Hepatocellular carcinoma

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14 regimens on this page
14 variants on this page


Liver cancer or hepatobiliary cancer comprises cancers that arise within the liver and its hepatocytes (hepatocellular carcinoma) and the biliary tract cancers, which include bile duct cancer/cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer.

Guidelines

ESMO

NCCN

All lines of therapy

Bevacizumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Siegel et al. 2008 Phase II

The dose here was a pre-planned escalation dose.

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. Siegel AB, Cohen EI, Ocean A, Lehrer D, Goldenberg A, Knox JJ, Chen H, Clark-Garvey S, Weinberg A, Mandeli J, Christos P, Mazumdar M, Popa E, Brown RS Jr, Rafii S, Schwartz JD. Phase II trial evaluating the clinical and biologic effects of bevacizumab in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 20;26(18):2992-8. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Capecitabine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Abdel-Rahman et al. 2013 Randomized Phase II Sorafenib Inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Retrospective: Patt YZ, Hassan MM, Aguayo A, Nooka AK, Lozano RD, Curley SA, Vauthey JN, Ellis LM, Schnirer II, Wolff RA, Charnsangavej C, Brown TD. Oral capecitabine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 Aug 1;101(3):578-86. link to original article PubMed
  2. Abdel-Rahman O, Abdel-Wahab M, Shaker M, Abdel-Wahab S, Elbassiony M, Ellithy M. Sorafenib versus capecitabine in the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Med Oncol. 2013 Sep;30(3):655. Epub 2013 Jul 4. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Hsu et al. 2010 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 or more cycles depending on response

References

  1. Hsu CH, Yang TS, Hsu C, Toh HC, Epstein RJ, Hsiao LT, Chen PJ, Lin ZZ, Chao TY, Cheng AL. Efficacy and tolerability of bevacizumab plus capecitabine as first-line therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2010 Mar 16;102(6):981-6. Epub 2010 Feb 16. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

CapeOx

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CapeOX: Capecitabine, OXaliplatin
XELOX: XELoda (Capecitabine), OXaliplatin

Regimen

Study Evidence
Boige et al. 2007 Phase II

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Boige V, Raoul JL, Pignon JP, Bouché O, Blanc JF, Dahan L, Jouve JL, Dupouy N, Ducreux M; Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive. Multicentre phase II trial of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: FFCD 03-03 trial. Br J Cancer. 2007 Oct 8;97(7):862-7. Epub 2007 Sep 18. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Sun et al. 2011 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Capecitabine (Xeloda) 825 mg/m2 PO BID on days 1 to 14
  • Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) 130 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours once on day 1
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin) 5 mg/kg IV once on day 1
    • Infusion times are 75 to 105 minutes for the first dose, which if tolerated could be decreased to 50 to 70 minutes for the second dose, then 20 to 40 minutes for dose 3 and later

21-day cycles

References

  1. Sun W, Sohal D, Haller DG, Mykulowycz K, Rosen M, Soulen MC, Caparro M, Teitelbaum UR, Giantonio B, O'Dwyer PJ, Shaked A, Reddy R, Olthoff K. Phase 2 trial of bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin in treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2011 Jul 15;117(14):3187-92. Epub 2011 Jan 24. link to original article contains verified regimen PubMed

Doxorubicin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gish et al. 2007 Phase III Nolatrexed Superior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Gish RG, Porta C, Lazar L, Ruff P, Feld R, Croitoru A, Feun L, Jeziorski K, Leighton J, Gallo J, Kennealey GT. Phase III randomized controlled trial comparing the survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated with nolatrexed or doxorubicin. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3069-75. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Erlotinib & Bevacizumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Thomas et al. 2009 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Thomas MB, Morris JS, Chadha R, Iwasaki M, Kaur H, Lin E, Kaseb A, Glover K, Davila M, Abbruzzese J. Phase II trial of the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in patients who have advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Feb 20;27(6):843-50. Epub 2009 Jan 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Fluorouracil & Folinic acid

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Porta et al. 1995 Phase II

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Porta C, Moroni M, Nastasi G, Arcangeli G. 5-Fluorouracil and d,l-leucovorin calcium are active to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma patients: preliminary results of a phase II study. Oncology. 1995 Nov-Dec;52(6):487-91. link to original article PubMed

GemOx

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GemOx: Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin

Regimen

Study Evidence ORR
Louafi et al. 2007 Phase II 18% (95% CI 8–34)

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles, given until progression of disease, unacceptable toxicity, or patient choice

References

  1. Louafi S, Boige V, Ducreux M, Bonyhay L, Mansourbakht T, de Baere T, Asnacios A, Hannoun L, Poynard T, Taïeb J. Gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): results of a phase II study. Cancer. 2007 Apr 1;109(7):1384-90. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Retrospective: Zaanan A, Williet N, Hebbar M, Dabakuyo TS, Fartoux L, Mansourbakht T, Dubreuil O, Rosmorduc O, Cattan S, Bonnetain F, Boige V, Taïeb J. Gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A large multicenter AGEO study. J Hepatol. 2013 Jan;58(1):81-8. Epub 2012 Sep 16. link to original article PubMed

Nivolumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence ORR
El-Khoueiry et al. 2017 (CheckMate 040) Phase I/II 20% (95% CI 15–26)

This is the dose used in the expansion cohort of this study.

Immunotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. El-Khoueiry AB, Sangro B, Yau T, Crocenzi TS, Kudo M, Hsu C, Kim TY, Choo SP, Trojan J, Welling TH Rd, Meyer T, Kang YK, Yeo W, Chopra A, Anderson J, Dela Cruz C, Lang L, Neely J, Tang H, Dastani HB, Melero I. Nivolumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (CheckMate 040): an open-label, non-comparative, phase 1/2 dose escalation and expansion trial. Lancet. 2017 Jun 24;389(10088):2492-2502. Epub 2017 Apr 20.link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Llovet et al. 2008 (SHARP) Phase III Sorafenib Inferior OS
Cheng et al. 2008 Phase III Sorafenib Seems to have inferior OS
Zhu et al. 2015 (REACH) Phase III Ramucirumab Seems not superior
Bruix et al. 2016 (RESORCE) Phase III Regorafenib Inferior OS

No active antineoplastic treatment.

References

  1. Llovet JM, Ricci S, Mazzaferro V, Hilgard P, Gane E, Blanc JF, de Oliveira AC, Santoro A, Raoul JL, Forner A, Schwartz M, Porta C, Zeuzem S, Bolondi L, Greten TF, Galle PR, Seitz JF, Borbath I, Häussinger D, Giannaris T, Shan M, Moscovici M, Voliotis D, Bruix J; SHARP Investigators Study Group. Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 24;359(4):378-90. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Cheng AL, Kang YK, Chen Z, Tsao CJ, Qin S, Kim JS, Luo R, Feng J, Ye S, Yang TS, Xu J, Sun Y, Liang H, Liu J, Wang J, Tak WY, Pan H, Burock K, Zou J, Voliotis D, Guan Z. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009 Jan;10(1):25-34. Epub 2008 Dec 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Cheng AL, Guan Z, Chen Z, Tsao CJ, Qin S, Kim JS, Yang TS, Tak WY, Pan H, Yu S, Xu J, Fang F, Zou J, Lentini G, Voliotis D, Kang YK. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma according to baseline status: Subset analyses of the phase III Sorafenib Asia-Pacific trial. Eur J Cancer. 2012 Jul;48(10):1452-65. Epub 2012 Jan 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Zhu AX, Park JO, Ryoo BY, Yen CJ, Poon R, Pastorelli D, Blanc JF, Chung HC, Baron AD, Pfiffer TE, Okusaka T, Kubackova K, Trojan J, Sastre J, Chau I, Chang SC, Abada PB, Yang L, Schwartz JD, Kudo M; REACH Trial Investigators. Ramucirumab versus placebo as second-line treatment in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma following first-line therapy with sorafenib (REACH): a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jul;16(7):859-70. Epub 2015 Jun 18. link to original article PubMed
  4. Bruix J, Qin S, Merle P, Granito A, Huang YH, Bodoky G, Pracht M, Yokosuka O, Rosmorduc O, Breder V, Gerolami R, Masi G, Ross PJ, Song T, Bronowicki JP, Ollivier-Hourmand I, Kudo M, Cheng AL, Llovet JM, Finn RS, LeBerre MA, Baumhauer A, Meinhardt G, Han G; RESORCE Investigators. Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed on sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2017 Jan 7;389(10064):56-66. Epub 2016 Dec 6. Erratum in: Lancet. 2017 Jan 7;389(10064):36. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Regorafenib monotherapy

Source: Regorafenib (Stivarga) for hepatocellular carcinoma

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bruix et al. 2016 (RESORCE) Phase III Placebo Superior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Bruix J, Qin S, Merle P, Granito A, Huang YH, Bodoky G, Pracht M, Yokosuka O, Rosmorduc O, Breder V, Gerolami R, Masi G, Ross PJ, Song T, Bronowicki JP, Ollivier-Hourmand I, Kudo M, Cheng AL, Llovet JM, Finn RS, LeBerre MA, Baumhauer A, Meinhardt G, Han G; RESORCE Investigators. Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed on sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2017 Jan 7;389(10064):56-66. Epub 2016 Dec 6. Erratum in: Lancet. 2017 Jan 7;389(10064):36. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Sorafenib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Abou-Alfa et al. 2006 Phase II
Llovet et al. 2008 (SHARP) Phase III Placebo Superior OS
Cheng et al. 2008 Phase III Placebo Seems to have superior OS
Pinter et al. 2009 Retrospective
Abdel-Rahman et al. 2013 Randomized Phase II Capecitabine Superior OS

Chemotherapy

  • Sorafenib (Nexavar) 400 mg PO BID
    • Dose/schedule changes due to toxicity include 400 mg PO once per day, 400 mg PO every other day, 200 mg PO BID, 200 mg PO once per day

Given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Abou-Alfa GK, Schwartz L, Ricci S, Amadori D, Santoro A, Figer A, De Greve J, Douillard JY, Lathia C, Schwartz B, Taylor I, Moscovici M, Saltz LB. Phase II study of sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Sep 10;24(26):4293-300. Epub 2006 Aug 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Llovet JM, Ricci S, Mazzaferro V, Hilgard P, Gane E, Blanc JF, de Oliveira AC, Santoro A, Raoul JL, Forner A, Schwartz M, Porta C, Zeuzem S, Bolondi L, Greten TF, Galle PR, Seitz JF, Borbath I, Häussinger D, Giannaris T, Shan M, Moscovici M, Voliotis D, Bruix J; SHARP Investigators Study Group. Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 24;359(4):378-90. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Cheng AL, Kang YK, Chen Z, Tsao CJ, Qin S, Kim JS, Luo R, Feng J, Ye S, Yang TS, Xu J, Sun Y, Liang H, Liu J, Wang J, Tak WY, Pan H, Burock K, Zou J, Voliotis D, Guan Z. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009 Jan;10(1):25-34. Epub 2008 Dec 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Cheng AL, Guan Z, Chen Z, Tsao CJ, Qin S, Kim JS, Yang TS, Tak WY, Pan H, Yu S, Xu J, Fang F, Zou J, Lentini G, Voliotis D, Kang YK. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma according to baseline status: Subset analyses of the phase III Sorafenib Asia-Pacific trial. Eur J Cancer. 2012 Jul;48(10):1452-65. Epub 2012 Jan 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Retrospective: Pinter M, Sieghart W, Graziadei I, Vogel W, Maieron A, Königsberg R, Weissmann A, Kornek G, Plank C, Peck-Radosavljevic M. Sorafenib in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma from mild to advanced stage liver cirrhosis. Oncologist. 2009 Jan;14(1):70-6. Epub 2009 Jan 14. link to original article PubMed
  5. Abdel-Rahman O, Abdel-Wahab M, Shaker M, Abdel-Wahab S, Elbassiony M, Ellithy M. Sorafenib versus capecitabine in the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Med Oncol. 2013 Sep;30(3):655. Epub 2013 Jul 4. link to original article PubMed

Sunitinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Zhu et al. 2009 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Sunitinib (Sutent) 37.5 mg PO once per day on days 1 to 28
    • Dose can be reduced to 25 and 12.5 mg once per day depending on toxicity

42-day cycles

References

  1. Zhu AX, Sahani DV, Duda DG, di Tomaso E, Ancukiewicz M, Catalano OA, Sindhwani V, Blaszkowsky LS, Yoon SS, Lahdenranta J, Bhargava P, Meyerhardt J, Clark JW, Kwak EL, Hezel AF, Miksad R, Abrams TA, Enzinger PC, Fuchs CS, Ryan DP, Jain RK. Efficacy, safety, and potential biomarkers of sunitinib monotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jun 20;27(18):3027-35. Epub 2009 May 26. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

TACE, then 5-FU

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TACE: Trans-Arterial ChemoEmbolization

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kawata et al. 2001 Phase III TACE, then 5-FU & Pravastatin Inferior OS

Chemotherapy, TACE portion

  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) 30 mg IA once, given first
  • Gelatin-sponge particles and ethyl ester of poppyseed oil fatty acids containing 38% iodine by weight (Lipiodol; AndreGelbe Laboratories, Paris, France)

One course, followed in 2 weeks by:

Chemotherapy

2-month course

References

  1. Kawata S, Yamasaki E, Nagase T, Inui Y, Ito N, Matsuda Y, Inada M, Tamura S, Noda S, Imai Y, Matsuzawa Y. Effect of pravastatin on survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized controlled trial. Br J Cancer. 2001 Apr 6;84(7):886-91. contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed