Marginal zone lymphoma

From HemOnc.org - A Hematology Oncology Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Use of this site is subject to you reading and agreeing with the terms set forth in the disclaimer.

Is there a regimen missing from this list? Would you like to share a different dosage/schedule or an additional reference for a regimen? Have you noticed an error? Do you have an idea that will help the site grow to better meet your needs and the needs of many others? You are invited to contribute to the site.

32 regimens on this page
34 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ESMO

Older

NCCN

Untreated, randomized data

Note: Untreated in this context implies chemotherapy-naive. Some patients in the following studies, especially those with gastric MALT, received H. pylori eradication therapy or radiation prior to chemotherapy.

BR

back to top

BR: Bendamustine, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Flinn et al. 2014 (BRIGHT) Phase III R-CHOP
R-CVP
Superior PFS (*)
Salar et al. 2014 (GELTAMO MALT2008-01) Phase II

Efficacy for BRIGHT is based on the 2017 update.

Chemotherapy

Note: the bendamustine infusion instructions are for the Treanda formulation, which was discontinued on 3/31/2016.

Supportive medications

  • Antiemetics, antipyretics, and antibiotics according to local standard of care
  • Prophylactic use of G-CSF allowed according ASCO guidelines (2006)

28-day cycle for up to 8 cycles, see note

Note: treatment in MALT2008-01 was response adapted; patients with CR after 3 cycles received a total of 4 cycles, whereas patients with PR after 3 cycles received a total of 6 cycles.

References

  1. Flinn IW, van der Jagt R, Kahl BS, Wood P, Hawkins TE, Macdonald D, Hertzberg M, Kwan YL, Simpson D, Craig M, Kolibaba K, Issa S, Clementi R, Hallman DM, Munteanu M, Chen L, Burke JM. Randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab or R-CHOP/R-CVP in first-line treatment of indolent NHL or MCL: the BRIGHT study. Blood. 2014 May 8;123(19):2944-52. Epub 2014 Mar 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Abstract: Ian Flinn, Richard van der Jagt, Julie E. Chang, Peter Wood, Tim E. Hawkins, David MacDonald, Judith Trotman, David Simpson, Kathryn S. Kolibaba, Samar Issa, Doreen M. Hallman, Ling Chen, and John M. Burke. First-line treatment of iNHL or MCL patients with BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP: Results of the BRIGHT 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017 35:15_suppl, 7500-7500 link to abstract
  2. Salar A, Domingo-Domenech E, Panizo C, Nicolás C, Bargay J, Muntañola A, Canales M, Bello JL, Sancho JM, Tomás JF, Rodríguez MJ, Peñalver FJ, Grande C, Sánchez-Blanco JJ, Palomera L, Arranz R, Conde E, García M, García JF, Caballero D, Montalbán C; Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante de Médula Ósea (GELTAMO). First-line response-adapted treatment with the combination of bendamustine and rituximab in patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT2008-01): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial. Lancet Haematol. 2014 Dec;1(3):e104-11. Epub 2014 Nov 19. link to SD article contains protocol PubMed

Chlorambucil monotherapy

back to top

Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Leblond et al. 2012 (WM1) Phase III Fludarabine Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for up to 12 cycles

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Zucca et al. 2013 (IELSG-19) Phase III Chlorambucil & Rituximab Seems to have inferior PFS (*)
Rituximab Seems not superior (*)

Note: reported efficacy is based on the 2017 update.

Chemotherapy

One course

Patients with stable disease or better proceeded to chlorambucil consolidation.

References

  1. Leblond V, Johnson S, Chevret S, Copplestone A, Rule S, Tournilhac O, Seymour JF, Patmore RD, Wright D, Morel P, Dilhuydy MS, Willoughby S, Dartigeas C, Malphettes M, Royer B, Ewings M, Pratt G, Lejeune J, Nguyen-Khac F, Choquet S, Owen RG. Results of a randomized trial of chlorambucil versus fludarabine for patients with untreated waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan 20;31(3):301-7. Epub 2012 Dec 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Zucca E, Conconi A, Laszlo D, López-Guillermo A, Bouabdallah R, Coiffier B, Sebban C, Jardin F, Vitolo U, Morschhauser F, Pileri SA, Copie-Bergman C, Campo E, Jack A, Floriani I, Johnson P, Martelli M, Cavalli F, Martinelli G, Thieblemont C. Addition of rituximab to chlorambucil produces superior event-free survival in the treatment of patients with extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma: 5-year analysis of the IELSG-19 randomized study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 10;31(5):565-72. Epub 2013 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Zucca E, Conconi A, Martinelli G, Bouabdallah R, Tucci A, Vitolo U, Martelli M, Pettengell R, Salles G, Sebban C, Guillermo AL, Pinotti G, Devizzi L, Morschhauser F, Tilly H, Torri V, Hohaus S, Ferreri AJM, Zachée P, Bosly A, Haioun C, Stelitano C, Bellei M, Ponzoni M, Moreau A, Jack A, Campo E, Mazzucchelli L, Cavalli F, Johnson P, Thieblemont C. Final results of the IELSG-19 randomized trial of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: improved event-free and progression-free survival with rituximab plus chlorambucil versus either chlorambucil or rituximab monotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jun 10;35(17):1905-1912. Epub 2017 Mar 29. link to original articlePubMed

Chlorambucil & Rituximab

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Zucca et al. 2013 (IELSG-19) Phase III Chlorambucil
Rituximab
Seems to have superior PFS (*)

Note: reported efficacy is based on the 2017 update.

Chemotherapy

One course

Patients with stable disease or better proceeded to chlorambucil & rituximab consolidation.

References

  1. Zucca E, Conconi A, Laszlo D, López-Guillermo A, Bouabdallah R, Coiffier B, Sebban C, Jardin F, Vitolo U, Morschhauser F, Pileri SA, Copie-Bergman C, Campo E, Jack A, Floriani I, Johnson P, Martelli M, Cavalli F, Martinelli G, Thieblemont C. Addition of rituximab to chlorambucil produces superior event-free survival in the treatment of patients with extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma: 5-year analysis of the IELSG-19 randomized study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 10;31(5):565-72. Epub 2013 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Zucca E, Conconi A, Martinelli G, Bouabdallah R, Tucci A, Vitolo U, Martelli M, Pettengell R, Salles G, Sebban C, Guillermo AL, Pinotti G, Devizzi L, Morschhauser F, Tilly H, Torri V, Hohaus S, Ferreri AJM, Zachée P, Bosly A, Haioun C, Stelitano C, Bellei M, Ponzoni M, Moreau A, Jack A, Campo E, Mazzucchelli L, Cavalli F, Johnson P, Thieblemont C. Final results of the IELSG-19 randomized trial of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: improved event-free and progression-free survival with rituximab plus chlorambucil versus either chlorambucil or rituximab monotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jun 10;35(17):1905-1912. Epub 2017 Mar 29. link to original articlePubMed

Fludarabine monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Leblond et al. 2012 (WM1) Phase III Chlorambucil Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

  • Fludarabine (Fludara) 40 mg/m2 (30 mg/m2 per day if older than 75 years old) PO once per day on days 1 to 5

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Leblond V, Johnson S, Chevret S, Copplestone A, Rule S, Tournilhac O, Seymour JF, Patmore RD, Wright D, Morel P, Dilhuydy MS, Willoughby S, Dartigeas C, Malphettes M, Royer B, Ewings M, Pratt G, Lejeune J, Nguyen-Khac F, Choquet S, Owen RG. Results of a randomized trial of chlorambucil versus fludarabine for patients with untreated waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan 20;31(3):301-7. Epub 2012 Dec 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

R-CHOP

back to top

R-CHOP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone

Synonyms: R-CHOP-21, CHOP-R

Structured Concept: C9760 (NCI-T), C0393023 (NCI-MT/UMLS)

Example orders

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Flinn et al. 2014 (BRIGHT) Phase III, <20 in this arm BR Seems not superior
R-CVP Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Flinn IW, van der Jagt R, Kahl BS, Wood P, Hawkins TE, Macdonald D, Hertzberg M, Kwan YL, Simpson D, Craig M, Kolibaba K, Issa S, Clementi R, Hallman DM, Munteanu M, Chen L, Burke JM. Randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab or R-CHOP/R-CVP in first-line treatment of indolent NHL or MCL: the BRIGHT study. Blood. 2014 May 8;123(19):2944-52. Epub 2014 Mar 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Abstract: Ian Flinn, Richard van der Jagt, Julie E. Chang, Peter Wood, Tim E. Hawkins, David MacDonald, Judith Trotman, David Simpson, Kathryn S. Kolibaba, Samar Issa, Doreen M. Hallman, Ling Chen, and John M. Burke. First-line treatment of iNHL or MCL patients with BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP: Results of the BRIGHT 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017 35:15_suppl, 7500-7500 link to abstract

R-CVP

back to top

R-CVP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Flinn et al. 2014 (BRIGHT) Phase III, <20 in this arm BR Seems not superior
R-CHOP Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Flinn IW, van der Jagt R, Kahl BS, Wood P, Hawkins TE, Macdonald D, Hertzberg M, Kwan YL, Simpson D, Craig M, Kolibaba K, Issa S, Clementi R, Hallman DM, Munteanu M, Chen L, Burke JM. Randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab or R-CHOP/R-CVP in first-line treatment of indolent NHL or MCL: the BRIGHT study. Blood. 2014 May 8;123(19):2944-52. Epub 2014 Mar 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Conconi et al. 2003 (IELSG 6) Phase II
Martinelli et al. 2005 Phase II
Williams et al. 2016 (RESORT) Non-randomized
Zucca et al. 2017 (IELSG-19) Phase III Chlorambucil Seems not superior
Chlorambucil & Rituximab Seems to have inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once per week; initial infusion rate of 50 mg/H, then increased as tolerated by 50 mg/H every 30 minutes, to a maximum rate of 300 mg/H

Supportive medications

4-week course

Patients with PR/CR in RESORT were randomized to indefinite rituximab versus salvage rituximab at time of progression.

References

  1. Conconi A, Martinelli G, Thiéblemont C, Ferreri AJ, Devizzi L, Peccatori F, Ponzoni M, Pedrinis E, Dell'Oro S, Pruneri G, Filipazzi V, Dietrich PY, Gianni AM, Coiffier B, Cavalli F, Zucca E. Clinical activity of rituximab in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type. Blood. 2003 Oct 15;102(8):2741-5. link to orginal article contains verified protocol PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
  2. Martinelli G, Laszlo D, Ferreri AJ, Pruneri G, Ponzoni M, Conconi A, Crosta C, Pedrinis E, Bertoni F, Calabrese L, Zucca E. Clinical activity of rituximab in gastric marginal zone non-Hodgkin's lymphoma resistant to or not eligible for anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Mar 20;23(9):1979-83. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Williams ME, Hong F, Gascoyne RD, Wagner LI, Krauss JC, Habermann TM, Swinnen LJ, Schuster SJ, Peterson CG, Sborov MD, Martin SE, Weiss M, Ehmann WC, Horning SJ, Kahl BS. Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(6):867-75. Epub 2016 Mar 11. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Zucca E, Conconi A, Martinelli G, Bouabdallah R, Tucci A, Vitolo U, Martelli M, Pettengell R, Salles G, Sebban C, Guillermo AL, Pinotti G, Devizzi L, Morschhauser F, Tilly H, Torri V, Hohaus S, Ferreri AJM, Zachée P, Bosly A, Haioun C, Stelitano C, Bellei M, Ponzoni M, Moreau A, Jack A, Campo E, Mazzucchelli L, Cavalli F, Johnson P, Thieblemont C. Final results of the IELSG-19 randomized trial of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: improved event-free and progression-free survival with rituximab plus chlorambucil versus either chlorambucil or rituximab monotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jun 10;35(17):1905-1912. Epub 2017 Mar 29. link to original articlePubMed

Untreated, non-randomized or retrospective data

Note: Untreated in this context implies chemotherapy-naive. Some patients in the following studies, especially those with gastric MALT, received H. pylori eradication therapy or radiation prior to chemotherapy.

Bortezomib monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Troch et al. 2009 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Troch M, Jonak C, Müllauer L, Püspök A, Formanek M, Hauff W, Zielinski CC, Chott A, Raderer M. A phase II study of bortezomib in patients with MALT lymphoma. Haematologica. 2009 May;94(5):738-42. Epub 2009 Mar 31. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Cladribine monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Jäger et al. 2002 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 to 6 cycles

Dose reductions

  • "In case of a persisting nadir of the WBC count less than or equal to 4.0 × 109/L (or ANC less than or equal to 1500/uL) and/or the platelets less than or equal to 100 × 109/L, the next treatment cycle was delayed by 1 week until achieving normal values and then treatment was administered at a reduced dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight."

References

  1. Jäger G, Neumeister P, Brezinschek R, Hinterleitner T, Fiebiger W, Penz M, Neumann HJ, Mlineritsch B, DeSantis M, Quehenberger F, Chott A, Beham-Schmid C, Höfler G, Linkesch W, Raderer M. Treatment of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type with cladribine: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Sep 15;20(18):3872-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cladribine & Rituximab

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Troch et al. 2012 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Troch M, Kiesewetter B, Willenbacher W, Willenbacher E, Zebisch A, Linkesch W, Fridrik M, Müllauer L, Greil R, Raderer M. Rituximab plus subcutaneous cladribine in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a phase II study by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentose Tumortherapie. Haematologica. 2013 Feb;98(2):264-8. Epub 2012 Sep 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Doxycycline

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Ferreri et al. 2006 Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup
Ferreri et al. 2012 Phase II

This treatment was intended for patients with ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphoma (OAMZL), given the association with Chlamydia psittaci.

Antibiotic therapy

3-week course

References

  1. Ferreri AJ, Ponzoni M, Guidoboni M, Resti AG, Politi LS, Cortelazzo S, Demeter J, Zallio F, Palmas A, Muti G, Dognini GP, Pasini E, Lettini AA, Sacchetti F, De Conciliis C, Doglioni C, Dolcetti R. Bacteria-eradicating therapy with doxycycline in ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma: a multicenter prospective trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Oct 4;98(19):1375-82. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Ferreri AJ, Govi S, Pasini E, Mappa S, Bertoni F, Zaja F, Montalbán C, Stelitano C, Cabrera ME, Giordano Resti A, Politi LS, Doglioni C, Cavalli F, Zucca E, Ponzoni M, Dolcetti R. Chlamydophila psittaci eradication with doxycycline as first-line targeted therapy for ocular adnexae lymphoma: final results of an international phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Aug 20;30(24):2988-94. Epub 2012 Jul 16. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 1;30(31):3903. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Fludarabine & Rituximab

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Salar et al. 2009 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Fludarabine (Fludara) 25 mg/m2 IV (or 40 mg/m2 PO) once per day on days 1 to 5
    • Patients with gastric lymphoma received the cycle 1 dose intravenously to guarantee drug absorption
  • Rituximab (Rituxan) 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1

Dose reductions:

    • Patients greater than 70 years old could receive Fludarabine (Fludara) at the above dose, but only once per day on days 1 to 3

Supportive medications

28-day cycles for 4-6 cycles

References

  1. Salar A, Domingo-Domenech E, Estany C, Canales MA, Gallardo F, Servitje O, Fraile G, Montalbán C. Combination therapy with rituximab and intravenous or oral fludarabine in the first-line, systemic treatment of patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Cancer. 2009 Nov 15;115(22):5210-7. link to orginal article contains verified protocol PubMed

Ibritumomab tiuxetan monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Samaniego et al. 2014 Phase II, <20 patients reported
Lossos et al. 2014 Phase II, <20 patients reported

Chemotherapy

Dose reductions:

One course of therapy

References

  1. Samaniego F, Berkova Z, Romaguera JE, Fowler N, Fanale MA, Pro B, Shah JJ, McLaughlin P, Sehgal L, Selvaraj V, Braun FK, Mathur R, Feng L, Neelapu SS, Kwak LW. 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radiotherapy as first-line therapy for early stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including bulky disease. Br J Haematol. 2014 Oct;167(2):207-13. Epub 2014 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Lossos IS, Fabregas JC, Koru-Sengul T, Miao F, Goodman D, Serafini AN, Hosein PJ, Stefanovic A, Rosenblatt JD, Hoffman JE. Phase II study of (90)Y Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in patients with previously untreated marginal zone lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2015 Jun;56(6):1750-5. Epub 2014 Nov 20. link to original article PubMed

Lenalidomide monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Kiesewetter et al. 2012 Phase II, <20 patients reported

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Kiesewetter B, Troch M, Dolak W, Müllauer L, Lukas J, Zielinski CC, Raderer M. A phase II study of lenalidomide in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Haematologica. 2013 Mar;98(3):353-6. Epub 2012 Aug 16. link to orginal article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Lenalidomide & Rituximab

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Fowler et al. 2014 Phase II
Kiesewetter et al. 2016 (AGMT MALT-2) Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 8 to 12 cycles

References

  1. Fowler NH, Davis RE, Rawal S, Nastoupil L, Hagemeister FB, McLaughlin P, Kwak LW, Romaguera JE, Fanale MA, Fayad LE, Westin JR, Shah J, Orlowski RZ, Wang M, Turturro F, Oki Y, Claret LC, Feng L, Baladandayuthapani V, Muzzafar T, Tsai KY, Samaniego F, Neelapu SS. Safety and activity of lenalidomide and rituximab in untreated indolent lymphoma: an open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Nov;15(12):1311-8. Epub 2014 Oct 15. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Kiesewetter B, Willenbacher E, Willenbacher W, Egle A, Neumeister P, Voskova D, Mayerhoefer ME, Simonitsch-Klupp I, Melchardt T, Greil R, Raderer M; AGMT Investigators. A phase 2 study of rituximab plus lenalidomide for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Blood. 2017 Jan 19;129(3):383-385. Epub 2016 Nov 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

MCP

back to top

MCP: Mitoxantrone, Chlorambucil, Prednisolone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Wöhrer et al. 2003 Retrospective

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Retrospective: Wöhrer S, Drach J, Hejna M, Scheithauer W, Dirisamer A, Püspök A, Chott A, Raderer M. Treatment of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) with mitoxantrone, chlorambucil and prednisone (MCP). Ann Oncol. 2003 Dec;14(12):1758-61. link to orginal article contains verified protocol PubMed

PCR

back to top

PCR: Pentostatin, Cyclophosphamide, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Samaniego et al. 2015 Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Samaniego F, Hagemeister F, Romaguera JE, Fanale MA, Pro B, McLaughlin P, Rodriguez MA, Neelapu SS, Fayad L, Younes A, Feng L, Berkova Z, Khashab T, Sehgal L, Vega-Vasquez F, Kwak LW. Pentostatin, cyclophosphamide and rituximab for previously untreated advanced stage, low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Br J Haematol. 2015 Jun;169(6):814-23. Epub 2015 Mar 31. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Consolidation after upfront therapy

Chlorambucil monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Zucca et al. 2013 (IELSG-19) Non-randomized

Treatment preceded by chlorambucil induction.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 4 cycles

References

  1. Zucca E, Conconi A, Laszlo D, López-Guillermo A, Bouabdallah R, Coiffier B, Sebban C, Jardin F, Vitolo U, Morschhauser F, Pileri SA, Copie-Bergman C, Campo E, Jack A, Floriani I, Johnson P, Martelli M, Cavalli F, Martinelli G, Thieblemont C. Addition of Rituximab to Chlorambucil Produces Superior Event-Free Survival in the Treatment of Patients With Extranodal Marginal-Zone B-Cell Lymphoma: 5-Year Analysis of the IELSG-19 Randomized Study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 10;31(5):565-72. Epub 2013 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Chlorambucil & Rituximab

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Zucca et al. 2013 (IELSG-19) Non-randomized

Treatment preceded by chlorambucil & rituximab induction.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 4 cycles

References

  1. Zucca E, Conconi A, Laszlo D, López-Guillermo A, Bouabdallah R, Coiffier B, Sebban C, Jardin F, Vitolo U, Morschhauser F, Pileri SA, Copie-Bergman C, Campo E, Jack A, Floriani I, Johnson P, Martelli M, Cavalli F, Martinelli G, Thieblemont C. Addition of Rituximab to Chlorambucil Produces Superior Event-Free Survival in the Treatment of Patients With Extranodal Marginal-Zone B-Cell Lymphoma: 5-Year Analysis of the IELSG-19 Randomized Study. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 10;31(5):565-72. Epub 2013 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Williams et al. 2016 (RESORT) Phase III Salvage rituximab Seems to have superior TTTF

Treatment preceded by rituximab.

Chemotherapy

Continued until treatment failure

References

  1. Williams ME, Hong F, Gascoyne RD, Wagner LI, Krauss JC, Habermann TM, Swinnen LJ, Schuster SJ, Peterson CG, Sborov MD, Martin SE, Weiss M, Ehmann WC, Horning SJ, Kahl BS. Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(6):867-75. Epub 2016 Mar 11. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Relapsed or refractory, non-randomized or retrospective data

Bendamustine monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Kahl et al. 2010 Phase II, <20 patients reported

Chemotherapy

Note: these infusion instructions are for the Treanda formulation, which was discontinued on 3/31/2016.

  • Bendamustine 120 mg/m2 IV over 60 to 120 minutes once on days 1 & 2

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

References

  1. Kahl BS, Bartlett NL, Leonard JP, Chen L, Ganjoo K, Williams ME, Czuczman MS, Robinson KS, Joyce R, van der Jagt RH, Cheson BD. Bendamustine is effective therapy in patients with rituximab-refractory, indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results from a Multicenter Study. Cancer. 2010 Jan 1;116(1):106-14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Bortezomib monotherapy

back to top

Regimen #1

Study Evidence
Conconi et al. 2011 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • No routine growth factors, antibiotic, or antiviral prophylaxis was given

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

Regimen #2

Study Evidence
Troch et al. 2009 Phase II

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Troch M, Jonak C, Müllauer L, Püspök A, Formanek M, Hauff W, Zielinski CC, Chott A, Raderer M. A phase II study of bortezomib in patients with MALT lymphoma. Haematologica. 2009 May;94(5):738-42. Epub 2009 Mar 31. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Conconi A, Martinelli G, Lopez-Guillermo A, Zinzani PL, Ferreri AJ, Rigacci L, Devizzi L, Vitolo U, Luminari S, Cavalli F, Zucca E; International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG). Clinical activity of bortezomib in relapsed/refractory MALT lymphomas: results of a phase II study of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG). Ann Oncol. 2011 Mar;22(3):689-95. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

BR

back to top

BR: Bendamustine, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Rummel et al. 2005 Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

Note: the bendamustine infusion instructions are for the Treanda formulation, which was discontinued on 3/31/2016.

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) as follows:
    • One week prior to start of cycle 1: 375 mg/m2 IV once
    • Cycles 1 to 4: 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
    • 4 weeks after cycle 4: 375 mg/m2 IV once
  • Bendamustine 90 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 2 & 3

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Rummel MJ, Al-Batran SE, Kim SZ, Welslau M, Hecker R, Kofahl-Krause D, Josten KM, Dürk H, Rost A, Neise M, von Grünhagen U, Chow KU, Hansmann ML, Hoelzer D, Mitrou PS. Bendamustine plus rituximab is effective and has a favorable toxicity profile in the treatment of mantle cell and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 May 20;23(15):3383-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cladribine & Rituximab

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Troch et al. 2012 Phase II, <20 patients reported

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Troch M, Kiesewetter B, Willenbacher W, Willenbacher E, Zebisch A, Linkesch W, Fridrik M, Müllauer L, Greil R, Raderer M. Rituximab plus subcutaneous cladribine in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a phase II study by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentose Tumortherapie. Haematologica. 2013 Feb;98(2):264-8. Epub 2012 Sep 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Clarithromycin monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Ferreri et al. 2015 (HD-K) Phase II

Antibiotic therapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Ferreri AJ, Sassone M, Kiesewetter B, Govi S, Scarfò L, Donadoni G, Raderer M. High-dose clarithromycin is an active monotherapy for patients with relapsed/refractory extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT): the HD-K phase II trial. Ann Oncol. 2015 Aug;26(8):1760-5. Epub 2015 May 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Doxycycline

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Ferreri et al. 2006 Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup

This treatment was intended for patients with ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphoma (OAMZL), given the association with Chlamydia psittaci.

Antibiotic therapy

3-week course

References

  1. Ferreri AJ, Ponzoni M, Guidoboni M, Resti AG, Politi LS, Cortelazzo S, Demeter J, Zallio F, Palmas A, Muti G, Dognini GP, Pasini E, Lettini AA, Sacchetti F, De Conciliis C, Doglioni C, Dolcetti R. Bacteria-eradicating therapy with doxycycline in ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma: a multicenter prospective trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Oct 4;98(19):1375-82. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Idelalisib monotherapy

back to top

On 3/21/2016 Gilead announced that they were stopping seven clinical trials of idelalisib in patients with CLL, SLL, and iNHL due to excess deaths and increased rates of SAEs. A REMS program has also been announced.

Regimen,

Study Evidence
Gopal et al. 2014 (DELTA) Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression, death, or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Gopal AK, Kahl BS, de Vos S, Wagner-Johnston ND, Schuster SJ, Jurczak WJ, Flinn IW, Flowers CR, Martin P, Viardot A, Blum KA, Goy AH, Davies AJ, Zinzani PL, Dreyling M, Johnson D, Miller LL, Holes L, Li D, Dansey RD, Godfrey WR, Salles GA. PI3Kd Inhibition by Idelalisib in Patients with Relapsed Indolent Lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Abstract: Ajay K. Gopal, MD, Brad S. Kahl, MD, Sven de Vos, MD, PhD, Nina D. Wagner-Johnston, MD, Stephen J. Schuster, MD, Wojciech Jurczak, MD, PhD, Ian W. Flinn, MD, PhD, Christopher R. Flowers, MD, Peter Martin, MD, Andreas Viardot, MD, Kristie A. Blum, MD, Andre Goy, MD, Andrew Davies, BM PhD, Pier Luigi Zinzani, MD, Martin H. Dreyling, MD, PhD, Leanne M. Holes, Bess Sorensen, PhD, Wayne R. Godfrey, MD and Gilles Andre Salles, MD, PhD. Mature Follow up from a Phase 2 Study of PI3K-Delta Inhibitor Idelalisib in Patients with Double (Rituximab and Alkylating agent)-Refractory Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (iNHL). ASH Annual Meeting 2014, Abstract 1708 link to abstract

Ibrutinib monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Noy et al. 2016 (PCYC-1121-CA) Phase II

Chemotherapy

Given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Abstract: Ariela Noy, MD, PhD, Sven de Vos, MD, PhD, Catherine Thieblemont, MD, PhD, Peter Martin, MD, Christopher Flowers, MD, MS, Franck Morschhauser, MD, PhD, Graham P. Collins, MD, PhD, Shuo Ma, Morton Coleman, MD, Shachar Peles, MD, Stephen Smith, MD, Alina Smith, Brian Munneke, PhD, Isaiah Dimery, MD, Darrin Beaupre, MD, PhD and Robert W Chen, MD. Single-Agent Ibrutinib Demonstrates Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Marginal Zone Lymphoma: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Phase 2 Study. ASH 2016 Annual Meeting Abstract 1213. link to abstract ClinicalTrials.gov info

Lenalidomide monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Kiesewetter et al. 2012 Phase II, <20 patients reported

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Kiesewetter B, Troch M, Dolak W, Müllauer L, Lukas J, Zielinski CC, Raderer M. A phase II study of lenalidomide in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Haematologica. 2013 Mar;98(3):353-6. Epub 2012 Aug 16. link to orginal article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Ox-P

back to top

Ox-P: Oxaliplatin & Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Oh et al. 2016 (CISL) Phase II

Note: the treatment details state that prednisone was used, but later in the text prednisolone is mentioned. The authors have been contacted for clarification.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Oh SY, Kim WS, Kim JS, Chae YS, Lee GW, Eom HS, Ryoo HM, Lee S, Kim SJ, Yoon DH, Won JH, Hong J, Park J, Lee SM, Hong JY, Park E, Kim HJ, Yang DH, Kim HJ, Suh C. A phase II study of oxaliplatin and prednisone for patients with relapsed or refractory marginal zone lymphoma: Consortium for Improving Survival of Lymphoma trial. Leuk Lymphoma. 2016;57(6):1406-12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Conconi et al. 2003 Phase II
Martinelli et al. 2005 Phase II
Williams et al. 2016 (RESORT) Phase III Maintenance rituximab Seems to have inferior TTTF

Treatment in RESORT was preceded by rituximab and is given at time of progression.

Chemotherapy

One course

References

  1. Conconi A, Martinelli G, Thiéblemont C, Ferreri AJ, Devizzi L, Peccatori F, Ponzoni M, Pedrinis E, Dell'Oro S, Pruneri G, Filipazzi V, Dietrich PY, Gianni AM, Coiffier B, Cavalli F, Zucca E. Clinical activity of rituximab in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type. Blood. 2003 Oct 15;102(8):2741-5. link to orginal article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Martinelli G, Laszlo D, Ferreri AJ, Pruneri G, Ponzoni M, Conconi A, Crosta C, Pedrinis E, Bertoni F, Calabrese L, Zucca E. Clinical activity of rituximab in gastric marginal zone non-Hodgkin's lymphoma resistant to or not eligible for anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Mar 20;23(9):1979-83. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Williams ME, Hong F, Gascoyne RD, Wagner LI, Krauss JC, Habermann TM, Swinnen LJ, Schuster SJ, Peterson CG, Sborov MD, Martin SE, Weiss M, Ehmann WC, Horning SJ, Kahl BS. Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(6):867-75. Epub 2016 Mar 11. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Vorinostat monotherapy

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Kirschbaum et al. 2011 Phase II, <20 pts in subgroup

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles until progression or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Kirschbaum M, Frankel P, Popplewell L, Zain J, Delioukina M, Pullarkat V, Matsuoka D, Pulone B, Rotter AJ, Espinoza-Delgado I, Nademanee A, Forman SJ, Gandara D, Newman E. Phase II study of vorinostat for treatment of relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 20;29(9):1198-203. Epub 2011 Feb 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Prognosis

MALT-IPI (2017)

Risk factors

  • Stage III or IV
  • Age older than 70 years
  • LDH greater than the upper limit of normal

Calculation

  • Low risk: zero risk factors present
  • Intermediate risk: one risk factor present
  • High risk: two or more risk factors present

References

  1. Thieblemont C, Cascione L, Conconi A, Kiesewetter B, Raderer M, Gaidano G, Martelli M, Laszlo D, Coiffier B, Lopez Guillermo A, Torri V, Cavalli F, Johnson PW, Zucca E. A MALT lymphoma prognostic index. Blood. 2017 Sep 21;130(12):1409-1417. Epub 2017 Jul 18. link to original article PubMed

Response criteria

NCI Sponsored International Working Group Criteria (1999)

  1. Cheson BD, Horning SJ, Coiffier B, Shipp MA, Fisher RI, Connors JM, Lister TA, Vose J, Grillo-López A, Hagenbeek A, Cabanillas F, Klippensten D, Hiddemann W, Castellino R, Harris NL, Armitage JO, Carter W, Hoppe R, Canellos GP. Report of an international workshop to standardize response criteria for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. NCI Sponsored International Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Apr;17(4):1244. Review. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol 2000 Jun;18(11):2351. link to original article PubMed