Marginal zone lymphoma

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Sanjai Sharma, MD
Sequoia Regional Cancer Center
Visalia, CA
18 regimens on this page
18 variants on this page

Note: some MZL regimens can be found on dedicated pages:

Contents


Guidelines

ESMO

Older

NCCN

First-line therapy, randomized data

BR

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BR: Bendamustine, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Flinn et al. 2014 (BRIGHT) 2009-2012 Phase III (E-switch-ic) 1. R-CHOP
2. R-CVP
Superior PFS (*)

Note: Reported efficacy for BRIGHT is based on the 2017 update.

Chemotherapy

Targeted therapy

Supportive medications

  • Antiemetics, antipyretics, and antibiotics according to local standard of care
  • Prophylactic use of G-CSF allowed according ASCO guidelines (2006)

28-day cycle for up to 8 cycles (see note)

References

  1. BRIGHT: Flinn IW, van der Jagt R, Kahl BS, Wood P, Hawkins TE, Macdonald D, Hertzberg M, Kwan YL, Simpson D, Craig M, Kolibaba K, Issa S, Clementi R, Hallman DM, Munteanu M, Chen L, Burke JM. Randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab or R-CHOP/R-CVP in first-line treatment of indolent NHL or MCL: the BRIGHT study. Blood. 2014 May 8;123(19):2944-52. Epub 2014 Mar 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Abstract: Ian Flinn, Richard van der Jagt, Julie E. Chang, Peter Wood, Tim E. Hawkins, David MacDonald, Judith Trotman, David Simpson, Kathryn S. Kolibaba, Samar Issa, Doreen M. Hallman, Ling Chen, and John M. Burke. First-line treatment of iNHL or MCL patients with BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP: Results of the BRIGHT 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017 35:15_suppl, 7500-7500 link to abstract

Chlorambucil monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Leblond et al. 2012 (WM1) 2001-2009 Phase III (E-switch-ic) Fludarabine Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for up to 12 cycles

References

  1. WM1: Leblond V, Johnson S, Chevret S, Copplestone A, Rule S, Tournilhac O, Seymour JF, Patmore RD, Wright D, Morel P, Dilhuydy MS, Willoughby S, Dartigeas C, Malphettes M, Royer B, Ewings M, Pratt G, Lejeune J, Nguyen-Khac F, Choquet S, Owen RG. Results of a randomized trial of chlorambucil versus fludarabine for patients with untreated waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan 20;31(3):301-7. Epub 2012 Dec 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00608374

Fludarabine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Leblond et al. 2012 (WM1) 2001-2009 Phase III (E-switch-ic) Chlorambucil Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

  • Fludarabine (Fludara) 40 mg/m2 (30 mg/m2 per day if older than 75 years old) PO once per day on days 1 to 5

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. WM1: Leblond V, Johnson S, Chevret S, Copplestone A, Rule S, Tournilhac O, Seymour JF, Patmore RD, Wright D, Morel P, Dilhuydy MS, Willoughby S, Dartigeas C, Malphettes M, Royer B, Ewings M, Pratt G, Lejeune J, Nguyen-Khac F, Choquet S, Owen RG. Results of a randomized trial of chlorambucil versus fludarabine for patients with untreated waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan 20;31(3):301-7. Epub 2012 Dec 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00608374

R-CHOP

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R-CHOP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone
R-CHOP-21: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone every 21 days
CHOP-R: Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Oncovin (Vincristine), Prednisone, Rituximab

Example orders

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Flinn et al. 2014 (BRIGHT) 2009-2012 Phase III, <20 in this arm (C) 1. BR Seems to have non-inferior CR rate
2. R-CVP Not directly compared

Targeted therapy

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. BRIGHT: Flinn IW, van der Jagt R, Kahl BS, Wood P, Hawkins TE, Macdonald D, Hertzberg M, Kwan YL, Simpson D, Craig M, Kolibaba K, Issa S, Clementi R, Hallman DM, Munteanu M, Chen L, Burke JM. Randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab or R-CHOP/R-CVP in first-line treatment of indolent NHL or MCL: the BRIGHT study. Blood. 2014 May 8;123(19):2944-52. Epub 2014 Mar 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Abstract: Ian Flinn, Richard van der Jagt, Julie E. Chang, Peter Wood, Tim E. Hawkins, David MacDonald, Judith Trotman, David Simpson, Kathryn S. Kolibaba, Samar Issa, Doreen M. Hallman, Ling Chen, and John M. Burke. First-line treatment of iNHL or MCL patients with BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP: Results of the BRIGHT 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017 35:15_suppl, 7500-7500 link to abstract

R-CVP

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R-CVP: Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Flinn et al. 2014 (BRIGHT) 2009-2012 Phase III, <20 in this arm (C) 1. BR Seems to have non-inferior CR rate
2. R-CHOP Not directly compared

Targeted therapy

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles

References

  1. Flinn IW, van der Jagt R, Kahl BS, Wood P, Hawkins TE, Macdonald D, Hertzberg M, Kwan YL, Simpson D, Craig M, Kolibaba K, Issa S, Clementi R, Hallman DM, Munteanu M, Chen L, Burke JM. Randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab or R-CHOP/R-CVP in first-line treatment of indolent NHL or MCL: the BRIGHT study. Blood. 2014 May 8;123(19):2944-52. Epub 2014 Mar 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Williams et al. 2016 (RESORT substudy) 2003-2008 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Targeted therapy

Supportive medications

4-week course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. RESORT substudy: Williams ME, Hong F, Gascoyne RD, Wagner LI, Krauss JC, Habermann TM, Swinnen LJ, Schuster SJ, Peterson CG, Sborov MD, Martin SE, Weiss M, Ehmann WC, Horning SJ, Kahl BS; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(6):867-75. Epub 2016 Mar 11. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed NCT01406782

First-line therapy, non-randomized or retrospective data

Ibritumomab tiuxetan protocol

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Samaniego et al. 2014 (MDACC 2005-0512) Phase II, <20 patients reported
Lossos et al. 2014 (SCCC-2005133) Phase II, <20 patients reported

Radioimmunotherapy

8-day course

Dose reductions

References

  1. MDACC 2005-0512: Samaniego F, Berkova Z, Romaguera JE, Fowler N, Fanale MA, Pro B, Shah JJ, McLaughlin P, Sehgal L, Selvaraj V, Braun FK, Mathur R, Feng L, Neelapu SS, Kwak LW. 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radiotherapy as first-line therapy for early stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including bulky disease. Br J Haematol. 2014 Oct;167(2):207-13. Epub 2014 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. SCCC-2005133: Lossos IS, Fabregas JC, Koru-Sengul T, Miao F, Goodman D, Serafini AN, Hosein PJ, Stefanovic A, Rosenblatt JD, Hoffman JE. Phase II study of (90)Y Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in patients with previously untreated marginal zone lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2015 Jun;56(6):1750-5. Epub 2014 Nov 20. link to original article PubMed

Lenalidomide & Rituximab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Fowler et al. 2014 (MDACC 2008-0042) Phase II

Targeted therapy

28-day cycle for up to 8 to 12 cycles

References

  1. MDACC 2008-0042: Fowler NH, Davis RE, Rawal S, Nastoupil L, Hagemeister FB, McLaughlin P, Kwak LW, Romaguera JE, Fanale MA, Fayad LE, Westin JR, Shah J, Orlowski RZ, Wang M, Turturro F, Oki Y, Claret LC, Feng L, Baladandayuthapani V, Muzzafar T, Tsai KY, Samaniego F, Neelapu SS. Safety and activity of lenalidomide and rituximab in untreated indolent lymphoma: an open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Nov;15(12):1311-8. Epub 2014 Oct 15. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed

PCR

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PCR: Pentostatin, Cyclophosphamide, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Samaniego et al. 2015 (MDACC 2004-0818) Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

Targeted therapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. MDACC 2004-0818: Samaniego F, Hagemeister F, Romaguera JE, Fanale MA, Pro B, McLaughlin P, Rodriguez MA, Neelapu SS, Fayad L, Younes A, Feng L, Berkova Z, Khashab T, Sehgal L, Vega-Vasquez F, Kwak LW. Pentostatin, cyclophosphamide and rituximab for previously untreated advanced stage, low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Br J Haematol. 2015 Jun;169(6):814-23. Epub 2015 Mar 31. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Consolidation after first-line therapy

Rituximab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Williams et al. 2016 (RESORT substudy) 2003-2008 Phase III (E-esc) Salvage rituximab Seems to have superior TTTF

Preceding treatment

Targeted therapy

13-week cycles

References

  1. RESORT substudy: Williams ME, Hong F, Gascoyne RD, Wagner LI, Krauss JC, Habermann TM, Swinnen LJ, Schuster SJ, Peterson CG, Sborov MD, Martin SE, Weiss M, Ehmann WC, Horning SJ, Kahl BS; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(6):867-75. Epub 2016 Mar 11. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed NCT01406782

Relapsed or refractory, randomized data

Lenalidomide & Rituximab

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Leonard et al. 2019 (AUGMENT) 2014-2017 Phase III (E-RT-esc) Rituximab Superior PFS

Targeted therapy

28-day cycle for 12 cycles

References

  1. AUGMENT: Leonard JP, Trneny M, Izutsu K, Fowler NH, Hong X, Zhu J, Zhang H, Offner F, Scheliga A, Nowakowski GS, Pinto A, Re F, Fogliatto LM, Scheinberg P, Flinn IW, Moreira C, Cabeçadas J, Liu D, Kalambakas S, Fustier P, Wu C, Gribben JG; AUGMENT Trial Investigators. AUGMENT: a phase III study of lenalidomide plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab in relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2019 May 10;37(14):1188-1199. Epub 2019 Mar 21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Rituximab monotherapy

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Regimen variant #1, 4-week course

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Williams et al. 2016 (RESORT substudy) 2003-2008 Phase III (C) Maintenance rituximab Seems to have inferior TTTF

Preceding treatment

Targeted therapy

28-day course

Regimen variant #2, 8 doses

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Leonard et al. 2019 (AUGMENT) 2014-2017 Phase III (C) Lenalidomide & Rituximab Inferior PFS

Targeted therapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22
    • Cycles 2 to 5: 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1

28-day cycle for 5 cycles

References

  1. RESORT substudy: Williams ME, Hong F, Gascoyne RD, Wagner LI, Krauss JC, Habermann TM, Swinnen LJ, Schuster SJ, Peterson CG, Sborov MD, Martin SE, Weiss M, Ehmann WC, Horning SJ, Kahl BS; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(6):867-75. Epub 2016 Mar 11. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed NCT01406782
  2. AUGMENT: Leonard JP, Trneny M, Izutsu K, Fowler NH, Hong X, Zhu J, Zhang H, Offner F, Scheliga A, Nowakowski GS, Pinto A, Re F, Fogliatto LM, Scheinberg P, Flinn IW, Moreira C, Cabeçadas J, Liu D, Kalambakas S, Fustier P, Wu C, Gribben JG; AUGMENT Trial Investigators. AUGMENT: a phase III study of lenalidomide plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab in relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2019 May 10;37(14):1188-1199. Epub 2019 Mar 21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Relapsed or refractory, non-randomized or retrospective data

Bendamustine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Kahl et al. 2010 Phase II, <20 patients reported

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 to 8 cycles

References

  1. Kahl BS, Bartlett NL, Leonard JP, Chen L, Ganjoo K, Williams ME, Czuczman MS, Robinson KS, Joyce R, van der Jagt RH, Cheson BD. Bendamustine is effective therapy in patients with rituximab-refractory, indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results from a multicenter study. Cancer. 2010 Jan 1;116(1):106-14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

BR

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BR: Bendamustine, Rituximab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Rummel et al. 2005 Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

Targeted therapy

  • Rituximab (Rituxan) as follows:
    • One week prior to start of cycle 1: 375 mg/m2 IV once
    • Cycles 1 to 4: 375 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
    • 4 weeks after cycle 4: 375 mg/m2 IV once

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Rummel MJ, Al-Batran SE, Kim SZ, Welslau M, Hecker R, Kofahl-Krause D, Josten KM, Dürk H, Rost A, Neise M, von Grünhagen U, Chow KU, Hansmann ML, Hoelzer D, Mitrou PS. Bendamustine plus rituximab is effective and has a favorable toxicity profile in the treatment of mantle cell and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 May 20;23(15):3383-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Idelalisib monotherapy

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On 3/21/2016 Gilead announced that they were stopping seven clinical trials of idelalisib in patients with CLL, SLL, and iNHL due to excess deaths and increased rates of SAEs. A REMS program has also been announced.

Regimen,

Study Evidence
Gopal et al. 2014 (DELTA) Phase II, <20 patients in this subgroup

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. Gopal AK, Kahl BS, de Vos S, Wagner-Johnston ND, Schuster SJ, Jurczak WJ, Flinn IW, Flowers CR, Martin P, Viardot A, Blum KA, Goy AH, Davies AJ, Zinzani PL, Dreyling M, Johnson D, Miller LL, Holes L, Li D, Dansey RD, Godfrey WR, Salles GA. PI3Kd inhibition by idelalisib in patients with relapsed indolent lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Abstract: Ajay K. Gopal, MD, Brad S. Kahl, MD, Sven de Vos, MD, PhD, Nina D. Wagner-Johnston, MD, Stephen J. Schuster, MD, Wojciech Jurczak, MD, PhD, Ian W. Flinn, MD, PhD, Christopher R. Flowers, MD, Peter Martin, MD, Andreas Viardot, MD, Kristie A. Blum, MD, Andre Goy, MD, Andrew Davies, BM PhD, Pier Luigi Zinzani, MD, Martin H. Dreyling, MD, PhD, Leanne M. Holes, Bess Sorensen, PhD, Wayne R. Godfrey, MD and Gilles Andre Salles, MD, PhD. Mature Follow up from a Phase 2 Study of PI3K-Delta Inhibitor Idelalisib in Patients with Double (Rituximab and Alkylating agent)-Refractory Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (iNHL). ASH Annual Meeting 2014, Abstract 1708 link to abstract

Ibrutinib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Efficacy
Noy et al. 2017 (PCYC-1121-CA) 2013-2015 Phase II (RT) ORR: 48% (95% CI, 35-62)

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. PCYC-1121-CA: Noy A, de Vos S, Thieblemont C, Martin P, Flowers CR, Morschhauser F, Collins GP, Ma S, Coleman M, Peles S, Smith S, Barrientos JC, Smith A, Munneke B, Dimery I, Beaupre DM, Chen R. Targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase with ibrutinib in relapsed/refractory marginal zone lymphoma. Blood. 2017 Apr 20;129(16):2224-2232. Epub 2017 Feb 6. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed

Ox-P

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Ox-P: Oxaliplatin & Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Oh et al. 2016 (CISL) Phase II

Note: the treatment details state that prednisone was used, but later in the text prednisolone is mentioned. The authors have been contacted for clarification.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Oh SY, Kim WS, Kim JS, Chae YS, Lee GW, Eom HS, Ryoo HM, Lee S, Kim SJ, Yoon DH, Won JH, Hong J, Park J, Lee SM, Hong JY, Park E, Kim HJ, Yang DH, Kim HJ, Suh C. A phase II study of oxaliplatin and prednisone for patients with relapsed or refractory marginal zone lymphoma: Consortium for Improving Survival of Lymphoma trial. Leuk Lymphoma. 2016;57(6):1406-12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Vorinostat monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Kirschbaum et al. 2011 (PHII-63) Phase II, <20 pts in subgroup

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. PHII-63: Kirschbaum M, Frankel P, Popplewell L, Zain J, Delioukina M, Pullarkat V, Matsuoka D, Pulone B, Rotter AJ, Espinoza-Delgado I, Nademanee A, Forman SJ, Gandara D, Newman E. Phase II study of vorinostat for treatment of relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 20;29(9):1198-203. Epub 2011 Feb 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Response criteria

NCI Sponsored International Working Group Criteria (1999)

  1. Cheson BD, Horning SJ, Coiffier B, Shipp MA, Fisher RI, Connors JM, Lister TA, Vose J, Grillo-López A, Hagenbeek A, Cabanillas F, Klippensten D, Hiddemann W, Castellino R, Harris NL, Armitage JO, Carter W, Hoppe R, Canellos GP. Report of an international workshop to standardize response criteria for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. NCI Sponsored International Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Apr;17(4):1244. Review. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol 2000 Jun;18(11):2351. link to original article PubMed