Class/mechanism: Pyrimidine analog, antimetabolite, inhibitor of thymidylate synthase. Converted in vivo to fluorouracil (5-FU), which is metabolized to 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP). FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis by binding to thymidylate synthase and inhibiting production of thymidylate; FUTP interferes with RNA processing when it is mistakenly incorporated in place of uridine triphosphate (UTP).
For conciseness and simplicity, HemOnc.org currently will focus on treatment regimens and not list information such as: renal/hepatic dose adjustments, metabolism (including CYP450), excretion, monitoring parameters (although this will be considered for checklists), or manufacturer. Instead, for the most current information, please refer to your preferred pharmacopeias such as Micromedex, Lexicomp, Medscape, UpToDate (courtesy of Lexicomp), or the prescribing information.
DPYD intermediate or poor metabolizers: Results in higher adverse reaction risk (severe, life-threatening, or fatal toxicities). No dosage has proven safe in poor metabolizers, and insufficient data are available to recommend a dosage in intermediate metabolizers. Withhold or discontinue in the presence of early-onset or unusually severe toxicity.
EMA has recommended that patients should be tested for the lack of the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) before starting cancer treatment with fluorouracil given by injection or infusion (drip) or with the related medicines, capecitabine and tegafur.
Diseases for which it is used
- Anal cancer
- Breast cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Esophageal cancer
- Gallbladder cancer
- Gastric cancer
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
- Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
- Pancreatic cancer
- Pancreatic NET
Patient drug information
- Capecitabine (Xeloda) package insert
- Capecitabine (Xeloda) patient drug information (Chemocare)
- Capecitabine (Xeloda) patient drug information (UpToDate)
History of changes in FDA indication
- 4/30/1998: Initial accelerated approval for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to both paclitaxel and an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimen or resistant to paclitaxel and for whom further anthracycline therapy is not indicated, eg, patients who have received cumulative doses of 400 mg/m2 of doxorubicin or doxorubicin equivalents. Resistance is defined as progressive disease while on treatment, with or without an initial response, or relapse within 6 months of completing treatment with an anthracycline-containing adjuvant regimen. (Based on Blum et al. 1999)
- 9/7/2001: New indication in combination with docetaxel is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline containing chemotherapy. (Based on O'Shaughnessy et al. 2002)
- 6/15/2005: New indication as a single agent for adjuvant treatment in patients with Dukes’ C colon cancer who have undergone complete resection of the primary tumor when treatment with fluoropyrimidine therapy alone is preferred. (Based on X-ACT)
- 4/30/2001: New indication as first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma when treatment with fluoropyrimidine therapy alone is preferred. (Based on Hoff et al. 2001 & Van Cutsem et al. 2001)
History of changes in EMA indication
- 2/2/2001: Initial market authorization as Xeloda.
Also known as
- Code name: Ro 09-1978/000
- Generic names: capecitabine RDT, kapesitabin
- Brand names: Cabita, Capebin, Capegard, Capnat, Caposib, Capsy, Caxeta, Citabin, Ecansya, Flagoda, Naprocap, Skemca, Xeloda, Xlotabin