Breast cancer - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main breast cancer page for current regimens.


Neoadjuvant therapy

No neoadjuvant therapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Smith et al. 2020 (POETIC) 2008-2014 Phase 3 (C) 1a. Anastrozole
1b. Letrozole
Did not meet primary endpoint of TTR

No treatment prior to surgical resection.

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. POETIC: Smith I, Robertson J, Kilburn L, Wilcox M, Evans A, Holcombe C, Horgan K, Kirwan C, Mallon E, Sibbering M, Skene A, Vidya R, Cheang M, Banerji J, Morden J, Sidhu K, Dodson A, Bliss JM, Dowsett M. Long-term outcome and prognostic value of Ki67 after perioperative endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer (POETIC): an open-label, multicentre, parallel-group, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Nov;21(11):1443-1454. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT02338310

Adjuvant therapy

Observation

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Lacour et al. 1980 1972-1979 Phase 3 (C) Polya.Polyu Might have inferior OS
Bonadonna et al. 1976 1973-1975 Phase 3 (C) CMF Inferior RFS
Jensen et al. 2017 (CBC 02) 1975-1978 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen x 2 y Seems to have inferior OS
Rubens et al. 1983 1975-1979 Phase 3 (C) Melphalan Might have inferior RFS
Baum et al. 1983 (NATO) 1977-1981 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen x 2 y Inferior OS
Brinker et al. 1983 (DBCG 77B) 1977-1983 Phase 3 (C) 1. CMF Seems to have inferior OS1
2. Cyclophosphamide Seems to have inferior OS1
3. Levamisole Did not meet primary endpoints of IDFS/OS
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS III) 1978-1981 Phase 3 (C) 1. CMFPT Inferior DFS
2. PT Inferior DFS
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS IV) 1978-1981 Phase 3 (C) PT Seems to have inferior DFS
Stewart et al. 1987 (Scottish Tamoxifen Trial) 1978-1984 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen x 5 y Inferior OS2
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-13) 1981-1988 Phase 3 (C) MF; sequential Inferior DFS3
Mansour et al. 1989 (INT-0011) 1981-1988 Phase 3 (C) CMFP Inferior DFS
Jakesz et al. 1998 1984-1990 Phase 3 (C) AV-CMF Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS60
Rydén et al. 2005 (SBII:2pre) 1986-1991 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen x 2 y Inferior RFS
Hutchins et al. 2005 (INT-0102) 1989-1993 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen x 5 y Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Paradiso et al. 2001 1989-1994 Phase 3 (C) FEC Seems to have inferior DFS
Colleoni et al. 2006 (IBCSG 13-93) 1993-1999 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen x 5 y Superior DFS
Henderson et al. 2003 (INT 0148/CALGB 9344) 1994-1999 Phase 3 (C) Paclitaxel; q3wk Inferior OS
Mamounas et al. 2005 (NSABP B-28) 1995-1998 Phase 3 (C) Paclitaxel; q3wk Inferior DFS
Colleoni et al. 2016 (IBCSG 22-00) 2000-2012 Phase 3 (C) CM Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Spielmann et al. 2009 (FNCLCC PACS 04) 2001-2004 Phase 3 (C) Trastuzumab x 12 mo Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Aebi et al. 2014 (CALOR) 2003-2010 Phase 3 (C) Chemotherapy Seems to have inferior DFS
Lluch et al. 2019 (GEICAM/2003-11; CIBOMA/2004-01) 2006-2011 Phase 3 (C) Capecitabine Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Zdenkowski et al. 2016 (ANZ0501 LATER) 2007-2012 Phase 3 (C) Letrozole x 5 y Might have inferior DFS
Nasr et al. 2015 2008-2014 Phase 3 (C) CM Seems to have inferior OS
Joensuu et al. 2018 (SOLD) 2008-2014 Phase 3 (E-de-esc) Trastuzumab x 12 mo Inconclusive whether non-inferior DFS
Wang et al. 2021 (SYSUCC-001) 2010-2016 Phase 3 (C) Capecitabine Inferior DFS

1Reported efficacy for DBCG 77B is based on the 2010 update.
2Reported efficacy for the Scottish Tamoxifen Trial is based on the 2001 update.
3Reported efficacy for NSABP B-13 is based on the 1996 update.
Note: No further systemic treatment; many of these trials incorporated RT, however (see individual papers for details). Jakesz et al. 1998 was conducted prior to routine testing of HER2, so it technically included "double-negative" patients.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • FNCLCC PACS 04 & SOLD: HER2 overexpression

Preceding treatment

References

  1. Bonadonna G, Brusamolino E, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Brugnatelli L, Brambilla C, De Lena M, Tancini G, Bajetta E, Musumeci R, Veronesi U. Combination chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in operable breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 19;294(8):405-10. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Bonadonna G, Rossi A, Valagussa P, Banfi A, Veronesi U. The CMF program for operable breast cancer with positive axillary nodes: updated analysis on the disease-free interval, site of relapse and drug tolerance. Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2904-15. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Tancini G, Brambilla C, Zambetti M, Veronesi U. Ten-year experience with CMF-based adjuvant chemotherapy in resectable breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1985;5(2):95-115. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, Zambetti M, Brambilla C. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer: the results of 20 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med. 1995 Apr 6;332(14):901-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. Lacour J, Lacour F, Spira A, Michelson M, Petit JY, Delage G, Sarrazin D, Contesso G, Viguier J. Adjuvant treatment with polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid (Polya-Polyu) in operable breast cancer. Lancet. 1980 Jul 26;2(8187):161-4. link to original article PubMed
  3. NATO: Baum M, Brinkley DM, Dosset JA, McPherson K, Patterson JS, Rubens RD, Smiddy FG, Stoll BA, Wilson A, Lea JC, Richards D, Ellis SH. Controlled trial of tamoxifen as adjuvant agent in management of early breast cancer: interim analysis at four years by Nolvadex Adjuvant Trial Organisation. Lancet. 1983 Feb 5;1(8319):257-61. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed
    1. Update: Baum M, Brinkley DM, Dosset JA, McPherson K, Patterson JS, Rubens RD, Smiddy FG, Stoll BA, Wilson A, Richards D, Ellis SH. Controlled trial of tamoxifen as single adjuvant agent in management of early breast cancer: analysis at six years by Nolvadex Adjuvant Trial Organisation. Lancet. 1985 Apr 13;1(8433):836-40. link to original article PubMed
  4. Rubens RD, Hayward JL, Knight RK, Bulbrook RD, Fentiman IS, Chaudary M, Howell A, Bush H, Crowther D, Sellwood RA, George WD, Howat JM. Controlled trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with melphalan for breast cancer. Lancet. 1983 Apr 16;1(8329):839-43. link to original article PubMed
  5. DBCG 77B: Brincker H, Mouridsen HT, Andersen KW. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or CMF in premenopausal women with stage II breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1983;3(1):91-5. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
    1. Update: Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Andersen J, Andersson M, Kamby C, Knoop AS; Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil; oral cyclophosphamide; levamisole; or no adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk, premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer. 2010 May 1;116(9):2081-9. link to original article PubMed
  6. LBCS III/IV: Goldhirsch A; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Randomised trial of chemo-endocrine therapy, endocrine therapy, and mastectomy alone in postmenopausal patients with operable breast cancer and axillary node metastasis. Lancet. 1984 Jun 9;1(8389):1256-60. link to original article PubMed
  7. Howell A, Bush H, George WD, Howat JM, Crowther D, Sellwood RA, Rubens RD, Hayward JL, Bulbrook RD, Fentiman IS, Chaudary M. Controlled trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil for breast cancer. Lancet. 1984 Aug 11;2(8398):307-11. link to original article PubMed
  8. Scottish Tamoxifen Trial: Stewart HJ, Taylor W, Forrest P. Adjuvant tamoxifen in the management of operable breast cancer: the Scottish Trial: report from the Breast Cancer Trials Committee, Scottish Cancer Trials Office (MRC), Edinburgh. Lancet. 1987 Jul 25;2(8552):171-5. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Stewart HJ, Forrest AP, Everington D, McDonald CC, Dewar JA, Hawkins RA, Prescott RJ, George WD; Scottish Cancer Trials Breast Group. Randomised comparison of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen with continuous therapy for operable breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1996 Jul;74(2):297-9. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Stewart HJ, Prescott RJ, Forrest AP. Scottish adjuvant tamoxifen trial: a randomized study updated to 15 years. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Mar 21;93(6):456-62. link to original article PubMed
  9. NSABP B-13: Fisher B, Redmond C, Dimitrov NV, Bowman D, Legault-Poisson S, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER, Margolese R, Sutherland C, Glass A, Foster R, Caplan R. A randomized clinical trial evaluating sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-negative tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):473-8. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Mamounas EP, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond C, Wolmark N, Dimitrov NV, Bowman DM, Glass AG, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Sutherland CM, Aron BS, Margolese RG. Sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil for the treatment of node-negative breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors: eight-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-13 and first report of findings from NSABP B-19 comparing methotrexate and fluorouracil with conventional cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jul;14(7):1982-92. link to original article PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  10. INT-0011: Mansour EG, Gray R, Shatila AH, Osborne CK, Tormey DC, Gilchrist KW, Cooper MR, Falkson G. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk node-negative breast cancer: an intergroup study. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):485-90. link to original article PubMed
  11. LCBS V: Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Prolonged disease-free survival after one course of perioperative adjuvant chemotherapy for node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):491-6. link to original article PubMed
  12. EORTC 09771: Clahsen PC, van de Velde CJ, Welvaart K, Repelaer van Driel OJ, Sylvester RJ; Cooperating Investigators. Ten-year results of a randomized trial evaluating prolonged low-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in node-positive breast cancer: a joint European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Dutch Breast Cancer Working Party Study. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Jan;13(1):33-41. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed
  13. Jakesz R, Samonigg H, Gnant M, Kubista E, Steindorfer P, Hausmaninger H, Sevelda P, Tschurtschenthaler B, Fridrik M, Stierer M, Kolb R, Steger G; Austrian Breast Cancer Study Group. Very low-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in steroid receptor negative stage I breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1998 Jan; 34 (1): 66-70. link to original article PubMed
  14. Paradiso A, Schittulli F, Cellamare G, Mangia A, Marzullo F, Lorusso V, De Lena M. Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for patients with fast-proliferating, node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Oct 1;19(19):3929-37. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
  15. INT 0148/CALGB 9344: Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, Cirrincione CT, Goldstein LJ, Martino S, Ingle JN, Cooper MR, Hayes DF, Tkaczuk KH, Fleming G, Holland JF, Duggan DB, Carpenter JT, Frei E 3rd, Schilsky RL, Wood WC, Muss HB, Norton L. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):976-83. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
  16. SBII:2pre: Rydén L, Jönsson PE, Chebil G, Dufmats M, Fernö M, Jirström K, Källström AC, Landberg G, Stål O, Thorstenson S, Nordenskjöld B; South Swedish Breast Cancer Group; South-East Swedish Breast Cancer Group. Two years of adjuvant tamoxifen in premenopausal patients with breast cancer: a randomised, controlled trial with long-term follow-up. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Jan;41(2):256-64. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Ekholm M, Bendahl PO, Fernö M, Nordenskjöld B, Stål O, Rydén L. Two years of adjuvant tamoxifen provides a survival benefit compared with no systemic treatment in premenopausal patients with primary breast cancer: Long-term follow-up (> 25 years) of the phase III SBII:2pre trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jul 1;34(19):2232-8. Epub 2016 May 9. link to original article PubMed
  17. NSABP B-28: Mamounas EP, Bryant J, Lembersky B, Fehrenbacher L, Sedlacek SM, Fisher B, Wickerham DL, Yothers G, Soran A, Wolmark N. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3686-96. Epub 2005 May 16. link to original article PubMed
  18. INT-0102: Hutchins LF, Green SJ, Ravdin PM, Lew D, Martino S, Abeloff M, Lyss AP, Allred C, Rivkin SE, Osborne CK. Randomized, controlled trial of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil with and without tamoxifen for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: treatment results of intergroup protocol INT-0102. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8313-21. link to original article PubMed
  19. IBCSG 13-93: Colleoni M, Gelber S, Goldhirsch A, Aebi S, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Price KN, Coates AS, Gelber RD; International Breast Cancer Study Group. Tamoxifen after adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal women with lymph node-positive breast cancer: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 13-93. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Mar 20;24(9):1332-41. Epub 2006 Feb 27. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
  20. FNCLCC PACS 04: Spielmann M, Roché H, Delozier T, Canon JL, Romieu G, Bourgeois H, Extra JM, Serin D, Kerbrat P, Machiels JP, Lortholary A, Orfeuvre H, Campone M, Hardy-Bessard AC, Coudert B, Maerevoet M, Piot G, Kramar A, Martin AL, Penault-Llorca F. Trastuzumab for patients with axillary-node-positive breast cancer: results of the FNCLCC-PACS 04 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Dec 20;27(36):6129-34. Epub 2009 Nov 16. link to original article PubMed NCT00054587
  21. CALOR: Aebi S, Gelber S, Anderson SJ, Láng I, Robidoux A, Martín M, Nortier JW, Paterson AH, Rimawi MF, Cañada JM, Thürlimann B, Murray E, Mamounas EP, Geyer CE Jr, Price KN, Coates AS, Gelber RD, Rastogi P, Wolmark N, Wapnir IL; CALOR investigators. Chemotherapy for isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer (CALOR): a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Feb;15(2):156-63. Epub 2014 Jan 16. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00074152
    1. Update: Wapnir IL, Price KN, Anderson SJ, Robidoux A, Martín M, Nortier JWR, Paterson AHG, Rimawi MF, Láng I, Baena-Cañada JM, Thürlimann B, Mamounas EP, Geyer CE Jr, Gelber S, Coates AS, Gelber RD, Rastogi P, Regan MM, Wolmark N, Aebi S; International Breast Cancer Study Group; NRG Oncology; GEICAM Spanish Breast Cancer Group; BOOG Dutch Breast Cancer Trialists' Group; Breast International Group. Efficacy of Chemotherapy for ER-Negative and ER-Positive Isolated Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer: Final Analysis of the CALOR Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 10;36(11):1073-1079. Epub 2018 Feb 14. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  22. Nasr KE, Osman MA, Elkady MS, Ellithy MA. Metronomic methotrexate and cyclophosphamide after carboplatin included adjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer: a phase III study. Ann Transl Med. 2015 Nov;3(19):284. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  23. ANZ0501 LATER: Zdenkowski N, Forbes JF, Boyle FM, Kannourakis G, Gill PG, Bayliss E, Saunders C, Della-Fiorentina S, Kling N, Campbell I, Mann GB, Coates AS, Gebski V, Davies L, Thornton R, Reaby L, Cuzick J, Green M; Australia and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group. Observation versus late reintroduction of letrozole as adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (ANZ0501 LATER): an open-label randomised, controlled trial. Ann Oncol. 2016 May;27(5):806-12. Epub 2016 Feb 9. link to original article PubMed ACTRN12607000137493
  24. IBCSG 22-00: Colleoni M, Gray KP, Gelber S, Láng I, Thürlimann B, Gianni L, Abdi EA, Gomez HL, Linderholm BK, Puglisi F, Tondini C, Kralidis E, Eniu A, Cagossi K, Rauch D, Chirgwin J, Gelber RD, Regan MM, Coates AS, Price KN, Viale G, Goldhirsch A. Low-dose oral cyclophosphamide and methotrexate maintenance for hormone receptor-negative early breast cancer: International Breast Cancer Study Group trial 22-00. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Oct 1;34(28):3400-8. Epub 2016 Jun 20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00022516
  25. CBC 02: Jensen MB, Krarup JF, Palshof T, Mouridsen HT, Ejlertsen B. Two years of tamoxifen or no adjuvant systemic therapy for patients with high-risk breast cancer: long-term follow-up of the Copenhagen Breast Cancer Trial. Acta Oncol. 2018 Jan;57(1):26-30. Epub 2017 Nov 22. link to original article PubMed
  26. GEICAM/2003-11; CIBOMA/2004-01: Lluch A, Barrios CH, Torrecillas L, Ruiz-Borrego M, Bines J, Segalla J, Guerrero-Zotano Á, García-Sáenz JA, Torres R, de la Haba J, García-Martínez E, Gómez HL, Llombart A, Bofill JS, Baena-Cañada JM, Barnadas A, Calvo L, Pérez-Michel L, Ramos M, Fernández I, Rodríguez-Lescure Á, Cárdenas J, Vinholes J, Martínez de Dueñas E, Godes MJ, Seguí MA, Antón A, López-Álvarez P, Moncayo J, Amorim G, Villar E, Reyes S, Sampaio C, Cardemil B, Escudero MJ, Bezares S, Carrasco E, Martín M; GEICAM Spanish Breast Cancer Group; CIBOMA (Iberoamerican Coalition for Research in Breast Oncology); LACOG (Latin American Cooperative Oncology Group). Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Capecitabine After Standard Neo-/Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (GEICAM/2003-11_CIBOMA/2004-01). J Clin Oncol. 2020 Jan 20;38(3):203-213. Epub 2019 Dec 5. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2020 Mar 10;38(8):847. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00130533
  27. SYSUCC-001: Wang X, Wang SS, Huang H, Cai L, Zhao L, Peng RJ, Lin Y, Tang J, Zeng J, Zhang LH, Ke YL, Wang XM, Liu XM, Chen QJ, Zhang AQ, Xu F, Bi XW, Huang JJ, Li JB, Pang DM, Xue C, Shi YX, He ZY, Lin HX, An X, Xia W, Cao Y, Guo Y, Su YH, Hua X, Wang XY, Hong RX, Jiang KK, Song CG, Huang ZZ, Shi W, Zhong YY, Yuan ZY; South China Breast Cancer Group (SCBCG). Effect of Capecitabine Maintenance Therapy Using Lower Dosage and Higher Frequency vs Observation on Disease-Free Survival Among Patients With Early-Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Who Had Received Standard Treatment: The SYSUCC-001 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Jan 5;325(1):50-58. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT01112826
  28. SWOG S1418: NCT02954874

Placebo

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1975 (NSABP B-05) 1972-1975 Phase 3 (C) Melphalan Might have inferior DFS1
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-14) 1982-1987 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen Inferior OS2
Fisher et al. 2001 (NSABP B-23) 1991-1998 Phase 3 (C) Tamoxifen Did not meet primary endpoint of OS
Goss et al. 2003 (NCIC-CTG MA.17) 1998-2002 Phase 3 (C) Letrozole Inferior DFS
Mamounas et al. 2008 (NSABP B-33) 2001-2003 Phase 3 (C) Exemestane Inferior RFS
Paterson et al. 2012 (NSABP B-34) 2001-2004 Phase 3 (C) Clodronate Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Goss et al. 2012 (TEACH) 2006-2008 Phase 3 (C) Lapatinib Might have inferior DFS
Coombes et al. 2021 (REACT) 2007-2012 Phase 3 (C) Celecoxib Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Chan et al. 2016 (ExteNET) 2009-2011 Phase 3 (C) Neratinib Inferior invasive DFS
Coleman et al. 2019 (D-CARE) 2010-2012 Phase 3 (C) Denosumab Did not meet primary composite endpoint of bone MFS
Goodwin et al. 2022 (NCIC CTG MA.32) 2010-2013 Phase 3 (C) Metformin Did not meet primary endpoint of IDFS
Mittendorf et al. 2019 (PRESENT) 2011-2015 Phase 3 (C) Nelipepimut-S Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Tutt et al. 2021 (OlympiA) 2014-2019 Phase 3 (C) Olaparib Inferior OS3

1Reported efficacy for NSABP B-05 is based on the 1986 update.
2Reported efficacy for NSABP B-14 is based on the 2004 update.
3Reported efficacy for OlympiA is based on the 2022 update.
No active antineoplastic treatment within the study design. Used as a comparator arm. Note that some trials do have other ongoing antineoplastic treatments outside of the study design, such as adjuvant endocrine therapy.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. NSABP B-05: Fisher B, Carbone P, Economou SG, Frelick R, Glass A, Lerner H, Redmond C, Zelen M, Band P, Katrych DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER. 1-Phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: a report of early findings. N Engl J Med. 1975 Jan 16;292(3):117-22. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Glass A, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Barton B, Such E, Carbone P, Economou S, Foster R, Frelick R, Lerner H, Levitt M, Margolese R, MacFarlane J, Plotkin D, Shibata H, Volk H. L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: an update of earlier findings and a comparison with those utilizing L-PAM plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2883-903. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Fisher ER, Redmond C. Ten-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) clinical trial evaluating the use of L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Jun;4(6):929-41. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-14: Fisher B, Costantino J, Redmond C, Poisson R, Bowman D, Couture J, Dimitrov NV, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, Margolese R, Robidoux A, Shibata H, Terz J, Peterson AHG, Feldman MI, Farrar W, Evans J, Lickley HL, Ketner M. A randomized clinical trial evaluating tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):479-84. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, DeCillis A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Costantino J, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Bowman DM, Deschênes L, Dimitrov NV, Margolese RG, Robidoux A, Shibata H, Terz J, Paterson AH, Feldman MI, Farrar W, Evans J, Lickley HL. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes and estrogen receptor-positive tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Nov 6;88(21):1529-42. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, Wolmark N. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen for lymph node-negative breast cancer: updated findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 2;93(9):684-90. link to original article PubMed
    3. Pooled update: Fisher B, Jeong JH, Bryant J, Anderson S, Dignam J, Fisher ER, Wolmark N; National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomised clinical trials. Treatment of lymph-node-negative, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer: long-term findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2004 Sep 4-10;364(9437):858-68. link to original article PubMed
    4. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  3. NSABP B-23: Fisher B, Anderson S, Tan-Chiu E, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, Dimitrov NV, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Merajver S, Romond EH, Kardinal CG, Shibata HR, Margolese RG, Farrar WB. Tamoxifen and chemotherapy for axillary node-negative, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-23. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):931-42. link to original article PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  4. NCIC-CTG MA.17: Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Tu D, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, Livingston RB, Davidson NE, Norton L, Perez EA, Abrams JS, Therasse P, Palmer MJ, Pater JL. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Nov 6;349(19):1793-802. Epub 2003 Oct 9. link to original article PubMed NCT00003140
    1. Update: Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Tu D, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, Livingston RB, Davidson NE, Norton L, Perez EA, Abrams JS, Cameron DA, Palmer MJ, Pater JL. Randomized trial of letrozole following tamoxifen as extended adjuvant therapy in receptor-positive breast cancer: updated findings from NCIC-CTG MA.17. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Sep 7;97(17):1262-71. link to original article PubMed
    2. HRQoL analysis: Whelan TJ, Goss PE, Ingle JN, Pater JL, Tu D, Pritchard K, Liu S, Shepherd LE, Palmer M, Robert NJ, Martino S, Muss HB. Assessment of quality of life in MA.17: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of letrozole after 5 years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6931-40. Epub 2005 Sep 12. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Muss HB, Tu D, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Pater JL, Whelan TJ, Palmer MJ, Piccart MJ, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, He Z, Goss PE. Efficacy, toxicity, and quality of life in older women with early-stage breast cancer treated with letrozole or placebo after 5 years of tamoxifen: NCIC-CTG intergroup trial MA.17. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1956-64. Epub 2008 Mar 10. link to original article PubMed
    4. Subgroup analysis: Goss PE, Ingle JN, Pater JL, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, Livingston RB, Davidson NE, Norton L, Perez EA, Abrams JS, Cameron DA, Palmer MJ, Tu D. Late extended adjuvant treatment with letrozole improves outcome in women with early-stage breast cancer who complete 5 years of tamoxifen. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1948-55. Epub 2008 Mar 10. link to original article PubMed
    5. Update: Jin H, Tu D, Zhao N, Shepherd LE, Goss PE. Longer-term outcomes of letrozole versus placebo after 5 years of tamoxifen in the NCIC-CTG MA.17 trial: analyses adjusting for treatment crossover. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 1;30(7):718-21. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-33: Mamounas EP, Jeong JH, Wickerham DL, Smith RE, Ganz PA, Land SR, Eisen A, Fehrenbacher L, Farrar WB, Atkins JN, Pajon ER, Vogel VG, Kroener JF, Hutchins LF, Robidoux A, Hoehn JL, Ingle JN, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Benefit from exemestane as extended adjuvant therapy after 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen: intention-to-treat analysis of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast And Bowel Project B-33 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1965-71. Epub 2008 Mar 10. link to original article PubMed NCT00016432
  6. NSABP B-34: Paterson AH, Anderson SJ, Lembersky BC, Fehrenbacher L, Falkson CI, King KM, Weir LM, Brufsky AM, Dakhil S, Lad T, Baez-Diaz L, Gralow JR, Robidoux A, Perez EA, Zheng P, Geyer CE Jr, Swain SM, Costantino JP, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Oral clodronate for adjuvant treatment of operable breast cancer (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-34): a multicentre, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jul;13(7):734-42. Epub 2012 Jun 14. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00009945
  7. TEACH: Goss PE, Smith IE, O'Shaughnessy J, Ejlertsen B, Kaufmann M, Boyle F, Buzdar AU, Fumoleau P, Gradishar W, Martin M, Moy B, Piccart-Gebhart M, Pritchard KI, Lindquist D, Chavarri-Guerra Y, Aktan G, Rappold E, Williams LS, Finkelstein DM; TEACH investigators. Adjuvant lapatinib for women with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer: a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Jan;14(1):88-96. Epub 2012 Dec 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2013 Feb;14(2):e47. link to original article PubMed NCT00374322
  8. ExteNET: Chan A, Delaloge S, Holmes FA, Moy B, Iwata H, Harvey VJ, Robert NJ, Silovski T, Gokmen E, von Minckwitz G, Ejlertsen B, Chia SK, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Buyse M, Gore I, Smith J 2nd, Harker G, Masuda N, Petrakova K, Zotano AG, Iannotti N, Rodriguez G, Tassone P, Wong A, Bryce R, Ye Y, Yao B, Martin M; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Mar;17(3):367-77. Epub 2016 Feb 10. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00878709
    1. Update: Martin M, Holmes FA, Ejlertsen B, Delaloge S, Moy B, Iwata H, von Minckwitz G, Chia SKL, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Tomašević Z, Denduluri N, Šeparović R, Gokmen E, Bashford A, Ruiz Borrego M, Kim SB, Jakobsen EH, Ciceniene A, Inoue K, Overkamp F, Heijns JB, Armstrong AC, Link JS, Joy AA, Bryce R, Wong A, Moran S, Yao B, Xu F, Auerbach A, Buyse M, Chan A; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Dec;18(12):1688-1700. Epub 2017 Nov 13. link to original article PubMed
    2. HRQoL analysis: Delaloge S, Cella D, Ye Y, Buyse M, Chan A, Barrios CH, Holmes FA, Mansi J, Iwata H, Ejlertsen B, Moy B, Chia SKL, Gnant M, Smichkoska S, Ciceniene A, Martinez N, Filipović S, Ben-Baruch NE, Joy AA, Langkjer ST, Senecal F, de Boer RH, Moran S, Yao B, Bryce R, Auerbach A, Fallowfield L, Martin M. Effects of neratinib on health-related quality of life in women with HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: longitudinal analyses from the randomized phase III ExteNET trial. Ann Oncol. 2019 Apr 1;30(4):567-574. link to original article PubMed
    3. Subgroup analysis: Iwata H, Masuda N, Kim SB, Inoue K, Rai Y, Fujita T, Chiu J, Ohtani S, Takahashi M, Miyaki T, Lu YS, Xu B, Yap YS, Bustam A, Yao B, Zhang B, Bryce R, Chan A. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients from Asia with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Future Oncol. 2019 Jul;15(21):2489-2501. Epub 2019 May 29. link to original article PubMed
    4. Update: Chan A, Moy B, Mansi J, Ejlertsen B, Holmes FA, Chia S, Iwata H, Gnant M, Loibl S, Barrios CH, Somali I, Smichkoska S, Martinez N, Alonso MG, Link JS, Mayer IA, Cold S, Murillo SM, Senecal F, Inoue K, Ruiz-Borrego M, Hui R, Denduluri N, Patt D, Rugo HS, Johnston SRD, Bryce R, Zhang B, Xu F, Wong A, Martin M; ExteNET Study Group. Final Efficacy Results of Neratinib in HER2-positive Hormone Receptor-positive Early-stage Breast Cancer From the Phase III ExteNET Trial. Clin Breast Cancer. 2021 Feb;21(1):80-91.e7. Epub 2020 Oct 6. link to original article PubMed
  9. PRESENT: Mittendorf EA, Lu B, Melisko M, Price Hiller J, Bondarenko I, Brunt AM, Sergii G, Petrakova K, Peoples GE. Efficacy and Safety Analysis of Nelipepimut-S Vaccine to Prevent Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Randomized, Multicenter, Phase III Clinical Trial. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Jul 15;25(14):4248-4254. Epub 2019 Apr 29. link to original article PubMed NCT01479244
  10. D-CARE: Coleman R, Finkelstein DM, Barrios C, Martin M, Iwata H, Hegg R, Glaspy J, Periañez AM, Tonkin K, Deleu I, Sohn J, Crown J, Delaloge S, Dai T, Zhou Y, Jandial D, Chan A. Adjuvant denosumab in early breast cancer (D-CARE): an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Jan;21(1):60-72. Epub 2019 Dec 2. link to original article PubMed NCT01077154
  11. OlympiA: Tutt ANJ, Garber JE, Kaufman B, Viale G, Fumagalli D, Rastogi P, Gelber RD, de Azambuja E, Fielding A, Balmaña J, Domchek SM, Gelmon KA, Hollingsworth SJ, Korde LA, Linderholm B, Bandos H, Senkus E, Suga JM, Shao Z, Pippas AW, Nowecki Z, Huzarski T, Ganz PA, Lucas PC, Baker N, Loibl S, McConnell R, Piccart M, Schmutzler R, Steger GG, Costantino JP, Arahmani A, Wolmark N, McFadden E, Karantza V, Lakhani SR, Yothers G, Campbell C, Geyer CE Jr; OlympiA Clinical Trial Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant Olaparib for Patients with BRCA1- or BRCA2-Mutated Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jun 24;384(25):2394-2405. Epub 2021 Jun 3. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02032823
    1. Update: Geyer CE Jr, Garber JE, Gelber RD, Yothers G, Taboada M, Ross L, Rastogi P, Cui K, Arahmani A, Aktan G, Armstrong AC, Arnedos M, Balmaña J, Bergh J, Bliss J, Delaloge S, Domchek SM, Eisen A, Elsafy F, Fein LE, Fielding A, Ford JM, Friedman S, Gelmon KA, Gianni L, Gnant M, Hollingsworth SJ, Im SA, Jager A, Jóhannsson ÓÞ, Lakhani SR, Janni W, Linderholm B, Liu TW, Loman N, Korde L, Loibl S, Lucas PC, Marmé F, Martinez de Dueñas E, McConnell R, Phillips KA, Piccart M, Rossi G, Schmutzler R, Senkus E, Shao Z, Sharma P, Singer CF, Španić T, Stickeler E, Toi M, Traina TA, Viale G, Zoppoli G, Park YH, Yerushalmi R, Yang H, Pang D, Jung KH, Mailliez A, Fan Z, Tennevet I, Zhang J, Nagy T, Sonke GS, Sun Q, Parton M, Colleoni MA, Schmidt M, Brufsky AM, Razaq W, Kaufman B, Cameron D, Campbell C, Tutt ANJ; OlympiA Clinical Trial Steering Committee and Investigators. Overall survival in the OlympiA phase III trial of adjuvant olaparib in patients with germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 and high-risk, early breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2022 Dec 1;33(12):1250-1268. Epub 2022 Oct 10. link to original article PubMed
  12. REACT: Coombes RC, Tovey H, Kilburn L, Mansi J, Palmieri C, Bartlett J, Hicks J, Makris A, Evans A, Loibl S, Denkert C, Murray E, Grieve R, Coleman R, Borley A, Schmidt M, Rautenberg B, Kunze CA, Rhein U, Mehta K, Mousa K, Dibble T, Lu XL, von Minckwitz G, Bliss JM; Randomized European Celecoxib Trial (REACT) Trial Management Group and Investigators. Effect of Celecoxib vs Placebo as Adjuvant Therapy on Disease-Free Survival Among Patients With Breast Cancer: The REACT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2021 Sep 1;7(9):1291-1301. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT02429427
  13. NCIC CTG MA.32: Goodwin PJ, Chen BE, Gelmon KA, Whelan TJ, Ennis M, Lemieux J, Ligibel JA, Hershman DL, Mayer IA, Hobday TJ, Bliss JM, Rastogi P, Rabaglio-Poretti M, Mukherjee SD, Mackey JR, Abramson VG, Oja C, Wesolowski R, Thompson AM, Rea DW, Stos PM, Shepherd LE, Stambolic V, Parulekar WR. Effect of Metformin vs Placebo on Invasive Disease-Free Survival in Patients With Breast Cancer: The MA.32 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2022 May 24;327(20):1963-1973. link to original article PubMed NCT01101438

Metastatic disease, maintenance after first-line therapy

Observation

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Falkson et al. 1998 (INT-0077) 1982-1992 Phase 3 (C) CMF(P)TH Inferior RFS
Sparano et al. 2004 (ECOG E2196) 1997-2001 Phase 3 (C) Marimastat Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS
Alba et al. 2010 (GEICAM 2001-01) 2002-2007 Phase 3 (C) PLD x 6 Inferior TTP
Park et al. 2013 (KCSG-BR07-02) 2007-2010 Phase 3 (C) PG Seems to have inferior OS

No further treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • ECOG E2196: Doxorubicin- and/or taxane-containing chemotherapy x 6-8
  • GEICAM 2001-01: A-D
  • KCSG-BR07-02: PG x 6

References

  1. INT-0077: Falkson G, Gelman RS, Pandya KJ, Osborne CK, Tormey D, Cummings FJ, Sledge GW, Abeloff MD. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group randomized trials of observation versus maintenance therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer in complete remission following induction treatment. J Clin Oncol. 1998 May;16(5):1669-76. link to original article PubMed
  2. ECOG E2196: Sparano JA, Bernardo P, Stephenson P, Gradishar WJ, Ingle JN, Zucker S, Davidson NE. Randomized phase III trial of marimastat versus placebo in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have responding or stable disease after first-line chemotherapy: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial E2196. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Dec 1;22(23):4683-90. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 1;23(1):248. link to original article PubMed NCT00003010
  3. GEICAM 2001-01: Alba E, Ruiz-Borrego M, Margelí M, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Sánchez-Rovira P, Ruiz A, Mel-Lorenzo JR, Ramos-Vázquez M, Ribelles N, Calvo E, Casado A, Márquez A, Vicente D, García-Sáenz JA, Martín M. Maintenance treatment with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus observation following induction chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: GEICAM 2001-01 study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jul;122(1):169-76. Epub 2010 Apr 2. link to original article PubMed NCT00128778
  4. KCSG-BR07-02: Park YH, Jung KH, Im SA, Sohn JH, Ro J, Ahn JH, Kim SB, Nam BH, Oh DY, Han SW, Lee S, Park IH, Lee KS, Kim JH, Kang SY, Lee MH, Park HS, Ahn JS, Im YH. Phase III, multicenter, randomized trial of maintenance chemotherapy versus observation in patients with metastatic breast cancer after achieving disease control with six cycles of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy: KCSG-BR07-02. J Clin Oncol. 2013 May 10;31(14):1732-9. Epub 2013 Apr 8. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00561119