Glioblastoma

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Seema Nagpal, MD
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18 regimens on this page
31 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ASCO

EANO

ESMO

NCCN

Adjuvant therapy, standard patients

Bevacizumab & RT

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RT: Radiation Therapy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Herrlinger et al. 2016 (GLARIUS) Randomized Phase II Temozolomide & RT, then Temozolomide Superior PFS-6

To be completed

Chemoradiotherapy

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Herrlinger U, Schäfer N, Steinbach JP, Weyerbrock A, Hau P, Goldbrunner R, Friedrich F, Rohde V, Ringel F, Schlegel U, Sabel M, Ronellenfitsch MW, Uhl M, Maciaczyk J, Grau S, Schnell O, Hänel M, Krex D, Vajkoczy P, Gerlach R, Kortmann RD, Mehdorn M, Tüttenberg J, Mayer-Steinacker R, Fietkau R, Brehmer S, Mack F, Stuplich M, Kebir S, Kohnen R, Dunkl E, Leutgeb B, Proescholdt M, Pietsch T, Urbach H, Belka C, Stummer W, Glas M. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan versus temozolomide in newly diagnosed O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase nonmethylated glioblastoma: The randomized GLARIUS trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 May 10;34(14):1611-9. Epub 2016 Mar 14. link to original article PubMed

Carmustine & RT

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RT: Radiation Therapy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Shapiro et al. 1989 (BTCG 8001) Phase III Carmustine/Procarbazine & RT Seems not superior
Carmustine & Hydrea/Procarbazine & VM-26 & RT Seems not superior

Radiotherapy

  • External beam radiotherapy starting within 3 weeks after surgical resection, with ONE of the following:
    • Whole brain: 172 cGy (rads) fractions x 35 fractions, given over 7 weeks for a total dose of 6020 cGy (6020 rads/~1700 rets)
    • Whole brain & cone down: 172 cGy (rads) fractions x 25 fractions, given over 5 weeks for a total dose of 4300 cGy (4300 rads), then coned-down boost of 172 cGy (rads) fractions x 10 fractions, given over 2 weeks for a dose of 1720 cGy (rads), and a total cumulative dose of 6020 cGy (rads)

One course, followed by:

Chemotherapy

Supportive care

  • Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) checked before start of therapy, and then when cumulative dose of Carmustine (BiCNU) reaches 800 mg/m2 and 1200 mg/m2

8-week cycles, with no more than a maximum cumulative dose of 1500 mg/m2 Carmustine (BiCNU) given

References

  1. BTCG 8001: Shapiro WR, Green SB, Burger PC, Mahaley MS Jr, Selker RG, VanGilder JC, Robertson JT, Ransohoff J, Mealey J Jr, Strike TA, Pistenmaa DA. Randomized trial of three chemotherapy regimens and two radiotherapy regimens and two radiotherapy regimens in postoperative treatment of malignant glioma: Brain Tumor Cooperative Group Trial 8001. J Neurosurg. 1989 Jul;71(1):1-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Radiation therapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stupp et al. 2005 (EORTC 22981/26981;NCIC CTG CE.3) Phase III (C) Temozolomide & RT, then Temozolomide Inferior OS

Adjuvant radiotherapy alone; used as a comparator arm in the referenced trials.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgical resection

Radiotherapy

References

  1. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cairncross JG, Eisenhauer E, Mirimanoff RO; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy Groups; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):987-96. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Temozolomide & RT

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RT: Radiation Therapy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stupp et al. 2005 (EORTC 22981/26981; NCIC CTG CE.3) Phase III See link See link
Gilbert et al. 2013 (RTOG 0525) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Gilbert et al. 2014 (RTOG 0825) Phase III See link See link
Chinot et al. 2014 (AVAglio) Phase III See link See link
Kong et al. 2017 Phase III Temozolomide & RT with CIK cells Seems to have inferior PFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgical biopsy, partial resection, or total resection

Chemoradiotherapy

  • Temozolomide (Temodar) 75 mg/m2 PO once per day, used starting the first day of radiation therapy until the last day of radiation therapy, and no longer than 49 days
  • Concurrent radiation therapy, 2 Gy fractions x 30 fractions given 5 days per week, for a total dose of 60 Gy

Supportive medications

One course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cairncross JG, Eisenhauer E, Mirimanoff RO; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy Groups; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):987-96. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Gorlia T, Hamou MF, de Tribolet N, Weller M, Kros JM, Hainfellner JA, Mason W, Mariani L, Bromberg JE, Hau P, Mirimanoff RO, Cairncross JG, Janzer RC, Stupp R. MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):997-1003. link to original article PubMed
  2. RTOG 0525: Gilbert MR, Wang M, Aldape KD, Stupp R, Hegi ME, Jaeckle KA, Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Won M, Blumenthal DT, Mahajan A, Schultz CJ, Erridge S, Baumert B, Hopkins KI, Tzuk-Shina T, Brown PD, Chakravarti A, Curran WJ Jr, Mehta MP. Dose-dense temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a randomized phase III clinical trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Nov 10;31(32):4085-91. Epub 2013 Oct 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. RTOG 0825: Gilbert MR, Dignam JJ, Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Blumenthal DT, Vogelbaum MA, Colman H, Chakravarti A, Pugh S, Won M, Jeraj R, Brown PD, Jaeckle KA, Schiff D, Stieber VW, Brachman DG, Werner-Wasik M, Tremont-Lukats IW, Sulman EP, Aldape KD, Curran WJ Jr, Mehta MP. A randomized trial of bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 20;370(8):699-708. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Chinot OL, Wick W, Mason W, Henriksson R, Saran F, Nishikawa R, Carpentier AF, Hoang-Xuan K, Kavan P, Cernea D, Brandes AA, Hilton M, Abrey L, Cloughesy T. Bevacizumab plus radiotherapy-temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 20;370(8):709-22. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. GLARIUS: Herrlinger U, Schäfer N, Steinbach JP, Weyerbrock A, Hau P, Goldbrunner R, Friedrich F, Rohde V, Ringel F, Schlegel U, Sabel M, Ronellenfitsch MW, Uhl M, Maciaczyk J, Grau S, Schnell O, Hänel M, Krex D, Vajkoczy P, Gerlach R, Kortmann RD, Mehdorn M, Tüttenberg J, Mayer-Steinacker R, Fietkau R, Brehmer S, Mack F, Stuplich M, Kebir S, Kohnen R, Dunkl E, Leutgeb B, Proescholdt M, Pietsch T, Urbach H, Belka C, Stummer W, Glas M. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan versus temozolomide in newly diagnosed O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase nonmethylated glioblastoma: The randomized GLARIUS trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 May 10;34(14):1611-9. Epub 2016 Mar 14. link to original article PubMed
  6. Kong DS, Nam DH, Kang SH, Lee JW, Chang JH, Kim JH, Lim YJ, Koh YC, Chung YG, Kim JM, Kim CH. Phase III randomized trial of autologous cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in Korea. Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 24;8(4):7003-7013. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. HERBY: Grill J, Massimino M, Bouffet E, Azizi AA, McCowage G, Cañete A, Saran F, Le Deley MC, Varlet P, Morgan PS, Jaspan T, Jones C, Giangaspero F, Smith H, Garcia J, Elze MC, Rousseau RF, Abrey L, Hargrave D, Vassal G. Phase II, Open-label, randomized, multicenter trial (HERBY) of bevacizumab in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 1;36(10):951-958. Epub 2018 Feb 7. link to original article PubMed

Adjuvant therapy, elderly or poor performance status patients

Best supportive care

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Keime-Guibert et al. 2007 Phase III (C) RT x 50 Gy Inferior OS

No antineoplastic therapy after primary surgery.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

References

  1. Keime-Guibert F, Chinot O, Taillandier L, Cartalat-Carel S, Frenay M, Kantor G, Guillamo JS, Jadaud E, Colin P, Bondiau PY, Meneï P, Loiseau H, Bernier V, Honnorat J, Barrié M, Mokhtari K, Mazeron JJ, Bissery A, Delattre JY; Association of French-Speaking Neuro-Oncologists. Radiotherapy for glioblastoma in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1527-35. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Radiation therapy

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Variant #1, hypofractionated (34 Gy)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Malmström et al. 2012 Phase III (E) Standard radiotherapy Seems not superior
Temozolomide Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Radiotherapy

2-week course

Variant #2, abbreviated course (40 Gy)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Roa et al. 2004 Randomized Phase II (E) Standard RT (60 Gy) Seems not superior
Perry et al. 2017 (NCIC CTG CE.6) Phase III (C) Temozolomide & LDRT Inferior OS

Note: Roa et al. 2004 was closed early due to poor accrual.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Radiotherapy

3-week course

Variant #3, standard course (50.4 Gy)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Keime-Guibert et al. 2007 Phase III (E) Best supportive care Superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Radiotherapy

5.5-week course

Variant #4, standard course (60 Gy)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Roa et al. 2004 Randomized Phase II Abbreviated RT (40 Gy) Seems not superior
Malmström et al. 2012 Phase III (C) Hypofractionated RT Seems not superior
Temozolomide Inferior OS

Note: Roa et al. 2004 was closed early due to poor accrual.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Radiotherapy

6-week course

References

  1. Roa W, Brasher PM, Bauman G, Anthes M, Bruera E, Chan A, Fisher B, Fulton D, Gulavita S, Hao C, Husain S, Murtha A, Petruk K, Stewart D, Tai P, Urtasun R, Cairncross JG, Forsyth P. Abbreviated course of radiation therapy in older patients with glioblastoma multiforme: a prospective randomized clinical trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004 May 1;22(9):1583-8. Epub 2004 Mar 29. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Keime-Guibert F, Chinot O, Taillandier L, Cartalat-Carel S, Frenay M, Kantor G, Guillamo JS, Jadaud E, Colin P, Bondiau PY, Meneï P, Loiseau H, Bernier V, Honnorat J, Barrié M, Mokhtari K, Mazeron JJ, Bissery A, Delattre JY; Association of French-Speaking Neuro-Oncologists. Radiotherapy for glioblastoma in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1527-35. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. Malmström A, Grønberg BH, Marosi C, Stupp R, Frappaz D, Schultz H, Abacioglu U, Tavelin B, Lhermitte B, Hegi ME, Rosell J, Henriksson R; Nordic Clinical Brain Tumour Study Group (NCBTSG). Temozolomide versus standard 6-week radiotherapy versus hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients older than 60 years with glioblastoma: the Nordic randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Sep;13(9):916-26. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. NCIC CTG CE.6: Perry JR, Laperriere N, O'Callaghan CJ, Brandes AA, Menten J, Phillips C, Fay M, Nishikawa R, Cairncross JG, Roa W, Osoba D, Rossiter JP, Sahgal A, Hirte H, Laigle-Donadey F, Franceschi E, Chinot O, Golfinopoulos V, Fariselli L, Wick A, Feuvret L, Back M, Tills M, Winch C, Baumert BG, Wick W, Ding K, Mason WP; Trial Investigators. Short-course radiation plus temozolomide in elderly patients with glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 16;376(11):1027-1037. link to original article PubMed
  5. Guedes de Castro D, Matiello J, Roa W, Ghosh S, Kepka L, Kumar N, Sinaika V, Lomidze D, Hentati D, Rosenblatt E, Fidarova E. Survival outcomes with short-course radiation therapy in elderly patients with glioblastoma: data from a randomized phase 3 trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Jul 15;98(4):931-938. Epub 2017 Mar 30. PubMed

Temozolomide monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Malmström et al. 2012 Phase III (E) Hypofractionated radiotherapy Seems not superior
Standard radiotherapy Superior OS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Malmström A, Grønberg BH, Marosi C, Stupp R, Frappaz D, Schultz H, Abacioglu U, Tavelin B, Lhermitte B, Hegi ME, Rosell J, Henriksson R; Nordic Clinical Brain Tumour Study Group (NCBTSG). Temozolomide versus standard 6-week radiotherapy versus hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients older than 60 years with glioblastoma: the Nordic randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Sep;13(9):916-26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Temozolomide & low-dose RT

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LDRT: Low-Dose Radiation Therapy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Perry et al. 2017 (NCIC CTG CE.6) Phase III (E) Radiotherapy Superior OS

Chemoradiotherapy

  • Temozolomide (Temodar) 75 mg/m2 PO once per day, starting the first day of radiation therapy until the last day of radiation therapy, and no longer than 21 days
  • Concurrent radiation therapy, 2.67 Gy fractions x 15 fractions given 5 days per week, for a total dose of 40.05 Gy

One course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NCIC CTG CE.6: Perry JR, Laperriere N, O'Callaghan CJ, Brandes AA, Menten J, Phillips C, Fay M, Nishikawa R, Cairncross JG, Roa W, Osoba D, Rossiter JP, Sahgal A, Hirte H, Laigle-Donadey F, Franceschi E, Chinot O, Golfinopoulos V, Fariselli L, Wick A, Feuvret L, Back M, Tills M, Winch C, Baumert BG, Wick W, Ding K, Mason WP; Trial Investigators. Short-course radiation plus temozolomide in elderly patients with glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 16;376(11):1027-1037. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Maintenance after first-line therapy

Irinotecan & Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Herrlinger et al. 2016 (GLARIUS) Non-randomized portion of RCT

To be completed

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. GLARIUS: Herrlinger U, Schäfer N, Steinbach JP, Weyerbrock A, Hau P, Goldbrunner R, Friedrich F, Rohde V, Ringel F, Schlegel U, Sabel M, Ronellenfitsch MW, Uhl M, Maciaczyk J, Grau S, Schnell O, Hänel M, Krex D, Vajkoczy P, Gerlach R, Kortmann RD, Mehdorn M, Tüttenberg J, Mayer-Steinacker R, Fietkau R, Brehmer S, Mack F, Stuplich M, Kebir S, Kohnen R, Dunkl E, Leutgeb B, Proescholdt M, Pietsch T, Urbach H, Belka C, Stummer W, Glas M. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan versus temozolomide in newly diagnosed O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase nonmethylated glioblastoma: the randomized GLARIUS trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 May 10;34(14):1611-9. Epub 2016 Mar 14. link to original article PubMed

Temozolomide monotherapy

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Variant #1, 6 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stupp et al. 2005 (EORTC 22981/26981;
NCIC CTG CE.3)
Phase III See link See link
Gilbert et al. 2014 (RTOG 0825) Phase III See link See link
Chinot et al. 2014 (AVAglio) Phase III See link See link
Stupp et al. 2015 (EF-14) Phase III Temozolomide & TTFields Inferior OS
Kong et al. 2017 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: patients in RTOG 0825 could extend maintenance to 12 cycles if no major adverse events and evidence of ongoing benefit.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Temozolomide (Temodar) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 150 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 5
    • If tolerated, in cycles 2 to 6: 200 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 5

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Variant #2, 12 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gilbert et al. 2013 (RTOG 0525) Phase III (C) Dose-dense Temozolomide Seems not superior
Perry et al. 2017 (NCIC CTG CE.6) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Weller et al. 2017 (ACT IV) Phase III (C) Rindopepimut & Temozolomide Seems not superior
Grill et al. 2018 (HERBY) Randomized Phase II See link See link

Note: treatment in ACT IV was given for a minimum of 6 cycles.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 12 cycles

References

  1. EORTC 22981/26981; NCIC CTG CE.3: Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cairncross JG, Eisenhauer E, Mirimanoff RO; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy Groups; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):987-96. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Gorlia T, Hamou MF, de Tribolet N, Weller M, Kros JM, Hainfellner JA, Mason W, Mariani L, Bromberg JE, Hau P, Mirimanoff RO, Cairncross JG, Janzer RC, Stupp R. MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):997-1003. link to original article PubMed
  2. RTOG 0525: Gilbert MR, Wang M, Aldape KD, Stupp R, Hegi ME, Jaeckle KA, Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Won M, Blumenthal DT, Mahajan A, Schultz CJ, Erridge S, Baumert B, Hopkins KI, Tzuk-Shina T, Brown PD, Chakravarti A, Curran WJ Jr, Mehta MP. Dose-dense temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a randomized phase III clinical trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Nov 10;31(32):4085-91. Epub 2013 Oct 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. RTOG 0825: Gilbert MR, Dignam JJ, Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Blumenthal DT, Vogelbaum MA, Colman H, Chakravarti A, Pugh S, Won M, Jeraj R, Brown PD, Jaeckle KA, Schiff D, Stieber VW, Brachman DG, Werner-Wasik M, Tremont-Lukats IW, Sulman EP, Aldape KD, Curran WJ Jr, Mehta MP. A randomized trial of bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 20;370(8):699-708. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. AVAglio: Chinot OL, Wick W, Mason W, Henriksson R, Saran F, Nishikawa R, Carpentier AF, Hoang-Xuan K, Kavan P, Cernea D, Brandes AA, Hilton M, Abrey L, Cloughesy T. Bevacizumab plus radiotherapy-temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 20;370(8):709-22. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  5. EF-14: Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner AA, Kesari S, Steinberg DM, Toms SA, Taylor LP, Lieberman F, Silvani A, Fink KL, Barnett GH, Zhu JJ, Henson JW, Engelhard HH, Chen TC, Tran DD, Sroubek J, Tran ND, Hottinger AF, Landolfi J, Desai R, Caroli M, Kew Y, Honnorat J, Idbaih A, Kirson ED, Weinberg U, Palti Y, Hegi ME, Ram Z. Maintenance therapy with tumor-treating fields plus temozolomide vs temozolomide alone for glioblastoma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Dec 15;314(23):2535-43. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner A, Read W, Steinberg DM, Lhermitte B, Toms S, Idbaih A, Ahluwalia MS, Fink K, Di Meco F, Lieberman F, Zhu JJ, Stragliotto G, Tran DD, Brem S, Hottinger AF, Kirson ED, Lavy-Shahaf G, Weinberg U, Kim CY, Paek SH, Nicholas G, Burna J, Hirte H, Weller M, Palti Y, Hegi ME, Ram Z. Effect of tumor-treating fields plus maintenance temozolomide vs maintenance temozolomide alone on survival in patients with glioblastoma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Dec 19;318(23):2306-2316. link to original article PubMed
  6. GLARIUS: Herrlinger U, Schäfer N, Steinbach JP, Weyerbrock A, Hau P, Goldbrunner R, Friedrich F, Rohde V, Ringel F, Schlegel U, Sabel M, Ronellenfitsch MW, Uhl M, Maciaczyk J, Grau S, Schnell O, Hänel M, Krex D, Vajkoczy P, Gerlach R, Kortmann RD, Mehdorn M, Tüttenberg J, Mayer-Steinacker R, Fietkau R, Brehmer S, Mack F, Stuplich M, Kebir S, Kohnen R, Dunkl E, Leutgeb B, Proescholdt M, Pietsch T, Urbach H, Belka C, Stummer W, Glas M. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan versus temozolomide in newly diagnosed O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase nonmethylated glioblastoma: The randomized GLARIUS trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 May 10;34(14):1611-9. Epub 2016 Mar 14. link to original article PubMed
  7. Kong DS, Nam DH, Kang SH, Lee JW, Chang JH, Kim JH, Lim YJ, Koh YC, Chung YG, Kim JM, Kim CH. Phase III randomized trial of autologous cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in Korea. Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 24;8(4):7003-7013. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. NCIC CTG CE.6: Perry JR, Laperriere N, O'Callaghan CJ, Brandes AA, Menten J, Phillips C, Fay M, Nishikawa R, Cairncross JG, Roa W, Osoba D, Rossiter JP, Sahgal A, Hirte H, Laigle-Donadey F, Franceschi E, Chinot O, Golfinopoulos V, Fariselli L, Wick A, Feuvret L, Back M, Tills M, Winch C, Baumert BG, Wick W, Ding K, Mason WP; Trial Investigators. Short-course radiation plus temozolomide in elderly patients with glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 16;376(11):1027-1037. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. ACT IV: Weller M, Butowski N, Tran DD, Recht LD, Lim M, Hirte H, Ashby L, Mechtler L, Goldlust SA, Iwamoto F, Drappatz J, O'Rourke DM, Wong M, Hamilton MG, Finocchiaro G, Perry J, Wick W, Green J, He Y, Turner CD, Yellin MJ, Keler T, Davis TA, Stupp R, Sampson JH; ACT IV trial investigators. Rindopepimut with temozolomide for patients with newly diagnosed, EGFRvIII-expressing glioblastoma (ACT IV): a randomised, double-blind, international phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Oct;18(10):1373-1385. Epub 2017 Aug 23. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  10. HERBY: Grill J, Massimino M, Bouffet E, Azizi AA, McCowage G, Cañete A, Saran F, Le Deley MC, Varlet P, Morgan PS, Jaspan T, Jones C, Giangaspero F, Smith H, Garcia J, Elze MC, Rousseau RF, Abrey L, Hargrave D, Vassal G. Phase II, open-label, randomized, multicenter trial (HERBY) of bevacizumab in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 1;36(10):951-958. Epub 2018 Feb 7. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Temozolomide & TTFields

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Stupp et al. 2015 (EF-14) Phase III Temozolomide Superior OS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles; TTFields could be continued up to 24 months

References

  1. Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner AA, Kesari S, Steinberg DM, Toms SA, Taylor LP, Lieberman F, Silvani A, Fink KL, Barnett GH, Zhu JJ, Henson JW, Engelhard HH, Chen TC, Tran DD, Sroubek J, Tran ND, Hottinger AF, Landolfi J, Desai R, Caroli M, Kew Y, Honnorat J, Idbaih A, Kirson ED, Weinberg U, Palti Y, Hegi ME, Ram Z. Maintenance therapy with tumor-treating fields plus temozolomide vs temozolomide alone for glioblastoma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Dec 15;314(23):2535-43. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner A, Read W, Steinberg DM, Lhermitte B, Toms S, Idbaih A, Ahluwalia MS, Fink K, Di Meco F, Lieberman F, Zhu JJ, Stragliotto G, Tran DD, Brem S, Hottinger AF, Kirson ED, Lavy-Shahaf G, Weinberg U, Kim CY, Paek SH, Nicholas G, Burna J, Hirte H, Weller M, Palti Y, Hegi ME, Ram Z. Effect of tumor-treating fields plus maintenance temozolomide vs maintenance temozolomide alone on survival in patients with glioblastoma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Dec 19;318(23):2306-2316. link to original article PubMed

Recurrent disease, non-curative salvage therapy

Bevacizumab monotherapy

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Variant #1

Study Evidence
Friedman et al. 2009 Phase II

Chemotherapy

42-day cycle for up to 104 weeks, until progression of disease, or unacceptable toxicity

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Kreisl et al. 2008 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Kreisl TN, Kim L, Moore K, Duic P, Royce C, Stroud I, Garren N, Mackey M, Butman JA, Camphausen K, Park J, Albert PS, Fine HA. Phase II trial of single-agent bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab plus irinotecan at tumor progression in recurrent glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Feb 10;27(5):740-5. Epub 2008 Dec 29. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Friedman HS, Prados MD, Wen PY, Mikkelsen T, Schiff D, Abrey LE, Yung WK, Paleologos N, Nicholas MK, Jensen R, Vredenburgh J, Huang J, Zheng M, Cloughesy T. Bevacizumab alone and in combination with irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct 1;27(28):4733-40. Epub 2009 Aug 31. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. BELOB: Taal W, Oosterkamp HM, Walenkamp AM, Dubbink HJ, Beerepoot LV, Hanse MC, Buter J, Honkoop AH, Boerman D, de Vos FY, Dinjens WN, Enting RH, Taphoorn MJ, van den Berkmortel FW, Jansen RL, Brandsma D, Bromberg JE, van Heuvel I, Vernhout RM, van der Holt B, van den Bent MJ. Single-agent bevacizumab or lomustine versus a combination of bevacizumab plus lomustine in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (BELOB trial): a randomised controlled phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Aug;15(9):943-53. Epub 2014 Jul 15. link to original article PubMed
    1. HRQoL analysis: Dirven L, van den Bent MJ, Bottomley A, van der Meer N, van der Holt B, Vos MJ, Walenkamp AM, Beerepoot LV, Hanse MC, Reijneveld JC, Otten A, de Vos FY, Smits M, Bromberg JE, Taal W, Taphoorn MJ; Dutch Neuro-Oncology Group (LWNO). The impact of bevacizumab on health-related quality of life in patients treated for recurrent glioblastoma: results of the randomised controlled phase 2 BELOB trial. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Jul;51(10):1321-30. Epub 2015 Apr 17. PubMed

Carboplatin & Bevacizumab

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Variant #1

Study Evidence
Thompson et al. 2010 Retrospective

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Norden et al. 2008 Retrospective

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Retrospective: Norden AD, Young GS, Setayesh K, Muzikansky A, Klufas R, Ross GL, Ciampa AS, Ebbeling LG, Levy B, Drappatz J, Kesari S, Wen PY. Bevacizumab for recurrent malignant gliomas: efficacy, toxicity, and patterns of recurrence. Neurology. 2008 Mar 4;70(10):779-87. link to original article PubMed
  2. Retrospective: Thompson EM, Dosa E, Kraemer DF, Neuwelt EA. Treatment with bevacizumab plus carboplatin for recurrent malignant glioma. Neurosurgery. 2010 Jul;67(1):87-93. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Carmustine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Brandes et al. 2004 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

8-week cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Brandes AA, Tosoni A, Amistà P, Nicolardi L, Grosso D, Berti F, Ermani M. How effective is BCNU in recurrent glioblastoma in the modern era? A phase II trial. Neurology. 2004 Oct 12;63(7):1281-4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

CART-EGFRvIII cells

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Regimen

Study Evidence
O'Rourke et al. 2017 Phase I

Immunotherapy

  • Autologous CART-EGFRvIII cells, see paper for details

One treatment

References

  1. Phase I: O'Rourke DM, Nasrallah MP, Desai A, Melenhorst JJ, Mansfield K, Morrissette JJD, Martinez-Lage M, Brem S, Maloney E, Shen A, Isaacs R, Mohan S, Plesa G, Lacey SF, Navenot JM, Zheng Z, Levine BL, Okada H, June CH, Brogdon JL, Maus MV. A single dose of peripherally infused EGFRvIII-directed CAR T cells mediates antigen loss and induces adaptive resistance in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Jul 19;9(399). PubMed link to original article

Cyclophosphamide monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Chamberlain & Tsao-Wei, 2004 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycles

References

  1. Chamberlain MC, Tsao-Wei DD. Salvage chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide for recurrent, temozolomide-refractory glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer. 2004 Mar 15;100(6):1213-20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Hydroxyurea & Imatinib

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Dresemann et al. 2005 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

Given until progression of disease

References

  1. Dresemann G. Imatinib and hydroxyurea in pretreated progressive glioblastoma multiforme: a patient series. Ann Oncol. 2005 Oct;16(10):1702-8. Epub 2005 Jul 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Irinotecan monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Friedman et al. 1999 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Irinotecan (Camptosar) 125 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22
    • If tolerated, dose could be increased to 150 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22

Supportive medications

  • Steroids at lowest dose necessary
  • Avoid laxatives and magnesium-containing antacids due to potential for diarrhea

42-day (6-week) cycles

References

  1. Friedman HS, Petros WP, Friedman AH, Schaaf LJ, Kerby T, Lawyer J, Parry M, Houghton PJ, Lovell S, Rasheed K, Cloughsey T, Stewart ES, Colvin OM, Provenzale JM, McLendon RE, Bigner DD, Cokgor I, Haglund M, Rich J, Ashley D, Malczyn J, Elfring GL, Miller LL. Irinotecan therapy in adults with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol. 1999 May;17(5):1516-25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Irinotecan & Bevacizumab

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Variant #1, q2wk bev

Study Evidence
Chen et al. 2007 Pilot, >20 pts
Vredenburgh et al. 2007 Phase II
Norden et al. 2008 Phase II
Kreisl et al. 2008 Phase II
Friedman et al. 2009 Phase II

Note: Friedman et al. 2009 described 6-week cycles in which treatment was every 2 weeks, given up to 104 weeks, and was otherwise identical, so its entry was consolidated with the other ones here.

Chemotherapy

  • Irinotecan (Camptosar) 125 mg/m2 IV over 90 minutes once on day 1, given first
    • Patients receiving enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) are treated with a higher dose: 340 mg/m2 or 350 mg/m2 (Chen et al. 2007) IV over 90 minutes once on day 1, given first
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin) 10 mg/kg IV once on day 1, given second, 90 minutes after the start of irinotecan
    • Infusion times for bevacizumab are 90 minutes for the first dose, then if tolerated, 60 minutes for the second dose, and 30 minutes for the third dose and later

Supportive medications

  • Steroids were generally maintained at the same dose

14-day cycles

Variant #2, q3wk bev

Study Evidence
Vredenburgh et al. 2007 Phase II, <20 pts

Chemotherapy

  • Irinotecan (Camptosar) 125 mg/m2 IV over 90 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 22, 29, given first
    • Patients receiving enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) are treated with a higher dose: 350 mg/m2 IV over 90 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 22, 29, given first
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin) 15 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1 & 22, given second, 90 minutes after the start of irinotecan
    • Infusion time is 90 minutes for the first dose, then if tolerated, 60 minutes for the second dose, and 30 minutes for the third dose and later

Supportive medications

  • Steroids were generally maintained at the same dose

42-day cycles

References

  1. Chen W, Delaloye S, Silverman DH, Geist C, Czernin J, Sayre J, Satyamurthy N, Pope W, Lai A, Phelps ME, Cloughesy T. Predicting treatment response of malignant gliomas to bevacizumab and irinotecan by imaging proliferation with [18F] fluorothymidine positron emission tomography: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 20;25(30):4714-21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Herndon JE 2nd, Marcello J, Reardon DA, Quinn JA, Rich JN, Sathornsumetee S, Gururangan S, Sampson J, Wagner M, Bailey L, Bigner DD, Friedman AH, Friedman HS. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 20;25(30):4722-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Norden AD, Young GS, Setayesh K, Muzikansky A, Klufas R, Ross GL, Ciampa AS, Ebbeling LG, Levy B, Drappatz J, Kesari S, Wen PY. Bevacizumab for recurrent malignant gliomas: efficacy, toxicity, and patterns of recurrence. Neurology. 2008 Mar 4;70(10):779-87. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Kreisl TN, Kim L, Moore K, Duic P, Royce C, Stroud I, Garren N, Mackey M, Butman JA, Camphausen K, Park J, Albert PS, Fine HA. Phase II trial of single-agent bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab plus irinotecan at tumor progression in recurrent glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Feb 10;27(5):740-5. Epub 2008 Dec 29. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed
  5. Friedman HS, Prados MD, Wen PY, Mikkelsen T, Schiff D, Abrey LE, Yung WK, Paleologos N, Nicholas MK, Jensen R, Vredenburgh J, Huang J, Zheng M, Cloughesy T. Bevacizumab alone and in combination with irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct 1;27(28):4733-40. Epub 2009 Aug 31. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Lomustine monotherapy

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Variant #1, uncapped

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Batchelor et al. 2013 Phase III (C) Cediranib
Cediranib & Lomustine
Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

42-day cycles

Variant #2, capped

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Taal et al. 2014 (BELOB) Randomized Phase II (C) Lomustine & Bevacizumab Not reported
Wick et al. 2017 (EORTC 26101) Phase III (C) Lomustine & Bevacizumab Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

42-day cycles

Variant #3, with range

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Wick et al. 2010 Phase III (C) Enzastaurin Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) needed to be discontinued 14 days before enrolling in the trial

42-day cycles

References

  1. Wick W, Puduvalli VK, Chamberlain MC, van den Bent MJ, Carpentier AF, Cher LM, Mason W, Weller M, Hong S, Musib L, Liepa AM, Thornton DE, Fine HA. Phase III study of enzastaurin compared with lomustine in the treatment of recurrent intracranial glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1168-74. Epub 2010 Feb 1. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Batchelor TT, Mulholland P, Neyns B, Nabors LB, Campone M, Wick A, Mason W, Mikkelsen T, Phuphanich S, Ashby LS, Degroot J, Gattamaneni R, Cher L, Rosenthal M, Payer F, Jürgensmeier JM, Jain RK, Sorensen AG, Xu J, Liu Q, van den Bent M. Phase III randomized trial comparing the efficacy of cediranib as monotherapy, and in combination with lomustine, versus lomustine alone in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 10;31(26):3212-8. Epub 2013 Aug 12. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. BELOB: Taal W, Oosterkamp HM, Walenkamp AM, Dubbink HJ, Beerepoot LV, Hanse MC, Buter J, Honkoop AH, Boerman D, de Vos FY, Dinjens WN, Enting RH, Taphoorn MJ, van den Berkmortel FW, Jansen RL, Brandsma D, Bromberg JE, van Heuvel I, Vernhout RM, van der Holt B, van den Bent MJ. Single-agent bevacizumab or lomustine versus a combination of bevacizumab plus lomustine in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (BELOB trial): a randomised controlled phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Aug;15(9):943-53. Epub 2014 Jul 15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. HRQoL analysis: Dirven L, van den Bent MJ, Bottomley A, van der Meer N, van der Holt B, Vos MJ, Walenkamp AM, Beerepoot LV, Hanse MC, Reijneveld JC, Otten A, de Vos FY, Smits M, Bromberg JE, Taal W, Taphoorn MJ; Dutch Neuro-Oncology Group (LWNO). The impact of bevacizumab on health-related quality of life in patients treated for recurrent glioblastoma: results of the randomised controlled phase 2 BELOB trial. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Jul;51(10):1321-30. Epub 2015 Apr 17. PubMed
  4. EORTC 26101: Wick W, Gorlia T, Bendszus M, Taphoorn M, Sahm F, Harting I, Brandes AA, Taal W, Domont J, Idbaih A, Campone M, Clement PM, Stupp R, Fabbro M, Le Rhun E, Dubois F, Weller M, von Deimling A, Golfinopoulos V, Bromberg JC, Platten M, Klein M, van den Bent MJ. Lomustine and bevacizumab in progressive glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 16;377(20):1954-1963. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

PCV

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PCV: Procarbazine, CCNU (Lomustine), Vincristine

Regimen

Study Evidence
Levin et al. 1980 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

42-day cycles

References

  1. Levin VA, Edwards MS, Wright DC, Seager ML, Schimberg TP, Townsend JJ, Wilson CB. Modified procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV 3) combination chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Cancer Treat Rep. 1980 Feb-Mar;64(2-3):237-44. contains protocol PubMed

Procarbazine monotherapy

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Variant #1, 125 mg/m2

Study Evidence
Yung et al. 2000 Phase II

Note: this is the starting dose for patients who previously received chemotherapy; no instructions for dose escalation are given.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

8-week cycles for up to 2 years, progression of disease, or unacceptable toxicity

Variant #2, 150 mg/m2

Study Evidence
Yung et al. 2000 Phase II

Note: this dosing is intended for patients who have never previously received chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy

  • Procarbazine (Matulane) 150 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 28
    • Patients who previously received chemotherapy started with 125 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 28

Supportive medications

8-week cycles for up to 2 years, progression of disease, or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Yung WK, Albright RE, Olson J, Fredericks R, Fink K, Prados MD, Brada M, Spence A, Hohl RJ, Shapiro W, Glantz M, Greenberg H, Selker RG, Vick NA, Rampling R, Friedman H, Phillips P, Bruner J, Yue N, Osoba D, Zaknoen S, Levin VA. A phase II study of temozolomide vs procarbazine in patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse. Br J Cancer. 2000 Sep;83(5):588-93. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Temozolomide monotherapy

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Variant #1, continuous therapy

Study Evidence
Perry et al. 2008 (RESCUE) Phase II

Chemotherapy

Patients who have first recurrence after surgery and conventional external beam radiation:

28-day cycles

Patients with progressive disease are changed to:

Given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

Patients who had recurrent/progressive disease after surgery and concurrent radiation and temozolomide are treated with:

Given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

Variant #2, traditional dosing

Study Evidence
Nicholson et al. 2007 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

  • Temozolomide (Temodar) 200 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 5
    • Patients who previously received craniospinal irradiation (CSI) instead received 180 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 5

28-day cycle for up to 11 cycles

Variant #3

Study Evidence
Yung et al. 2000 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Temozolomide (Temodar) as follows:
    • Patients who had never previously received chemotherapy: 200 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 5
    • Patients who previously received chemotherapy started with 150 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 1 to 5

28-day cycle for up to 2 years, until progression of disease, or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Yung WK, Albright RE, Olson J, Fredericks R, Fink K, Prados MD, Brada M, Spence A, Hohl RJ, Shapiro W, Glantz M, Greenberg H, Selker RG, Vick NA, Rampling R, Friedman H, Phillips P, Bruner J, Yue N, Osoba D, Zaknoen S, Levin VA. A phase II study of temozolomide vs procarbazine in patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse. Br J Cancer. 2000 Sep;83(5):588-93. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Nicholson HS, Kretschmar CS, Krailo M, Bernstein M, Kadota R, Fort D, Friedman H, Harris MB, Tedeschi-Blok N, Mazewski C, Sato J, Reaman GH. Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer. 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1542-50. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Perry JR, Rizek P, Cashman R, Morrison M, Morrison T. Temozolomide rechallenge in recurrent malignant glioma by using a continuous temozolomide schedule: the "rescue" approach. Cancer. 2008 Oct 15;113(8):2152-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Perry JR, Bélanger K, Mason WP, Fulton D, Kavan P, Easaw J, Shields C, Kirby S, Macdonald DR, Eisenstat DD, Thiessen B, Forsyth P, Pouliot JF. Phase II trial of continuous dose-intense temozolomide in recurrent malignant glioma: RESCUE study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr 20;28(12):2051-7. Epub 2010 Mar 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Response criteria

Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Working Group