dosings See paper
Ingle et al. 1981 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen Seems not superior
Kiang et al. 1981 Phase III (C) Cyclophosphamide, 5-FU, DES Seems to have inferior OS (*)

No longer used, but of historical interest. Reported efficacy for Kiang et al. 1981 is based on the 1985 update.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Kennedy BJ. Diethylstilbestrol versus testosterone propionate therapy in advanced breast cancer. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1965 Jun;120:1246-50. PubMed
  2. Carter AC, Sedransk N, Kelley RM, Ansfield FJ, Ravdin RG, Talley RW, Potter NR. Diethylstilbestrol: recommended dosages for different categories of breast cancer patients: report of the Cooperative Breast Cancer Group. JAMA. 1977 May 9;237(19):2079-8. link to original article PubMed
  3. Ingle JN, Ahmann DL, Green SJ, Edmonson JH, Bisel HF, Kvols LK, Nichols WC, Creagan ET, Hahn RG, Rubin J, Frytak S. Randomized clinical trial of diethylstilbestrol versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jan 1;304(1):16-21. link to original article PubMed
  4. Kiang DT, Frenning DH, Gay J, Goldman AI, Kennedy BJ. Combination therapy of hormone and cytotoxic agents in advanced breast cancer. Cancer. 1981 Feb 1;47(3):452-6. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Kiang DT, Gay J, Goldman A, Kennedy BJ. A randomized trial of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1985 Nov 14;313(20):1241-6. link to original article PubMed

CTCb, then auto HSCT

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CTCb: Cyclophosphamide, Thiotepa, Carboplatin

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Stadtmauer et al. 2000 Phase III (E) CMF Seems not superior

No longer used, but of historical interest.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Stadtmauer EA, O'Neill A, Goldstein LJ, Crilley PA, Mangan KF, Ingle JN, Brodsky I, Martino S, Lazarus HM, Erban JK, Sickles C, Glick JH; Philadelphia Bone Marrow Transplant Group. Conventional-dose chemotherapy compared with high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 13;342(15):1069-76. link to original article PubMed

Estradiol monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Ellis et al. 2009 Randomized Phase II

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. Ellis MJ, Gao F, Dehdashti F, Jeffe DB, Marcom PK, Carey LA, Dickler MN, Silverman P, Fleming GF, Kommareddy A, Jamalabadi-Majidi S, Crowder R, Siegel BA. Lower-dose vs high-dose oral estradiol therapy of hormone receptor-positive, aromatase inhibitor-resistant advanced breast cancer: a phase 2 randomized study. JAMA. 2009 Aug 19;302(7):774-80. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Fluoxymesterone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Kennedy 1958 Non-randomized

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. Kennedy BJ. Fluoxymesterone therapy in advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1958 Oct 2;259(14):673-5. link to original article PubMed

Formestane monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Coombes et al. 1984 Pilot
Thürlimann et al. 1997 (SAKK 20/90) Phase III (E) Megestrol Seems not superior

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. Coombes RC, Goss P, Dowsett M, Gazet JC, Brodie A. 4-Hydroxyandrostenedione in treatment of postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer. Lancet. 1984 Dec 1;2(8414):1237-9. link to original article PubMed
  2. SAKK 20/90: Thürlimann B, Castiglione M, Hsu-Schmitz SF, Cavalli F, Bonnefoi H, Fey MF, Morant R, Löhnert T, Goldhirsch A; Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK). Formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal breast cancer patients after failure of tamoxifen: a phase III prospective randomised cross over trial of second-line hormonal treatment (SAKK 20/90). Eur J Cancer. 1997 Jun;33(7):1017-24. link to original article PubMed

Medroxyprogesterone monotherapy

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Variant #1, 500 mg/day

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Cuna et al. 1978 Phase III (E) MPA 1000 mg/d Seems not superior
Pannuti et al. 1979 Phase III (C) MPA 1500 mg/d Seems not superior
Canney et al. 1988 Phase III (C) Aminoglutethimide Seems not superior
Byrne et al. 1997 Phase III (C) MPA & Tamoxifen Seems not superior

Note: Canney et al. 1988 does not have dosing information in the abstract.

Hormonotherapy

Continued indefinitely

Variant #2, 1000 mg/day (high-dose)

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Cavalli et al. 1984 Phase III (E) Low-dose MPA Superior ORR
Garcia-Giralt et al. 1992 Phase III (C) Aminoglutethimide Seems to have inferior TTP
Muss et al. 1994 Phase III (E) Tamoxifen Might have superior OS

Hormonotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. Cuna GR, Calciati A, Strada MR, Bumma C, Campio L. High dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment in metastatic carcinoma of the breast: a dose-response evaluation. Tumori. 1978 Apr 30;64(2):143-9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Pannuti F, Martoni A, Di Marco AR, Piana E, Saccani F, Becchi G, Mattioli G, Barbanti F, Marra GA, Persiani W, Cacciari L, Spagnolo F, Palenzona D, Rocchetta G. Prospective, randomized clinical trial of two different high dosages of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1979 Apr;15(4):593-601. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Cavalli F, Goldhirsch A, Jungi F, Martz G, Mermillod B, Alberto P. Randomized trial of low- versus high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in the induction treatment of postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1984 May;2(5):414-9. link to original article PubMed
  4. Canney PA, Priestman TJ, Griffiths T, Latief TN, Mould JJ, Spooner D. Randomized trial comparing aminoglutethimide with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in therapy for advanced breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988 Sep 21;80(14):1147-51. link to original article PubMed
  5. Garcia-Giralt E, Ayme Y, Carton M, Daban A, Delozier T, Fargeot P, Fumoleau P, Gorins A, Guerin D, Guerin R, Maillart P, Mauriac L, May-Levin F, Metz R, Namer M, Olivier JP, Pommatau E, Pouillart P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Rouesse J, Serrou B, Vitse M, Zylberait D. Second and third line hormonotherapy in advanced post-menopausal breast cancer: a multicenter randomized trial comparing medroxyprogesterone acetate with aminoglutethimide in patients who have become resistant to tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1992;24(2):139-45. link to original article PubMed
  6. Muss HB, Case LD, Atkins JN, Bearden JD 3rd, Cooper MR, Cruz JM, Jackson DV Jr, O'Rourke MA, Pavy MD, Powell BL, Richards F, SPurr CL, Eagle K, White DR. Tamoxifen versus high-dose oral medroxyprogesterone acetate as initial endocrine therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer: a Piedmont Oncology Association study. J Clin Oncol. 1994 Aug;12(8):1630-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  7. Byrne MJ, Gebski V, Forbes J, Tattersall MH, Simes RJ, Coates AS, Dewar J, Lunn M, Flower C, Gill PG, Stewart J; Australian-New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group. Medroxyprogesterone acetate addition or substitution for tamoxifen in advanced tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer: a phase III randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Sep;15(9):3141-8. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Megestrol monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Lundgren et al. 1989 Phase III (C) Aminoglutethimide Seems not superior
Muss et al. 1990 Phase III (C) Higher-dose Megace Seems to have inferior OS
Buzdar et al. 1996 Phase III (C) Fadrozole Seems not superior
Stuart et al. 1996 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen Seems not superior
Buzdar et al. 1997 (Arimidex Study Group 1997) Phase III (C) Anastrozole Seems to have inferior OS (*)
Thürlimann et al. 1997 (SAKK 20/90) Phase III (C) Formestane Seems not superior
Russell et al. 1997 (SWOG S8312) Phase III (C) Aminoglutethimide, Hydrocortisone, Megace Seems not superior
Goss et al. 1999 Phase III (C) Vorozole Seems not superior
Abrams et al. 1999 (CALGB 8741) Phase III (C) Higher-dose Megace Seems not superior
Kaufmann et al. 2000 Phase III (C) Exemestane Seems to have inferior OS

Note: to our knowledge, this regimen was not tested as an experimental arm in an RCT prior to becoming a standard comparator arm. Reported efficacy for Arimidex Study Group 1997 is based on the 1998 pooled update.

Hormonotherapy

  • Megestrol (Megace) 160 mg PO once per day
    • Kaufmann et al. 2000 gave as 40 mg PO four times per day

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. Lundgren S, Gundersen S, Klepp R, Lønning PE, Lund E, Kvinnsland S. Megestrol acetate versus aminoglutethimide for metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1989 Nov;14(2):201-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. Muss HB, Case LD, Capizzi RL, Cooper MR, Cruz J, Jackson D, Richards F 2nd, Powell BL, Spurr CL, White D, Zekan P, Read S, Cates-Wilkie S, Bearden J, McCullough J, Callahan R, Karb K, Atkins J, Paschal B, Ramseur B, Lusk J, Stanley V. High- versus standard-dose megestrol acetate in women with advanced breast cancer: a phase III trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Nov;8(11):1797-805. link to original article PubMed
  3. Buzdar AU, Smith R, Vogel C, Bonomi P, Keller AM, Favis G, Mulagha M, Cooper J. Fadrozole HCL (CGS-16949A) versus megestrol acetate treatment of postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast carcinoma: results of two randomized double blind controlled multiinstitutional trials. Cancer. 1996 Jun 15;77(12):2503-13. link to original article PubMed
  4. Stuart NS, Warwick J, Blackledge GR, Spooner D, Keen C, Taylor AR, Tyrell C, Webster DJ, Earl H. A randomised phase III cross-over study of tamoxifen versus megestrol acetate in advanced and recurrent breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1996 Oct;32A(11):1888-92. link to original article PubMed
  5. Arimidex Study Group 1997: Buzdar AU, Jones SE, Vogel CL, Wolter J, Plourde P, Webster A; Arimidex Study Group. A phase III trial comparing anastrozole (1 and 10 milligrams), a potent and selective aromatase inhibitor, with megestrol acetate in postmenopausal women with advanced breast carcinoma. Cancer. 1997 Feb 15;79(4):730-9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Buzdar AU, Jonat W, Howell A, Jones SE, Blomqvist CP, Vogel CL, Eiermann W, Wolter JM, Steinberg M, Webster A, Lee D; Arimidex Study Group. Anastrozole versus megestrol acetate in the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast carcinoma: results of a survival update based on a combined analysis of data from two mature phase III trials. Cancer. 1998 Sep 15;83(6):1142-52. Erratum in: Cancer 1999 Feb 15;85(4):1010. link to original article PubMed
  6. SAKK 20/90: Thürlimann B, Castiglione M, Hsu-Schmitz SF, Cavalli F, Bonnefoi H, Fey MF, Morant R, Löhnert T, Goldhirsch A; Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK). Formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal breast cancer patients after failure of tamoxifen: a phase III prospective randomised cross over trial of second-line hormonal treatment (SAKK 20/90). Eur J Cancer. 1997 Jun;33(7):1017-24. link to original article PubMed
  7. SWOG S8312: Russell CA, Green SJ, O'Sullivan J, Hynes HE, Budd GT, Congdon JE, Martino S, Osborne CK. Megestrol acetate and aminoglutethimide/hydrocortisone in sequence or in combination as second-line endocrine therapy of estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Jul;15(7):2494-501. link to original article PubMed
  8. Goss PE, Winer EP, Tannock IF, Schwartz LH; North American Vorozole Study Group. Randomized phase III trial comparing the new potent and selective third-generation aromatase inhibitor vorozole with megestrol acetate in postmenopausal advanced breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jan;17(1):52-63. link to original article PubMed
  9. CALGB 8741: Abrams J, Aisner J, Cirrincione C, Berry DA, Muss HB, Cooper MR, Henderson IC, Panasci L, Kirshner J, Ellerton J, Norton L. Dose-response trial of megestrol acetate in advanced breast cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B phase III study 8741. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jan;17(1):64-73. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  10. Kaufmann M, Bajetta E, Dirix LY, Fein LE, Jones SE, Zilembo N, Dugardyn JL, Nasurdi C, Mennel RG, Cervek J, Fowst C, Polli A, di Salle E, Arkhipov A, Piscitelli G, Miller LL, Massimini G; The Exemestane Study Group. Exemestane is superior to megestrol acetate after tamoxifen failure in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: results of a phase III randomized double-blind trial. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Apr;18(7):1399-411. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Melphalan monotherapy

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P: Phenylalanine mustard (Melphalan)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Canellos et al. 1976 Phase III (C) CMF Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

42-day cycles

References

  1. Canellos GP, Pocock SJ, Taylor SG 3rd, Sears ME, Klaasen DJ, Band PR. Combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast carcinoma: prospective comparison of multiple drug therapy with L-phenylalanine mustard. Cancer. 1976 Nov;38(5):1882-6. link to original article PubMed

Methotrexate & Thiotepa

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Greenspan et al. 1963 Non-randomized

Note: this is possibly the first published trial of combination chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Greenspan EM, Fieber M, Lesnick G, Edelman S. Response of advanced breast carcinoma to the combination of the antimetabolite, Methotrexate, and the alkylating agent, thio-TEPA. J Mt Sinai Hosp N Y. 1963 May-Jun;30:246-67. PubMed

Mitoxantrone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Harris et al. 1990 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Harris AL, Cantwell BM, Carmichael J, Wilson R, Farndon J, Dawes P, Ghani S, Evans RG. Comparison of short-term and continuous chemotherapy (mitozantrone) for advanced breast cancer. Lancet. 1990 Jan 27;335(8683):186-90. link to original article PubMed

TAD (Tamoxifen)

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TAD: Tamoxifen, Aminoglutethimide, Danazol

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Powles et al. 1984 Phase III (E) Tamoxifen Seems to have superior ORR

Note: this patient population was not selected by hormone receptor status.

Hormonotherapy

References

  1. Powles TJ, Ashley S, Ford HT, Gazet JC, Nash AG, Neville AM, Coombes RC. Treatment of disseminated breast cancer with tamoxifen, aminoglutethimide, hydrocortisone, and danazol, used in combination or sequentially. Lancet. 1984 Jun 23;1(8391):1369-73. link to original article PubMed

Thiotepa monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Bateman 1955 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Bateman JC. Chemotherapy of solid tumors with triethylene thiophosphoramide. N Engl J Med. 1955 May 26;252(21):879-87. link to original article PubMed

VAC (Adriamycin)

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VAC: Vincristine, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Gundersen et al. 1986 Phase III (C) Doxorubicin Seems not superior
Powles et al. 1991 Phase III (C) 3M Seems not superior
Green et al. 1996 Phase III (C) VNC Might have superior ORR

Used as a comparator arm in older trials and found to be more toxic; here for reference purposes only.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Gundersen S, Kvinnsland S, Klepp O, Kvaløy S, Lund E, Høst H. Weekly adriamycin versus VAC in advanced breast cancer: a randomized trial. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1986 Dec;22(12):1431-4. link to SD article PubMed
  2. Powles TJ, Jones AL, Judson IR, Hardy JR, Ashley SE. A randomised trial comparing combination chemotherapy using mitomycin C, mitozantrone and methotrexate (3M) with vincristine, anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (VAC) in advanced breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1991 Aug;64(2):406-10. link to original article PubMed
  3. Green JA, Slater AJ, Campbell IR, Kelly V. Advanced breast cancer: a randomized study of doxorubicin or mitoxantrone in combination with cyclophosphamide and vincristine. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1996;39(2):155-63. link to original article PubMed

VAP

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VAP: Vincristine, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Prednisolone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Leonard et al. 1987 Phase III (C) VMP Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Leonard RC, Cornbleet MA, Kaye SB, Soukop M, White G, Hutcheon AW, Robinson S, Kerr ME, Smyth JF. Mitoxantrone versus doxorubicin in combination chemotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the breast. J Clin Oncol. 1987 Jul;5(7):1056-63. link to original article PubMed