Cholangiocarcinoma

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Neeta K. Venepalli, MD, MBA
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12 regimens on this page
15 variants on this page


Liver cancer or hepatobiliary cancer comprises cancers that arise within the liver and its hepatocytes (hepatocellular carcinoma) and the biliary tract cancers, which include bile duct cancer/cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer.

Guidelines

ESMO

NCCN

All lines of therapy

Best supportive care

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Glimelius et al. 1996 Phase III FELv Inferior OS
Fluorouracil & Folinic acid Inferior OS

No antineoplastic treatment. Included for reference purposes only.

References

  1. Glimelius B, Hoffman K, Sjödén PO, Jacobsson G, Sellström H, Enander LK, Linné T, Svensson C. Chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer. Ann Oncol. 1996 Aug;7(6):593-600. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed content property of HemOnc.org

Capecitabine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Patt et al. 2004 Retrospective

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Retrospective: Patt YZ, Hassan MM, Aguayo A, Nooka AK, Lozano RD, Curley SA, Vauthey JN, Ellis LM, Schnirer II, Wolff RA, Charnsangavej C, Brown TD. Oral capecitabine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 Aug 1;101(3):578-86. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Mitomycin

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kornek et al. 2004 Randomized Phase II Gemcitabine & Mitomycin Might have superior ORR

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycles

References

  1. Kornek GV, Schuell B, Laengle F, Gruenberger T, Penz M, Karall K, Depisch D, Lang F, Scheithauer W. Mitomycin C in combination with capecitabine or biweekly high-dose gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a randomised phase II trial. Ann Oncol. 2004 Mar;15(3):478-83. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cisplatin & Gemcitabine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Valle et al. 2010 (ABC-02) Phase III Gemcitabine Superior OS

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Cisplatin is mixed in a solution of 1 liter of normal saline with 20 mmol potassium chloride, 8 mmol magnesium sulfate
  • After cisplatin, 500 mL normal saline given over 30 minutes

21-day cycle for 4 to 8 cycles depending on response

References

  1. Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer DH, Cunningham D, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, Madhusudan S, Iveson T, Hughes S, Pereira SP, Roughton M, Bridgewater J; ABC-02 Trial Investigators. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1273-81. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

ECF

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ECF: Epirubicin, Cisplatin, Fluorouracil

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Rao et al. 2005 Phase III FELV Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Rao S, Cunningham D, Hawkins RE, Hill ME, Smith D, Daniel F, Ross PJ, Oates J, Norman AR. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer. Br J Cancer. 2005 May 9;92(9):1650-4. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Erlotinib & Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Lubner et al. 2010 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Lubner SJ, Mahoney MR, Kolesar JL, Loconte NK, Kim GP, Pitot HC, Philip PA, Picus J, Yong WP, Horvath L, Van Hazel G, Erlichman CE, Holen KD. Report of a multicenter phase II trial testing a combination of biweekly bevacizumab and daily erlotinib in patients with unresectable biliary cancer: a phase II Consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 20;28(21):3491-7. Epub 2010 Jun 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

FELV

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FELV: Fluorouracil , Etoposide, LeucoVorin (Folinic acid)

Variant #1, 500/120/60

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Glimelius et al. 1996 Phase III Best supportive care Superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, 600/120/60

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Rao et al. 2005 Phase III ECF Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Glimelius B, Hoffman K, Sjödén PO, Jacobsson G, Sellström H, Enander LK, Linné T, Svensson C. Chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer. Ann Oncol. 1996 Aug;7(6):593-600. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
  2. Rao S, Cunningham D, Hawkins RE, Hill ME, Smith D, Daniel F, Ross PJ, Oates J, Norman AR. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer. Br J Cancer. 2005 May 9;92(9):1650-4. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Fluorouracil & Folinic acid

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Glimelius et al. 1996 Phase III Best supportive care Superior OS

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. Glimelius B, Hoffman K, Sjödén PO, Jacobsson G, Sellström H, Enander LK, Linné T, Svensson C. Chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer. Ann Oncol. 1996 Aug;7(6):593-600. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Fluorouracil, Folinic acid, Gemcitabine

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Gebbia et al. 2001 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Gebbia V, Giuliani F, Maiello E, Colucci G, Verderame F, Borsellino N, Mauceri G, Caruso M, Tirrito ML, Valdesi M. Treatment of inoperable and/or metastatic biliary tree carcinomas with single-agent gemcitabine or in combination with levofolinic acid and infusional fluorouracil: results of a multicenter phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Oct 15;19(20):4089-91. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine monotherapy

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Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Valle et al. 2010 (ABC-02) Phase III Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Inferior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 3 to 6 cycles depending on response

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Gebbia et al. 2001 Phase II

Chemotherapy

30-day cycles

References

  1. Gebbia V, Giuliani F, Maiello E, Colucci G, Verderame F, Borsellino N, Mauceri G, Caruso M, Tirrito ML, Valdesi M. Treatment of inoperable and/or metastatic biliary tree carcinomas with single-agent gemcitabine or in combination with levofolinic acid and infusional fluorouracil: results of a multicenter phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Oct 15;19(20):4089-91. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer DH, Cunningham D, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, Madhusudan S, Iveson T, Hughes S, Pereira SP, Roughton M, Bridgewater J; ABC-02 Trial Investigators. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1273-81. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Gemcitabine & Mitomycin

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kornek et al. 2004 Randomized Phase II Capecitabine & Mitomycin Might have inferior ORR

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycles

References

  1. Kornek GV, Schuell B, Laengle F, Gruenberger T, Penz M, Karall K, Depisch D, Lang F, Scheithauer W. Mitomycin C in combination with capecitabine or biweekly high-dose gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a randomised phase II trial. Ann Oncol. 2004 Mar;15(3):478-83. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

GemOx

Source: Gemcitabine & Oxaliplatin for biliary tract cancer

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GEMOX-3: GEMcitabine, OXaliplatin, 3 visits per month

Variant #1, GEMOX-3

Study Evidence ORR
Harder et al. 2006 Phase II 26% (95% CI 14–44)

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2

Study Evidence ORR
Halim et al. 2011 Phase II 27.5%

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Harder J, Riecken B, Kummer O, Lohrmann C, Otto F, Usadel H, Geissler M, Opitz O, Henss H. Outpatient chemotherapy with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with biliary tract cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006 Oct 9;95(7):848-52. link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Halim A, Ebrahim MA, Saleh Y. A phase II study of outpatient biweekly gemcitabine-oxaliplatin in advanced biliary tract carcinomas. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2011 Feb;41(2):217-24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Lee J, Park SH, Chang HM, Kim JS, Choi HJ, Lee MA, Jang JS, Jeung HC, Kang JH, Lee HW, Shin DB, Kang HJ, Sun JM, Park JO, Park YS, Kang WK, Lim HY. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with or without erlotinib in advanced biliary-tract cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Feb;13(2):181-8. Epub 2011 Dec 20. link to original article PubMed

GEMOX-B

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GEMOX-B: GEMcitabine, OXaliplatin, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Evidence
Zhu et al. 2009 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Zhu AX, Meyerhardt JA, Blaszkowsky LS, Kambadakone AR, Muzikansky A, Zheng H, Clark JW, Abrams TA, Chan JA, Enzinger PC, Bhargava P, Kwak EL, Allen JN, Jain SR, Stuart K, Horgan K, Sheehan S, Fuchs CS, Ryan DP, Sahani DV. Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab in advanced biliary-tract cancers and correlation of changes in 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET with clinical outcome: a phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Jan;11(1):48-54. Epub 2009 Nov 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed