Breast cancer - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main breast cancer page for current regimens.


Adjuvant therapy

Observation

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Lacour et al. 1980 1972-1979 Phase III (C) Polya.Polyu Might have inferior OS
Bonadonna et al. 1976 1973-1975 Phase III (C) CMF Inferior RFS
Jensen et al. 2017 (CBC 02) 1975-1978 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen x 2 y Seems to have inferior OS
Rubens et al. 1983 1975-1979 Phase III (C) Melphalan Might have inferior RFS
Baum et al. 1983 (NATO) 1977-1981 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen x 2 y Inferior OS
Brinker et al. 1983 (DBCG 77B) 1977-1983 Phase III (C) 1. CMF Seems to have inferior OS (*)
2. Cyclophosphamide Seems to have inferior OS (*)
3. Levamisole Did not meet primary endpoints of IDFS/OS
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS III) 1978-1981 Phase III (C) 1. CMFPT Inferior DFS
2. PT Inferior DFS
Goldhirsch et al. 1984 (LBCS IV) 1978-1981 Phase III (C) PT Seems to have inferior DFS
Stewart et al. 1987 (Scottish Tamoxifen Trial) 1978-1984 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen x 5 y Inferior OS (*)
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-13) 1981-1988 Phase III (C) MF; sequential Inferior DFS (*)
Mansour et al. 1989 (INT-0011) 1981-1988 Phase III (C) CMFP Inferior DFS
Jakesz et al. 1998 1984-1990 Phase III (C) AV-CMF Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS60
Rydén et al. 2005 (SBII:2pre) 1986-1991 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen x 2 y Inferior RFS
Hutchins et al. 2005 (INT-0102) 1989-1993 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen x 5 y Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Paradiso et al. 2001 1989-1994 Phase III (C) FEC Seems to have inferior DFS
Colleoni et al. 2006 (IBCSG 13-93) 1993-1999 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen x 5 y Superior DFS
Henderson et al. 2003 (INT 0148/CALGB 9344) 1994-1999 Phase III (C) Paclitaxel; q3wk Inferior OS
Mamounas et al. 2005 (NSABP B-28) 1995-1998 Phase III (C) Paclitaxel; q3wk Inferior DFS
Colleoni et al. 2016 (IBCSG 22-00) 2000-2012 Phase III (C) CM Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Zdenkowski et al. 2016 (ANZ0501 LATER) 2007-2012 Phase III (C) Letrozole x 5 y Might have inferior DFS
Nasr et al. 2015 2008-2014 Phase III (C) CM Seems to have inferior OS

Note: No further systemic treatment; many of these trials incorporated RT, however (see individual papers for details). Jakesz et al. 1998 was conducted prior to routine testing of HER2, so it technically included "double-negative" patients. Reported efficacy for NSABP B-13 is based on the 1996 update. Reported efficacy for the Scottish Tamoxifen Trial is based on the 2001 update. Reported efficacy for DBCG 77B is based on the 2010 update.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. Bonadonna G, Brusamolino E, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Brugnatelli L, Brambilla C, De Lena M, Tancini G, Bajetta E, Musumeci R, Veronesi U. Combination chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in operable breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 19;294(8):405-10. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Bonadonna G, Rossi A, Valagussa P, Banfi A, Veronesi U. The CMF program for operable breast cancer with positive axillary nodes: updated analysis on the disease-free interval, site of relapse and drug tolerance. Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2904-15. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Rossi A, Tancini G, Brambilla C, Zambetti M, Veronesi U. Ten-year experience with CMF-based adjuvant chemotherapy in resectable breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1985;5(2):95-115. PubMed
    3. Update: Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, Zambetti M, Brambilla C. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer: the results of 20 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med. 1995 Apr 6;332(14):901-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. Lacour J, Lacour F, Spira A, Michelson M, Petit JY, Delage G, Sarrazin D, Contesso G, Viguier J. Adjuvant treatment with polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid (Polya-Polyu) in operable breast cancer. Lancet. 1980 Jul 26;2(8187):161-4. link to original article PubMed
  3. NATO: Baum M, Brinkley DM, Dosset JA, McPherson K, Patterson JS, Rubens RD, Smiddy FG, Stoll BA, Wilson A, Lea JC, Richards D, Ellis SH. Controlled trial of tamoxifen as adjuvant agent in management of early breast cancer: interim analysis at four years by Nolvadex Adjuvant Trial Organisation. Lancet. 1983 Feb 5;1(8319):257-61. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Baum M, Brinkley DM, Dosset JA, McPherson K, Patterson JS, Rubens RD, Smiddy FG, Stoll BA, Wilson A, Richards D, Ellis SH. Controlled trial of tamoxifen as single adjuvant agent in management of early breast cancer: analysis at six years by Nolvadex Adjuvant Trial Organisation. Lancet. 1985 Apr 13;1(8433):836-40. link to original article PubMed
  4. Rubens RD, Hayward JL, Knight RK, Bulbrook RD, Fentiman IS, Chaudary M, Howell A, Bush H, Crowther D, Sellwood RA, George WD, Howat JM. Controlled trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with melphalan for breast cancer. Lancet. 1983 Apr 16;1(8329):839-43. link to original article PubMed
  5. DBCG 77B: Brincker H, Mouridsen HT, Andersen KW. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or CMF in premenopausal women with stage II breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1983;3(1):91-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Andersen J, Andersson M, Kamby C, Knoop AS; Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil; oral cyclophosphamide; levamisole; or no adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk, premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer. 2010 May 1;116(9):2081-9. link to original article PubMed
  6. LBCS III/IV: Goldhirsch A; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Randomised trial of chemo-endocrine therapy, endocrine therapy, and mastectomy alone in postmenopausal patients with operable breast cancer and axillary node metastasis. Lancet. 1984 Jun 9;1(8389):1256-60. link to original article PubMed
  7. Scottish Tamoxifen Trial: Stewart HJ, Taylor W, Forrest P. Adjuvant tamoxifen in the management of operable breast cancer: the Scottish Trial: report from the Breast Cancer Trials Committee, Scottish Cancer Trials Office (MRC), Edinburgh. Lancet. 1987 Jul 25;2(8552):171-5. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Stewart HJ, Forrest AP, Everington D, McDonald CC, Dewar JA, Hawkins RA, Prescott RJ, George WD; Scottish Cancer Trials Breast Group. Randomised comparison of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen with continuous therapy for operable breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1996 Jul;74(2):297-9. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Stewart HJ, Prescott RJ, Forrest AP. Scottish adjuvant tamoxifen trial: a randomized study updated to 15 years. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Mar 21;93(6):456-62. link to original article PubMed
  8. NSABP B-13: Fisher B, Redmond C, Dimitrov NV, Bowman D, Legault-Poisson S, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER, Margolese R, Sutherland C, Glass A, Foster R, Caplan R. A randomized clinical trial evaluating sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-negative tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):473-8. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Mamounas EP, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond C, Wolmark N, Dimitrov NV, Bowman DM, Glass AG, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Sutherland CM, Aron BS, Margolese RG. Sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil for the treatment of node-negative breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors: eight-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-13 and first report of findings from NSABP B-19 comparing methotrexate and fluorouracil with conventional cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jul;14(7):1982-92. link to original article PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  9. INT-0011: Mansour EG, Gray R, Shatila AH, Osborne CK, Tormey DC, Gilchrist KW, Cooper MR, Falkson G. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk node-negative breast cancer: an intergroup study. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):485-90. link to original article PubMed
  10. LCBS V: Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD; Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group. Prolonged disease-free survival after one course of perioperative adjuvant chemotherapy for node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):491-6. link to original article PubMed
  11. Jakesz R, Samonigg H, Gnant M, Kubista E, Steindorfer P, Hausmaninger H, Sevelda P, Tschurtschenthaler B, Fridrik M, Stierer M, Kolb R, Steger G; Austrian Breast Cancer Study Group. Very low-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in steroid receptor negative stage I breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1998 Jan; 34 (1): 66-70. link to original article PubMed
  12. Paradiso A, Schittulli F, Cellamare G, Mangia A, Marzullo F, Lorusso V, De Lena M. Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for patients with fast-proliferating, node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Oct 1;19(19):3929-37. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  13. INT 0148/CALGB 9344: Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, Cirrincione CT, Goldstein LJ, Martino S, Ingle JN, Cooper MR, Hayes DF, Tkaczuk KH, Fleming G, Holland JF, Duggan DB, Carpenter JT, Frei E 3rd, Schilsky RL, Wood WC, Muss HB, Norton L. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):976-83. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  14. SBII:2pre: Rydén L, Jönsson PE, Chebil G, Dufmats M, Fernö M, Jirström K, Källström AC, Landberg G, Stål O, Thorstenson S, Nordenskjöld B; South Swedish Breast Cancer Group; South-East Swedish Breast Cancer Group. Two years of adjuvant tamoxifen in premenopausal patients with breast cancer: a randomised, controlled trial with long-term follow-up. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Jan;41(2):256-64. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Ekholm M, Bendahl PO, Fernö M, Nordenskjöld B, Stål O, Rydén L. Two years of adjuvant tamoxifen provides a survival benefit compared with no systemic treatment in premenopausal patients with primary breast cancer: Long-term follow-up (> 25 years) of the phase III SBII:2pre trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jul 1;34(19):2232-8. Epub 2016 May 9. link to original article PubMed
  15. NSABP B-28: Mamounas EP, Bryant J, Lembersky B, Fehrenbacher L, Sedlacek SM, Fisher B, Wickerham DL, Yothers G, Soran A, Wolmark N. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3686-96. Epub 2005 May 16. link to original article PubMed
  16. INT-0102: Hutchins LF, Green SJ, Ravdin PM, Lew D, Martino S, Abeloff M, Lyss AP, Allred C, Rivkin SE, Osborne CK. Randomized, controlled trial of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil with and without tamoxifen for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: treatment results of intergroup protocol INT-0102. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8313-21. link to original article PubMed
  17. IBCSG 13-93: Colleoni M, Gelber S, Goldhirsch A, Aebi S, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Price KN, Coates AS, Gelber RD; International Breast Cancer Study Group. Tamoxifen after adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal women with lymph node-positive breast cancer: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 13-93. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Mar 20;24(9):1332-41. Epub 2006 Feb 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  18. Nasr KE, Osman MA, Elkady MS, Ellithy MA. Metronomic methotrexate and cyclophosphamide after carboplatin included adjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer: a phase III study. Ann Transl Med. 2015 Nov;3(19):284. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  19. ANZ0501 LATER: Zdenkowski N, Forbes JF, Boyle FM, Kannourakis G, Gill PG, Bayliss E, Saunders C, Della-Fiorentina S, Kling N, Campbell I, Mann GB, Coates AS, Gebski V, Davies L, Thornton R, Reaby L, Cuzick J, Green M; Australia and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group. Observation versus late reintroduction of letrozole as adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (ANZ0501 LATER): an open-label randomised, controlled trial. Ann Oncol. 2016 May;27(5):806-12. Epub 2016 Feb 9. link to original article PubMed
  20. IBCSG 22-00: Colleoni M, Gray KP, Gelber S, Láng I, Thürlimann B, Gianni L, Abdi EA, Gomez HL, Linderholm BK, Puglisi F, Tondini C, Kralidis E, Eniu A, Cagossi K, Rauch D, Chirgwin J, Gelber RD, Regan MM, Coates AS, Price KN, Viale G, Goldhirsch A. Low-dose oral cyclophosphamide and methotrexate maintenance for hormone receptor-negative early breast cancer: International Breast Cancer Study Group trial 22-00. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Oct 1;34(28):3400-8. Epub 2016 Jun 20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  21. CBC 02: Jensen MB, Krarup JF, Palshof T, Mouridsen HT, Ejlertsen B. Two years of tamoxifen or no adjuvant systemic therapy for patients with high-risk breast cancer: long-term follow-up of the Copenhagen Breast Cancer Trial. Acta Oncol. 2018 Jan;57(1):26-30. Epub 2017 Nov 22. link to original article PubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fisher et al. 1975 (NSABP B-05) 1972-1975 Phase III (C) Melphalan Might have inferior DFS (*)
Fisher et al. 1989 (NSABP B-14) 1982-1987 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen Inferior OS (*)
Fisher et al. 2001 (NSABP B-23) 1991-1998 Phase III (C) Tamoxifen Did not meet primary endpoint of OS
Goss et al. 2003 (NCIC CTG MA.17) 1998-2002 Phase III (C) Letrozole Inferior DFS
Mamounas et al. 2008 (NSABP B-33) 2001-2003 Phase III (C) Exemestane Inferior RFS
Goss et al. 2012 (TEACH) 2006-2008 Phase III (C) Lapatinib Might have inferior DFS
Chan et al. 2016 (ExteNET) 2009-2011 Phase III (C) Neratinib Inferior invasive DFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Used as a comparator arm, historically. Reported efficacy for NSABP B-05 is based on the 1986 update. Reported efficacy for NSABP B-14 based on the 2004 update.

Preceding treatment

  • NSABP B-05: Mastectomy
  • NSABP B-14: Surgery
  • NSABP B-23: CMF x 6 versus AC x 4
  • NCIC CTG MA.17: Tamoxifen x 5y
  • NSABP B-33: Tamoxifen x 5y
  • TEACH: Surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy but not trastuzumab
  • ExteNET: Surgery and trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy (neoadjuvant or adjuvant)

References

  1. NSABP B-05: Fisher B, Carbone P, Economou SG, Frelick R, Glass A, Lerner H, Redmond C, Zelen M, Band P, Katrych DL, Wolmark N, Fisher ER. 1-Phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: a report of early findings. N Engl J Med. 1975 Jan 16;292(3):117-22. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Glass A, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Barton B, Such E, Carbone P, Economou S, Foster R, Frelick R, Lerner H, Levitt M, Margolese R, MacFarlane J, Plotkin D, Shibata H, Volk H. L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: an update of earlier findings and a comparison with those utilizing L-PAM plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Cancer. 1977 Jun;39(6 Suppl):2883-903. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Fisher ER, Redmond C. Ten-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) clinical trial evaluating the use of L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Jun;4(6):929-41. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-14: Fisher B, Costantino J, Redmond C, Poisson R, Bowman D, Couture J, Dimitrov NV, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, Margolese R, Robidoux A, Shibata H, Terz J, Peterson AHG, Feldman MI, Farrar W, Evans J, Lickley HL, Ketner M. A randomized clinical trial evaluating tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):479-84. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, DeCillis A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Costantino J, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Bowman DM, Deschênes L, Dimitrov NV, Margolese RG, Robidoux A, Shibata H, Terz J, Paterson AH, Feldman MI, Farrar W, Evans J, Lickley HL. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes and estrogen receptor-positive tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Nov 6;88(21):1529-42. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, Wolmark N. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen for lymph node-negative breast cancer: updated findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 2;93(9):684-90. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Fisher B, Jeong JH, Bryant J, Anderson S, Dignam J, Fisher ER, Wolmark N; National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomised clinical trials. Treatment of lymph-node-negative, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer: long-term findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2004 Sep 4-10;364(9437):858-68. link to original article PubMed
    4. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  3. NSABP B-23: Fisher B, Anderson S, Tan-Chiu E, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, Dimitrov NV, Atkins JN, Abramson N, Merajver S, Romond EH, Kardinal CG, Shibata HR, Margolese RG, Farrar WB. Tamoxifen and chemotherapy for axillary node-negative, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-23. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):931-42. link to original article PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Low locoregional recurrence rate among node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm or larger treated by mastectomy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and without radiotherapy: results from five national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32. link to original article PubMed
  4. NCIC CTG MA.17: Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Tu D, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, Livingston RB, Davidson NE, Norton L, Perez EA, Abrams JS, Therasse P, Palmer MJ, Pater JL. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Nov 6;349(19):1793-802. Epub 2003 Oct 9. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Tu D, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, Livingston RB, Davidson NE, Norton L, Perez EA, Abrams JS, Cameron DA, Palmer MJ, Pater JL. Randomized trial of letrozole following tamoxifen as extended adjuvant therapy in receptor-positive breast cancer: updated findings from NCIC CTG MA.17. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Sep 7;97(17):1262-71. link to original article PubMed
    2. QoL analysis: Whelan TJ, Goss PE, Ingle JN, Pater JL, Tu D, Pritchard K, Liu S, Shepherd LE, Palmer M, Robert NJ, Martino S, Muss HB. Assessment of quality of life in MA.17: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of letrozole after 5 years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6931-40. Epub 2005 Sep 12. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Muss HB, Tu D, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Pater JL, Whelan TJ, Palmer MJ, Piccart MJ, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, He Z, Goss PE. Efficacy, toxicity, and quality of life in older women with early-stage breast cancer treated with letrozole or placebo after 5 years of tamoxifen: NCIC CTG intergroup trial MA.17. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1956-64. Epub 2008 Mar 10. link to original article PubMed
    4. Subgroup analysis: Goss PE, Ingle JN, Pater JL, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, Livingston RB, Davidson NE, Norton L, Perez EA, Abrams JS, Cameron DA, Palmer MJ, Tu D. Late extended adjuvant treatment with letrozole improves outcome in women with early-stage breast cancer who complete 5 years of tamoxifen. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1948-55. Epub 2008 Mar 10. link to original article PubMed
    5. Update: Jin H, Tu D, Zhao N, Shepherd LE, Goss PE. Longer-term outcomes of letrozole versus placebo after 5 years of tamoxifen in the NCIC CTG MA.17 trial: analyses adjusting for treatment crossover. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 1;30(7):718-21. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  5. NSABP B-33: Mamounas EP, Jeong JH, Wickerham DL, Smith RE, Ganz PA, Land SR, Eisen A, Fehrenbacher L, Farrar WB, Atkins JN, Pajon ER, Vogel VG, Kroener JF, Hutchins LF, Robidoux A, Hoehn JL, Ingle JN, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Wolmark N. Benefit from exemestane as extended adjuvant therapy after 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen: intention-to-treat analysis of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast And Bowel Project B-33 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1965-71. Epub 2008 Mar 10. link to original article PubMed
  6. TEACH: Goss PE, Smith IE, O'Shaughnessy J, Ejlertsen B, Kaufmann M, Boyle F, Buzdar AU, Fumoleau P, Gradishar W, Martin M, Moy B, Piccart-Gebhart M, Pritchard KI, Lindquist D, Chavarri-Guerra Y, Aktan G, Rappold E, Williams LS, Finkelstein DM; TEACH investigators. Adjuvant lapatinib for women with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer: a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Jan;14(1):88-96. Epub 2012 Dec 10. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2013 Feb;14(2):e47. link to original article PubMed
  7. ExteNET: Chan A, Delaloge S, Holmes FA, Moy B, Iwata H, Harvey VJ, Robert NJ, Silovski T, Gokmen E, von Minckwitz G, Ejlertsen B, Chia SK, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Buyse M, Gore I, Smith J 2nd, Harker G, Masuda N, Petrakova K, Zotano AG, Iannotti N, Rodriguez G, Tassone P, Wong A, Bryce R, Ye Y, Yao B, Martin M; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Mar;17(3):367-77. Epub 2016 Feb 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Martin M, Holmes FA, Ejlertsen B, Delaloge S, Moy B, Iwata H, von Minckwitz G, Chia SKL, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Tomašević Z, Denduluri N, Šeparović R, Gokmen E, Bashford A, Ruiz Borrego M, Kim SB, Jakobsen EH, Ciceniene A, Inoue K, Overkamp F, Heijns JB, Armstrong AC, Link JS, Joy AA, Bryce R, Wong A, Moran S, Yao B, Xu F, Auerbach A, Buyse M, Chan A; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Dec;18(12):1688-1700. Epub 2017 Nov 13. link to original article PubMed
    2. HRQoL analysis: Delaloge S, Cella D, Ye Y, Buyse M, Chan A, Barrios CH, Holmes FA, Mansi J, Iwata H, Ejlertsen B, Moy B, Chia SKL, Gnant M, Smichkoska S, Ciceniene A, Martinez N, Filipović S, Ben-Baruch NE, Joy AA, Langkjer ST, Senecal F, de Boer RH, Moran S, Yao B, Bryce R, Auerbach A, Fallowfield L, Martin M. Effects of neratinib on health-related quality of life in women with HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: longitudinal analyses from the randomized phase III ExteNET trial. Ann Oncol. 2019 Apr 1;30(4):567-574. link to original article PubMed
    3. Subgroup analysis: Iwata H, Masuda N, Kim SB, Inoue K, Rai Y, Fujita T, Chiu J, Ohtani S, Takahashi M, Miyaki T, Lu YS, Xu B, Yap YS, Bustam A, Yao B, Zhang B, Bryce R, Chan A. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients from Asia with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Future Oncol. 2019 Jul;15(21):2489-2501. Epub 2019 May 29. link to original article PubMed

Metastatic disease, maintenance after first-line therapy

Observation

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Falkson et al. 1998 (INT-0077) Phase III (C) CMF(P)TH Inferior RFS
Sparano et al. 2004 (ECOG E2196) Phase III (C) Marimastat Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS
Alba et al. 2010 (GEICAM 2001-01) Phase III (C) PLD x 6 Inferior TTP
Park et al. 2013 (KCSG-BR07-02) Phase III (C) PG Seems to have inferior OS

No further treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • ECOG E2196: Doxorubicin- and/or taxane-containing chemotherapy x 6-8
  • GEICAM 2001-01: A x 3, then D x 3
  • KCSG-BR07-02: PG x 6

References

  1. INT-0077: Falkson G, Gelman RS, Pandya KJ, Osborne CK, Tormey D, Cummings FJ, Sledge GW, Abeloff MD. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group randomized trials of observation versus maintenance therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer in complete remission following induction treatment. J Clin Oncol. 1998 May;16(5):1669-76. link to original article PubMed
  2. ECOG E2196: Sparano JA, Bernardo P, Stephenson P, Gradishar WJ, Ingle JN, Zucker S, Davidson NE. Randomized phase III trial of marimastat versus placebo in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have responding or stable disease after first-line chemotherapy: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial E2196. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Dec 1;22(23):4683-90. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 1;23(1):248. link to original article PubMed
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