Cholangiocarcinoma - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main cholangiocarcinoma page for current regimens.


Adjuvant therapy

Observation

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Primrose et al. 2019 (BILCAP) 2006-2014 Phase III (C) Capecitabine Might have inferior OS
Ebata et al. 2018 (BCAT) 2007-2011 Phase III (C) Gemcitabine Did not meet primary endpoint of OS
Edeline et al. 2019 (PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI) 2009-2014 Phase III (C) GemOx Did not meet primary endpoint of RFS

No antineoplastic treatment after surgery.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. BCAT: Ebata T, Hirano S, Konishi M, Uesaka K, Tsuchiya Y, Ohtsuka M, Kaneoka Y, Yamamoto M, Ambo Y, Shimizu Y, Ozawa F, Fukutomi A, Ando M, Nimura Y, Nagino M; Bile Duct Cancer Adjuvant Trial (BCAT) Study Group. Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy versus observation in resected bile duct cancer. Br J Surg. 2018 Feb;105(3):192-202. link to original article PubMed UMIN 000000820
  2. PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI: Edeline J, Benabdelghani M, Bertaut A, Watelet J, Hammel P, Joly JP, Boudjema K, Fartoux L, Bouhier-Leporrier K, Jouve JL, Faroux R, Guerin-Meyer V, Kurtz JE, Assénat E, Seitz JF, Baumgaertner I, Tougeron D, de la Fouchardière C, Lombard-Bohas C, Boucher E, Stanbury T, Louvet C, Malka D, Phelip JM. Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy or Surveillance in Resected Biliary Tract Cancer (PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI): A Randomized Phase III Study. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Mar 10;37(8):658-667. Epub 2019 Feb 1. link to original article PubMed
  3. BILCAP: Primrose JN, Fox RP, Palmer DH, Malik HZ, Prasad R, Mirza D, Anthony A, Corrie P, Falk S, Finch-Jones M, Wasan H, Ross P, Wall L, Wadsley J, Evans JTR, Stocken D, Praseedom R, Ma YT, Davidson B, Neoptolemos JP, Iveson T, Raftery J, Zhu S, Cunningham D, Garden OJ, Stubbs C, Valle JW, Bridgewater J; BILCAP study group. Capecitabine compared with observation in resected biliary tract cancer (BILCAP): a randomised, controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2019 May;20(5):663-673. Epub 2019 Mar 25. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2019 Apr 2. link to original article PubMed EudraCT 2005-003318-13

Metastatic disease, all lines of therapy

Best supportive care

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Glimelius et al. 1996 1991-1995 Phase III (C) 1. FELV Inferior OS
2. FULV Inferior OS

No antineoplastic treatment. Included for reference purposes only.

References

  1. Glimelius B, Hoffman K, Sjödén PO, Jacobsson G, Sellström H, Enander LK, Linné T, Svensson C. Chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer. Ann Oncol. 1996 Aug;7(6):593-600. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed content property of HemOnc.org