Cholangiocarcinoma

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Section editor
Eric Marks Headshot.jpg
Eric I. Marks, MD
Boston University
Boston, MA
24 regimens on this page
31 variants on this page

Note: there is some overlap, especially in the earlier literature, between treatment regimens for cholangiocarcinoma and those for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, periampullary adenocarcinoma, and gallbladder cancer; please see those pages for additional regimens.
Are you looking for a regimen but can't find it here? For placebo or observational studies in this condition, please visit this page. If you still can't find it, please let us know so we can add it!


Guidelines

ASCO

ESMO

NCCN

Adjuvant therapy

Capecitabine monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Primrose et al. 2019 (BILCAP) 2006-2014 Phase 3 (E-esc) Observation Did not meet primary endpoint of OS1
Median OS: 49.6 vs 36.1 mo
(aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67-1.06)

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2022 update.
Note: Chemotherapy start date 8 to 16 weeks after surgery

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

References

  1. BILCAP: Primrose JN, Fox RP, Palmer DH, Malik HZ, Prasad R, Mirza D, Anthony A, Corrie P, Falk S, Finch-Jones M, Wasan H, Ross P, Wall L, Wadsley J, Evans JTR, Stocken D, Praseedom R, Ma YT, Davidson B, Neoptolemos JP, Iveson T, Raftery J, Zhu S, Cunningham D, Garden OJ, Stubbs C, Valle JW, Bridgewater J; BILCAP study group. Capecitabine compared with observation in resected biliary tract cancer (BILCAP): a randomised, controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2019 May;20(5):663-673. Epub 2019 Mar 25. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2019 Apr 2. link to original article PubMed NCT00363584
    1. Update: Bridgewater J, Fletcher P, Palmer DH, Malik HZ, Prasad R, Mirza D, Anthony A, Corrie P, Falk S, Finch-Jones M, Wasan H, Ross P, Wall L, Wadsley J, Evans TR, Stocken D, Stubbs C, Praseedom R, Ma YT, Davidson B, Neoptolemos J, Iveson T, Cunningham D, Garden OJ, Valle JW, Primrose J; BILCAP study group. Long-Term Outcomes and Exploratory Analyses of the Randomized Phase III BILCAP Study. J Clin Oncol. 2022 Jun 20;40(18):2048-2057. Epub 2022 Mar 22. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Gemcitabine

GemCap: Gemcitabine & Capecitabine

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Ben-Josef et al. 2015 (SWOG S0809) 2008-2012 Phase 2

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Capecitabine & RT

References

  1. SWOG S0809: Ben-Josef E, Guthrie KA, El-Khoueiry AB, Corless CL, Zalupski MM, Lowy AM, Thomas CR Jr, Alberts SR, Dawson LA, Micetich KC, Thomas MB, Siegel AB, Blanke CD. SWOG S0809: A phase II intergroup trial of adjuvant capecitabine and gemcitabine followed by radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug 20;33(24):2617-22. Epub 2015 May 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00789958

Gemcitabine monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Ebata et al. 2018 (BCAT) 2007-2011 Phase 3 (E-esc) Observation Did not meet primary endpoint of OS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. BCAT: Ebata T, Hirano S, Konishi M, Uesaka K, Tsuchiya Y, Ohtsuka M, Kaneoka Y, Yamamoto M, Ambo Y, Shimizu Y, Ozawa F, Fukutomi A, Ando M, Nimura Y, Nagino M; Bile Duct Cancer Adjuvant Trial (BCAT) Study Group. Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy versus observation in resected bile duct cancer. Br J Surg. 2018 Feb;105(3):192-202. link to original article PubMed UMIN000000820

Gemcitabine/Fluorouracil & RT

Gemcitabine/Fluorouracil & RT: Gemcitabine alternating with Fluorouracil & Radiation Therapy

Protocol

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Regine et al. 2008 (RTOG 9704) 1998-2002 Phase 3 (E-esc) Fluorouracil & RT Did not meet primary endpoint of OS1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2011 update.
Note: this study was in pancreatic cancer but in practice it is extrapolated to cholangiocarcinoma.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy, part 1

21-day course, followed in 1 to 2 weeks by:

Chemotherapy, part 2

Radiotherapy

  • Concurrent radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy fractions x 28 fractions given 5 days per week, for a total dose of 50.4 Gy. The last 5.4 Gy of the 50.4 Gy is limited to the tumor bed.

6-week course, followed in 3 to 5 weeks by:

Chemotherapy, part 3

28-day cycle for 3 cycles

References

  1. RTOG 9704: Regine WF, Winter KA, Abrams RA, Safran H, Hoffman JP, Konski A, Benson AB, Macdonald JS, Kudrimoti MR, Fromm ML, Haddock MG, Schaefer P, Willett CG, Rich TA. Fluorouracil vs gemcitabine chemotherapy before and after fluorouracil-based chemoradiation following resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Mar 5;299(9):1019-26. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00003216
    1. Update: Regine WF, Winter KA, Abrams R, Safran H, Hoffman JP, Konski A, Benson AB, Macdonald JS, Rich TA, Willett CG. Fluorouracil-based chemoradiation with either gemcitabine or fluorouracil chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: 5-year analysis of the US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 phase III trial. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 May;18(5):1319-26. Epub 2011 Mar 10. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

GemOx

GemOx: Gemcitabine & Oxaliplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Edeline et al. 2019 (PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI) 2009-2014 Phase 3 (E-esc) Observation Did not meet primary endpoint of RFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 12 cycles

References

  1. PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI: Edeline J, Benabdelghani M, Bertaut A, Watelet J, Hammel P, Joly JP, Boudjema K, Fartoux L, Bouhier-Leporrier K, Jouve JL, Faroux R, Guerin-Meyer V, Kurtz JE, Assénat E, Seitz JF, Baumgaertner I, Tougeron D, de la Fouchardière C, Lombard-Bohas C, Boucher E, Stanbury T, Louvet C, Malka D, Phelip JM. Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy or Surveillance in Resected Biliary Tract Cancer (PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI): A Randomized Phase III Study. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Mar 10;37(8):658-667. Epub 2019 Feb 1. link to original article PubMed NCT01313377

Metastatic disease, all lines of therapy

Capecitabine monotherapy

Regimen

Study Evidence
Patt et al. 2004 Retrospective

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Retrospective: Patt YZ, Hassan MM, Aguayo A, Nooka AK, Lozano RD, Curley SA, Vauthey JN, Ellis LM, Schnirer II, Wolff RA, Charnsangavej C, Brown TD. Oral capecitabine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 Aug 1;101(3):578-86. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Mitomycin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Kornek et al. 2004 2000-2001 Randomized Phase 2 (E-switch-ic) Gemcitabine & Mitomycin Might have superior ORR

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycles

References

  1. Kornek GV, Schuell B, Laengle F, Gruenberger T, Penz M, Karall K, Depisch D, Lang F, Scheithauer W. Mitomycin C in combination with capecitabine or biweekly high-dose gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a randomised phase II trial. Ann Oncol. 2004 Mar;15(3):478-83. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

CapeOx

CapeOx: Capecitabine & Oxaliplatin
XELOX: XELoda (Capecitabine) & OXaliplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Kim et al. 2019 (SMC 2011-05-070) 2011-2016 Phase 3 (E-switch-ic) GEMOX Non-inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

References

  1. SMC 2011-05-070: Kim ST, Kang JH, Lee J, Lee HW, Oh SY, Jang JS, Lee MA, Sohn BS, Yoon SY, Choi HJ, Hong JH, Kim MJ, Kim S, Park YS, Park JO, Lim HY. Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin versus gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin as first-line therapy for advanced biliary tract cancers: a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase III, noninferiority trial. Ann Oncol. 2019 May 1;30(5):788-795. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT01470443

Cisplatin & Gemcitabine (GC)

GC: Gemcitabine & Cisplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Valle et al. 2010 (ABC-02) 2002-2008 Phase 3 (E-esc) Gemcitabine Superior OS
Median OS: 11.7 vs 8.1 mo
(HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.80)
Morizane et al. 2019 (FUGA-BT) 2013-2016 Phase 3 (C) Gemcitabine & S-1 Seems to have non-inferior OS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Cisplatin is mixed in a solution of 1 liter of normal saline with 20 mmol potassium chloride, 8 mmol magnesium sulfate
  • After cisplatin, 500 mL normal saline given over 30 minutes

21-day cycle for 4 to 8 cycles depending on response

References

  1. ABC-02: Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer DH, Cunningham D, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, Madhusudan S, Iveson T, Hughes S, Pereira SP, Roughton M, Bridgewater J; ABC-02 Trial Investigators. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1273-81. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00262769
  2. FUGA-BT: Morizane C, Okusaka T, Mizusawa J, Katayama H, Ueno M, Ikeda M, Ozaka M, Okano N, Sugimori K, Fukutomi A, Hara H, Mizuno N, Yanagimoto H, Wada K, Tobimatsu K, Yane K, Nakamori S, Yamaguchi H, Asagi A, Yukisawa S, Kojima Y, Kawabe K, Kawamoto Y, Sugimoto R, Iwai T, Nakamura K, Miyakawa H, Yamashita T, Hosokawa A, Ioka T, Kato N, Shioji K, Shimizu K, Nakagohri T, Kamata K, Ishii H, Furuse J; JCOG. Combination gemcitabine plus S-1 versus gemcitabine plus cisplatin for advanced/recurrent biliary tract cancer: the FUGA-BT (JCOG1113) randomized phase III clinical trial. Ann Oncol. 2019 Dec 1;30(12):1950-1958. link to original article PubMed UMIN000010667
  3. FIGHT-302: NCT03656536
  4. FOENIX-CCA3: NCT04093362
  5. KEYNOTE-966: NCT04003636
  6. NuTide:121: NCT04163900
  7. PROOF 301: NCT03773302
  8. SWOG S1815: NCT03768414
  9. TOPAZ-1: NCT03875235

Cisplatin & Gemcitabine (GC) & nab-Paclitaxel

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Shroff et al. 2019 (MDACC 2014-0524) 2015-2017 Phase 2

Prolonged median PFS and OS vs reported for historical controls treated with gemcitabine-cisplatin alone. This is the dose after a mid-protocol amendment for hematologic toxicity.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. MDACC 2014-0524: Shroff RT, Javle MM, Xiao L, Kaseb AO, Varadhachary GR, Wolff RA, Raghav KPS, Iwasaki M, Masci P, Ramanathan RK, Ahn DH, Bekaii-Saab TS, Borad MJ. Gemcitabine, cisplatin, and nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of advanced biliary tract cancers: a phase 2 clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2019 Jun 1;5(6):824-830. Epub 2019 Apr 18. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract link to PMC article PubMed NCT02392637

ECF

ECF: Epirubicin, Cisplatin, Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Rao et al. 2005 1997-2003 Phase 3 (E-switch-ic) FELV Did not meet primary endpoint of OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Rao S, Cunningham D, Hawkins RE, Hill ME, Smith D, Daniel F, Ross PJ, Oates J, Norman AR. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer. Br J Cancer. 2005 May 9;92(9):1650-4. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed

Erlotinib & Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Lubner et al. 2010 (MC044G) 2006-2008 Phase 2

Targeted therapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. MC044G: Lubner SJ, Mahoney MR, Kolesar JL, Loconte NK, Kim GP, Pitot HC, Philip PA, Picus J, Yong WP, Horvath L, Van Hazel G, Erlichman CE, Holen KD. Report of a multicenter phase II trial testing a combination of biweekly bevacizumab and daily erlotinib in patients with unresectable biliary cancer: a phase II Consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 20;28(21):3491-7. Epub 2010 Jun 7. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed NCT00356889

FELV

FELV: Fluorouracil , Etoposide, LeucoVorin (Folinic acid)

Regimen variant #1, 500/120/60

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Glimelius et al. 1996 1991-1995 Phase 3 (E-esc) Best supportive care Superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Regimen variant #2, 600/120/60

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Rao et al. 2005 1997-2003 Phase 3 (C) ECF Did not meet primary endpoint of OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Glimelius B, Hoffman K, Sjödén PO, Jacobsson G, Sellström H, Enander LK, Linné T, Svensson C. Chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer. Ann Oncol. 1996 Aug;7(6):593-600. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
  2. Rao S, Cunningham D, Hawkins RE, Hill ME, Smith D, Daniel F, Ross PJ, Oates J, Norman AR. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer. Br J Cancer. 2005 May 9;92(9):1650-4. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed

FULV

FULV: 5-FU & LeucoVorin (Folinic acid)
FUFA: 5-FU (Fluorouracil) & Folinic Acid

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Glimelius et al. 1996 1991-1995 Phase 3 (E-esc) Best supportive care Superior OS

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. Glimelius B, Hoffman K, Sjödén PO, Jacobsson G, Sellström H, Enander LK, Linné T, Svensson C. Chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer. Ann Oncol. 1996 Aug;7(6):593-600. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

FULV & Gemcitabine

FULV & Gemcitabine: 5-FU, LeucoVorin (Folinic acid), Gemcitabine

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Gebbia et al. 2001 NR Phase 2

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Gebbia V, Giuliani F, Maiello E, Colucci G, Verderame F, Borsellino N, Mauceri G, Caruso M, Tirrito ML, Valdesi M. Treatment of inoperable and/or metastatic biliary tree carcinomas with single-agent gemcitabine or in combination with levofolinic acid and infusional fluorouracil: results of a multicenter phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Oct 15;19(20):4089-91. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

Gemcitabine monotherapy

Regimen variant #1

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Valle et al. 2010 (ABC-02) 2002-2008 Phase 3 (E-de-esc) Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Inferior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 3 to 6 cycles depending on response

Regimen variant #2

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Gebbia et al. 2001 NR Phase 2

Chemotherapy

30-day cycles

References

  1. Gebbia V, Giuliani F, Maiello E, Colucci G, Verderame F, Borsellino N, Mauceri G, Caruso M, Tirrito ML, Valdesi M. Treatment of inoperable and/or metastatic biliary tree carcinomas with single-agent gemcitabine or in combination with levofolinic acid and infusional fluorouracil: results of a multicenter phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Oct 15;19(20):4089-91. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
  2. ABC-02: Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer DH, Cunningham D, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, Madhusudan S, Iveson T, Hughes S, Pereira SP, Roughton M, Bridgewater J; ABC-02 Trial Investigators. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1273-81. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00262769

Gemcitabine, Cisplatin, S-1

GCS: Gemcitabine, Cisplatin, S-1

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Sakai et al. 2018 (KHBO1401-MITSUBA) 2014-NR Phase 3 (E-esc) Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. Abstract: Sakai D, Kanai M , Kobayashi S, Eguchi H, Baba H, Seo S, Taketomi A, Takayama T, Yamaue H, Ishioka C, Sho M, Takeyama Y, Fujimoto J, Toyoda M, Shimizu J, Goto T, Yoshimura K, Hatano E, Nagano H, Ioka T. Randomized phase III study of gemcitabine, cisplatin plus S-1 (GCS) versus gemcitabine, cisplatin (GC) for advanced biliary tract cancer (KHBO1401-MITSUBA). Annals of Oncology 29 (Supplement 8): viii205–viii270, 2018 link to abstract NCT02182778

Gemcitabine & Mitomycin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Kornek et al. 2004 2000-2001 Randomized Phase 2 (E-switch-ic) Capecitabine & Mitomycin Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycles

References

  1. Kornek GV, Schuell B, Laengle F, Gruenberger T, Penz M, Karall K, Depisch D, Lang F, Scheithauer W. Mitomycin C in combination with capecitabine or biweekly high-dose gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a randomised phase II trial. Ann Oncol. 2004 Mar;15(3):478-83. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

Gemcitabine & nab-Paclitaxel

NG: Nab-Paclitaxel & Gemcitabine

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Sahai et al. 2018 (PrE0204) 2014-2016 Phase 2

Note: this regimen was intended for ECOG PS 0 to 2, and Child-Pugh score less than 8.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. PrE0204: Sahai V, Catalano PJ, Zalupski MM, Lubner SJ, Menge MR, Nimeiri HS, Munshi HG, Benson AB 3rd, O'Dwyer PJ. nab-Paclitaxel and gemcitabine as first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma: a phase 2 clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Dec 1;4(12):1707-1712. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract link to PMC article PubMed NCT02181634

Gemcitabine & S-1

GS: Gemcitabine & S-1

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Morizane et al. 2019 (FUGA-BT) 2013-2016 Phase 3 (E-switch-ic) Gemcitabine & Cisplatin Seems to have non-inferior OS

Chemotherapy

References

  1. FUGA-BT: Morizane C, Okusaka T, Mizusawa J, Katayama H, Ueno M, Ikeda M, Ozaka M, Okano N, Sugimori K, Fukutomi A, Hara H, Mizuno N, Yanagimoto H, Wada K, Tobimatsu K, Yane K, Nakamori S, Yamaguchi H, Asagi A, Yukisawa S, Kojima Y, Kawabe K, Kawamoto Y, Sugimoto R, Iwai T, Nakamura K, Miyakawa H, Yamashita T, Hosokawa A, Ioka T, Kato N, Shioji K, Shimizu K, Nakagohri T, Kamata K, Ishii H, Furuse J; JCOG. Combination gemcitabine plus S-1 versus gemcitabine plus cisplatin for advanced/recurrent biliary tract cancer: the FUGA-BT (JCOG1113) randomized phase III clinical trial. Ann Oncol. 2019 Dec 1;30(12):1950-1958. link to original article PubMed UMIN000010667

GemOx

GemOx: Gemcitabine & Oxaliplatin
GEMOX: GEMcitabine & OXaliplatin

Regimen variant #1, 1000/85, bi-weekly

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Efficacy
Halim et al. 2011 2005-2009 Phase 2 ORR: 27.5%

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

Regimen variant #2, 1000/100, bi-weekly

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Lee et al. 2011 (SMC 2008-12-024) 2009-2010 Phase 3 (C) GEMOX & Erlotinib Might have inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

Regimen variant #3, 1000/100, 2 weeks out of 3

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Kim et al. 2019 (SMC 2011-05-070) 2011-2016 Phase 3 (C) XELOX Non-inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Regimen variant #4, 1000/100 ("GEMOX-3")

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Efficacy
Harder et al. 2006 2002-2005 Phase 2 ORR: 26% (95% CI 14–44)

GEMOX-3: GEMcitabine & OXaliplatin, 3 visits per month

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Harder J, Riecken B, Kummer O, Lohrmann C, Otto F, Usadel H, Geissler M, Opitz O, Henss H. Outpatient chemotherapy with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with biliary tract cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006 Oct 9;95(7):848-52. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
  2. Halim A, Ebrahim MA, Saleh Y. A phase II study of outpatient biweekly gemcitabine-oxaliplatin in advanced biliary tract carcinomas. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2011 Feb;41(2):217-24. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
  3. SMC 2008-12-024: Lee J, Park SH, Chang HM, Kim JS, Choi HJ, Lee MA, Jang JS, Jeung HC, Kang JH, Lee HW, Shin DB, Kang HJ, Sun JM, Park JO, Park YS, Kang WK, Lim HY. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with or without erlotinib in advanced biliary-tract cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Feb;13(2):181-8. Epub 2011 Dec 20. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT01149122
  4. SMC 2011-05-070: Kim ST, Kang JH, Lee J, Lee HW, Oh SY, Jang JS, Lee MA, Sohn BS, Yoon SY, Choi HJ, Hong JH, Kim MJ, Kim S, Park YS, Park JO, Lim HY. Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin versus gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin as first-line therapy for advanced biliary tract cancers: a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase III, noninferiority trial. Ann Oncol. 2019 May 1;30(5):788-795. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT01470443
  5. KN035-BTC: NCT03478488

GEMOX-B

GEMOX-B: GEMcitabine, OXaliplatin, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Zhu et al. 2009 (MGH 05-349) 2006-2007 Phase 2

Chemotherapy

Targeted therapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. MGH 05-349: Zhu AX, Meyerhardt JA, Blaszkowsky LS, Kambadakone AR, Muzikansky A, Zheng H, Clark JW, Abrams TA, Chan JA, Enzinger PC, Bhargava P, Kwak EL, Allen JN, Jain SR, Stuart K, Horgan K, Sheehan S, Fuchs CS, Ryan DP, Sahani DV. Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab in advanced biliary-tract cancers and correlation of changes in 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET with clinical outcome: a phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Jan;11(1):48-54. Epub 2009 Nov 20. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00361231

Nivolumab monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Kim et al. 2020 (MCC-18684) 2016-2018 Phase 2

Immunotherapy

  • Nivolumab (Opdivo) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 8: 240 mg IV once on day 1
    • Cycle 9 onwards: 480 mg IV once on day 1

14-day cycle for 8 cycles, then 28-day cycles

References

  1. MCC-18684: Kim RD, Chung V, Alese OB, El-Rayes BF, Li D, Al-Toubah TE, Schell MJ, Zhou JM, Mahipal A, Kim BH, Kim DW. A Phase 2 Multi-institutional Study of Nivolumab for Patients With Advanced Refractory Biliary Tract Cancer. JAMA Oncol. 2020 Jun 1;6(6):888-894. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02829918

Pembrolizumab monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Le et al. 2015 (KEYNOTE-016) 2013-2016 Phase 2, <20 pts of this subtype

Note: KEYNOTE-016 was an expansion to a CRC-specific trial.

Immunotherapy

14-day cycle for up to 52 cycles (2 years)

References

  1. KEYNOTE-016: Le DT, Uram JN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Kemberling H, Eyring AD, Skora AD, Luber BS, Azad NS, Laheru D, Biedrzycki B, Donehower RC, Zaheer A, Fisher GA, Crocenzi TS, Lee JJ, Duffy SM, Goldberg RM, de la Chapelle A, Koshiji M, Bhaijee F, Huebner T, Hruban RH, Wood LD, Cuka N, Pardoll DM, Papadopoulos N, Kinzler KW, Zhou S, Cornish TC, Taube JM, Anders RA, Eshleman JR, Vogelstein B, Diaz LA Jr. PD-1 blockade in tumors with mismatch-repair deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 25;372(26):2509-20. Epub 2015 May 30. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract link to PMC article PubMed NCT01876511
    1. Update: Le DT, Durham JN, Smith KN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Aulakh LK, Lu S, Kemberling H, Wilt C, Luber BS, Wong F, Azad NS, Rucki AA, Laheru D, Donehower R, Zaheer A, Fisher GA, Crocenzi TS, Lee JJ, Greten TF, Duffy AG, Ciombor KK, Eyring AD, Lam BH, Joe A, Kang SP, Holdhoff M, Danilova L, Cope L, Meyer C, Zhou S, Goldberg RM, Armstrong DK, Bever KM, Fader AN, Taube J, Housseau F, Spetzler D, Xiao N, Pardoll DM, Papadopoulos N, Kinzler KW, Eshleman JR, Vogelstein B, Anders RA, Diaz LA Jr. Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade. Science. 2017 Jul 28;357(6349):409-413. Epub 2017 Jun 8. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in supplement PubMed

Pemigatinib monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Abou-Alfa et al. 2020 (FIGHT-202) 2017-2019 Phase 2 (RT)

Note: Patients with previously treated unresectable or metastatic disease.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusion or other rearrangement

Targeted therapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. FIGHT-202: Abou-Alfa GK, Sahai V, Hollebecque A, Vaccaro G, Melisi D, Al-Rajabi R, Paulson AS, Borad MJ, Gallinson D, Murphy AG, Oh DY, Dotan E, Catenacci DV, Van Cutsem E, Ji T, Lihou CF, Zhen H, Féliz L, Vogel A. Pemigatinib for previously treated, locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2020 May;21(5):671-684. Epub 2020 Mar 20 link to original article contains dosing details in supplement link to PMC article PubMed NCT02924376

Metastatic disease, subsequent lines of therapy

mFOLFOX6

mFOLFOX6: modified FOLinic acid, Fluorouracil, OXaliplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Lamarca et al. 2021 (ABC-06) 2014-2018 Phase 3 (E-esc) Active symptom control Seems to have superior OS
Median OS: 6.2 vs 5.3 mo
(HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.97)

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for up to 12 cycles

References

  1. ABC-06: Lamarca A, Palmer DH, Wasan HS, Ross PJ, Ma YT, Arora A, Falk S, Gillmore R, Wadsley J, Patel K, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, Iveson T, Waters JS, Hobbs C, Barber S, Ryder WD, Ramage J, Davies LM, Bridgewater JA, Valle JW; Advanced Biliary Cancer Working Group. Second-line FOLFOX chemotherapy versus active symptom control for advanced biliary tract cancer (ABC-06): a phase 3, open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):690-701. Epub 2021 Mar 30. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT01926236

mFOLFOX6 (L-Leucovorin)

mFOLFOX6: modified FOLinic acid, Fluorouracil, OXaliplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Lamarca et al. 2021 (ABC-06) 2014-2018 Phase 3 (E-esc) Active symptom control Seems to have superior OS
Median OS: 6.2 vs 5.3 mo
(HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.97)

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for up to 12 cycles

References

  1. ABC-06: Lamarca A, Palmer DH, Wasan HS, Ross PJ, Ma YT, Arora A, Falk S, Gillmore R, Wadsley J, Patel K, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, Iveson T, Waters JS, Hobbs C, Barber S, Ryder WD, Ramage J, Davies LM, Bridgewater JA, Valle JW; Advanced Biliary Cancer Working Group. Second-line FOLFOX chemotherapy versus active symptom control for advanced biliary tract cancer (ABC-06): a phase 3, open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):690-701. Epub 2021 Mar 30. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT01926236

Infigratinib monotherapy

Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Javle et al. 2017 (CBGJ398X2204) 2014-2020 Phase 2 (RT)

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • FGFR2 gene fusions or translocations or other FGFR genetic alterations

Targeted therapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. CBGJ398X2204: Javle M, Lowery M, Shroff RT, Weiss KH, Springfeld C, Borad MJ, Ramanathan RK, Goyal L, Sadeghi S, Macarulla T, El-Khoueiry A, Kelley RK, Borbath I, Choo SP, Oh DY, Philip PA, Chen LT, Reungwetwattana T, Van Cutsem E, Yeh KH, Ciombor K, Finn RS, Patel A, Sen S, Porter D, Isaacs R, Zhu AX, Abou-Alfa GK, Bekaii-Saab T. Phase II study of BGJ398 in patients with FGFR-altered advanced cholangiocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jan 20;36(3):276-282. Epub 2017 Nov 28. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02150967
    1. Update: Javle M, Roychowdhury S, Kelley RK, Sadeghi S, Macarulla T, Weiss KH, Waldschmidt DT, Goyal L, Borbath I, El-Khoueiry A, Borad MJ, Yong WP, Philip PA, Bitzer M, Tanasanvimon S, Li A, Pande A, Soifer HS, Shepherd SP, Moran S, Zhu AX, Bekaii-Saab TS, Abou-Alfa GK. Infigratinib (BGJ398) in previously treated patients with advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements: mature results from a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Oct;6(10):803-815. Epub 2021 Aug 3. link to original article PubMed

Ivosidenib monotherapy

Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Abou-Alfa et al. 2020 (ClarIDHy) 2017-2019 Phase 3 (E-RT-esc) Placebo Superior PFS
Median PFS: 2.7 vs 1.4 mo
(HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.25-0.54)

Note: Patients with unresectable or metastatic disease with IDH1 mutation with progression after at least one prior systemic therapy.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • IDH1 mutation

Targeted therapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. ClarIDHy: Abou-Alfa GK, Macarulla T, Javle MM, Kelley RK, Lubner SJ, Adeva J, Cleary JM, Catenacci DV, Borad MJ, Bridgewater J, Harris WP, Murphy AG, Oh DY, Whisenant J, Lowery MA, Goyal L, Shroff RT, El-Khoueiry AB, Fan B, Wu B, Chamberlain CX, Jiang L, Gliser C, Pandya SS, Valle JW, Zhu AX. Ivosidenib in IDH1-mutant, chemotherapy-refractory cholangiocarcinoma (ClarIDHy): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Jun;21(6):796-807. Epub 2020 May 13. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2020 Oct;21(10):e462. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract link to PMC article PubMed NCT02989857
    1. Update: Zhu AX, Macarulla T, Javle MM, Kelley RK, Lubner SJ, Adeva J, Cleary JM, Catenacci DVT, Borad MJ, Bridgewater JA, Harris WP, Murphy AG, Oh DY, Whisenant JR, Lowery MA, Goyal L, Shroff RT, El-Khoueiry AB, Chamberlain CX, Aguado-Fraile E, Choe S, Wu B, Liu H, Gliser C, Pandya SS, Valle JW, Abou-Alfa GK. Final Overall Survival Efficacy Results of Ivosidenib for Patients With Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma With IDH1 Mutation: The Phase 3 Randomized Clinical ClarIDHy Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2021 Nov 1;7(11):1669-1677. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Lenvatinib & Pembrolizumab

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Awaiting publication (LEAP-005) 2019-ongoing Phase 2

Note: Dosing details are from ASCO abstract #321 (2021).

Targeted therapy

Immunotherapy

35-day cycles

References

  • LEAP-005: NCT03797326

Regorafenib monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Sun et al. 2019 (UPMC 13-100) 2014-2017 Phase 2

Only studied in patients with advanced biliary cancer who failed at least 1 line of systemic therapy.

Targeted therapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. UPMC 13-100: Sun W, Patel A, Normolle A, Patel K, Ohr J, Lee JJ, Bahary N, Chu E, Streeter N, Drummond S. A phase 2 trial of regorafenib as a single agent in patients with chemotherapy-refractory, advanced, and metastatic biliary tract adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2019 Mar 15;125(6):902-909. Epub 2018 Dec 18. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT02053376