B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, pediatric

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This page contains studies that are specific to pediatric populations. For the more general B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia page, including regimens for adolescents and young adults, follow this link.

31 regimens on this page
36 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

"How I Treat"

NCCN

Prephase

Methylprednisolone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Place et al. 2015 (DFCI 05-001) 2005-2011 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Burns et al. 2020 (DFCI 11-001) 2012-2015 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: Burns et al. 2020 is both an update of DFCI 05-001 and the primary publication of DFCI 11-001.

Chemotherapy

3-day course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. DFCI 05-001: Place AE, Stevenson KE, Vrooman LM, Harris MH, Hunt SK, O'Brien JE, Supko JG, Asselin BL, Athale UH, Clavell LA, Cole PD, Kelly KM, Laverdiere C, Leclerc JM, Michon B, Schorin MA, Welch JJ, Lipshultz SE, Kutok JL, Blonquist TM, Neuberg DS, Sallan SE, Silverman LB. Intravenous pegylated asparaginase versus intramuscular native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (DFCI 05-001): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1677-90. Epub 2015 Nov 6. link to original article PubMed NCT00400946
    1. Pooled update: Burns MA, Place AE, Stevenson KE, Gutiérrez A, Forrest S, Pikman Y, Vrooman LM, Harris MH, Hunt SK, O'Brien JE, Asselin BL, Athale UH, Clavell LA, Cole PD, Gennarini LM, Kahn JM, Kelly KM, Laverdiere C, Leclerc JM, Michon B, Schorin MA, Sulis ML, Welch JJG, Neuberg DS, Sallan SE, Silverman LB. Identification of prognostic factors in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from DFCI ALL Consortium Protocols 05-001 and 11-001. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Jan;68(1):e28719. Epub 2020 Oct 7. Erratum in: Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Mar;68(3):e28885. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed
  2. DFCI 11-001: Burns MA, Place AE, Stevenson KE, Gutiérrez A, Forrest S, Pikman Y, Vrooman LM, Harris MH, Hunt SK, O'Brien JE, Asselin BL, Athale UH, Clavell LA, Cole PD, Gennarini LM, Kahn JM, Kelly KM, Laverdiere C, Leclerc JM, Michon B, Schorin MA, Sulis ML, Welch JJG, Neuberg DS, Sallan SE, Silverman LB. Identification of prognostic factors in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from DFCI ALL Consortium Protocols 05-001 and 11-001. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Jan;68(1):e28719. Epub 2020 Oct 7. Erratum in: Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Mar;68(3):e28885. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed NCT01574274

Prednisone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Möricke et al. 2016 (AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000) 2000-2006 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

7-day course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000: Möricke A, Zimmermann M, Valsecchi MG, Stanulla M, Biondi A, Mann G, Locatelli F, Cazzaniga G, Niggli F, Aricò M, Bartram CR, Attarbaschi A, Silvestri D, Beier R, Basso G, Ratei R, Kulozik AE, Lo Nigro L, Kremens B, Greiner J, Parasole R, Harbott J, Caruso R, von Stackelberg A, Barisone E, Rössig C, Conter V, Schrappe M. Dexamethasone vs prednisone in induction treatment of pediatric ALL: results of the randomized trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000. Blood. 2016 Apr 28;127(17):2101-12. Epub 2016 Feb 17. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed NCT00430118; NCT00613457

Vincristine & Prednisone

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VP: Vincristine & Prednisone

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Sallan et al. 1978 1973-1977 Non-randomized

Note: this regimen is of historic interest as an induction regimen; it is still occasionally used as pre-phase in patients too ill to get cytotoxic chemotherapy at time of diagnosis.

Chemotherapy

21-day course

References

  1. Sallan SE, Cammita BM, Cassady JR, Nathan DG, Frei E 3rd. Intermittent combination chemotherapy with adriamycin for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: clinical results. Blood. 1978 Mar;51(3):425-33. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Upfront induction therapy

Calaspargase, Daunorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Angiolillo et al. 2014 (COG AALL07P4) 2008-2010 Randomized (E-RT-switch-ic) Daunorubicin, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Prednisone Longer half-life

Chemotherapy

5-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See protocol for details of treatment beyond induction

References

  1. COG AALL07P4: Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Devidas M, Borowitz MJ, Carroll AJ, Gastier-Foster JM, Heerema NA, Keilani T, Lane AR, Loh ML, Reaman GH, Adamson PC, Wood B, Wood C, Zheng HW, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of calaspargase pegol Escherichia coli L-asparaginase in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from Children's Oncology Group Study AALL07P4. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 1;32(34):3874-82. Epub 2014 Oct 27. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00671034

Daunorubicin, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Burke et al. 2019 (COG AALL1131) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: the referenced publication does not specifically focus on induction; the full regimen is available as a protocol. Per the protocol, it is intended only for patients less than 10 years old.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

  • Cytarabine (Ara-C) as follows:
    • Ages 1 to 1.99: 30 mg IT once on day 1
    • Ages 2 to 2.99: 50 mg IT once on day 1
    • Age 3 and older: 70 mg IT once on day 1
  • Methotrexate (MTX) as follows:
    • Ages 1 to 1.99: 8 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29
    • Ages 2 to 2.99: 10 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29
    • Ages 3 to 8.99: 12 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29
    • Age 9 and older: 15 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29

4-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See protocol for details of treatment beyond induction

References

  1. COG AALL1131: Burke MJ, Salzer WL, Devidas M, Dai Y, Gore L, Hilden JM, Larsen E, Rabin KR, Zweidler-McKay PA, Borowitz MJ, Wood B, Heerema NA, Carroll AJ, Winick N, Carroll WL, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Hunger SP. Replacing cyclophosphamide/cytarabine/mercaptopurine with cyclophosphamide/etoposide during consolidation/delayed intensification does not improve outcome for pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the COG. Haematologica. 2019 May;104(5):986-992. Epub 2018 Dec 13. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT02883049

DOLP

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DOLP: Daunorubicin, Oncovin (Vincristine), L-Asparaginase, Prednisone
DVPA: Daunorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone, Asparaginase

Regimen variant #1, 25/6000/1.5/60

Study Evidence
Seibel et al. 2008 (COG CCG-1961) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: exact days were not specified for the L-asparaginase; suggested days are similar to those used in subsequent parts of the protocol.

Chemotherapy

CNS therapy

4-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • Standard versus increased intensity post-remission therapy (see paper for details)

Regimen variant #2, 30/5000/1.5/60 ("Phase A" of ALL-BFM 95)

Study Evidence
Möricke et al. 2008 (ALL-BFM 95) Non-randomized

Note: see paper for details on dose adjustments based on risk.

Chemotherapy

CNS therapy

5-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See paper for details

Regimen variant #3, 30/10,000/1.5/60 ("Protocol I")

Study Evidence
Schrappe et al. 2000 (ALL-BFM 90) Non-randomized
Kamps et al. 2002 (DCLSG ALL-8) Non-randomized

Note: see papers for details on dose adjustments based on risk.

Chemotherapy

CNS therapy

5-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See papers for details

Regimen variant #4, 40/10,000/1.5/60 ("Induction Protocol I" of ALL-BFM 86)

Study Evidence
Reiter et al. 1994 (ALL-BFM 86) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Kamps et al. 1999 (DCLSG ALL-7) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

6-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • Induction phase II (see papers for details)

References

  1. ALL-BFM 86: Reiter A, Schrappe M, Ludwig WD, Hiddemann W, Sauter S, Henze G, Zimmermann M, Lampert F, Havers W, Niethammer D, Odenwald E, Ritter J, Mann G, Welte K, Gadner H, Riehm H. Chemotherapy in 998 unselected childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients: results and conclusions of the multicenter trial ALL-BFM 86. Blood. 1994 Nov 1;84(9):3122-33. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. DCLSG ALL-7: Kamps WA, Bökkerink JP, Hählen K, Hermans J, Riehm H, Gadner H, Schrappe M, Slater R, van den Berg-de Ruiter E, Smets LA, de Vaan GA, Weening RS, van Weerden JF, van Wering ER, den der Does-van den Berg A. Intensive treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia according to ALL-BFM-86 without cranial radiotherapy: results of Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group protocol ALL-7 (1988-1991). Blood. 1999 Aug 15;94(4):1226-36. link to original article PubMed
  3. ALL-BFM 90: Schrappe M, Reiter A, Ludwig WD, Harbott J, Zimmermann M, Hiddemann W, Niemeyer C, Henze G, Feldges A, Zintl F, Kornhuber B, Ritter J, Welte K, Gadner H, Riehm H; German-Austrian-Swiss ALL-BFM Study Group. Improved outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia despite reduced use of anthracyclines and cranial radiotherapy: results of trial ALL-BFM 90. Blood. 2000 Jun 1;95(11):3310-22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Pooled subgroup analysis: Schrauder A, Reiter A, Gadner H, Niethammer D, Klingebiel T, Kremens B, Peters C, Ebell W, Zimmermann M, Niggli F, Ludwig WD, Riehm H, Welte K, Schrappe M. Superiority of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation compared with chemotherapy alone in high-risk childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from ALL-BFM 90 and 95. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5742-9. link to original article PubMed
  4. DCLSG ALL-8: Kamps WA, Bökkerink JP, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Veerman AJ, Weening RS, van Wering ER, van Weerden JF, Hermans J, Slater R, van den Berg E, Kroes WG, van der Does-van den Berg A. BFM-oriented treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation and treatment reduction for standard risk patients: results of DCLSG protocol ALL-8 (1991-1996). Leukemia. 2002 Jun;16(6):1099-111. link to original article refers to ALL-BFM 90 protocol PubMed
  5. COG CCG-1961: Seibel NL, Steinherz PG, Sather HN, Nachman JB, Delaat C, Ettinger LJ, Freyer DR, Mattano LA Jr, Hastings CA, Rubin CM, Bertolone K, Franklin JL, Heerema NA, Mitchell TL, Pyesmany AF, La MK, Edens C, Gaynon PS. Early postinduction intensification therapy improves survival for children and adolescents with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood. 2008 Mar 1;111(5):2548-55. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. ALL-BFM 95: Möricke A, Reiter A, Zimmermann M, Gadner H, Stanulla M, Dördelmann M, Löning L, Beier R, Ludwig WD, Ratei R, Harbott J, Boos J, Mann G, Niggli F, Feldges A, Henze G, Welte K, Beck JD, Klingebiel T, Niemeyer C, Zintl F, Bode U, Urban C, Wehinger H, Niethammer D, Riehm H, Schrappe M; German-Austrian-Swiss ALL-BFM Study Group. Risk-adjusted therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can decrease treatment burden and improve survival: treatment results of 2169 unselected pediatric and adolescent patients enrolled in the trial ALL-BFM 95. Blood. 2008 May 1;111(9):4477-89. Epub 2008 Feb 19. Erratum in: Blood. 2009 Apr 30;113(18):4478. Dosage error in article text. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Pooled subgroup analysis: Schrauder A, Reiter A, Gadner H, Niethammer D, Klingebiel T, Kremens B, Peters C, Ebell W, Zimmermann M, Niggli F, Ludwig WD, Riehm H, Welte K, Schrappe M. Superiority of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation compared with chemotherapy alone in high-risk childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from ALL-BFM 90 and 95. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5742-9. link to original article PubMed

DOLP (Prednisolone)

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DOLP: Daunorubicin, Oncovin (Vincristine), L-Asparaginase, Prednisolone

Regimen variant #1, 30/10,000/1.5/60

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
de Moerloose et al. 2010 (EORTC CLG 58951) 1999-2002 Phase III (C) Daunorubicin, L-Asparaginase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone Did not meet primary endpoint of EFS

Note: see paper for details on CNS therapy and dose adjustments based on risk; these instructions include a 7-day pre-phase and are for AR1 patients.

Chemotherapy

5-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See paper for details

Regimen variant #2, 45/6000/1.5/40

Study Evidence
Chessells et al. 1992 (UK MRC ALLX) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: exact days for L-asparaginase were not specified in the protocol.

Chemotherapy

29-day course

Subsequent treatment

  • Intensification (randomized) or Cy/TBI with allo HSCT, depending on donor availability

References

  1. UK MRC ALLX: Chessells JM, Bailey C, Wheeler K, Richards SM. Bone marrow transplantation for high-risk childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission: experience in MRC UKALL X. Lancet. 1992 Sep 5;340(8819):565-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Chessells JM, Bailey C, Richards SM; Medical Research Council Working Party on Childhood Leukaemia. Intensification of treatment and survival in all children with lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of UK Medical Research Council trial UKALL X. Lancet. 1995 Jan 21;345(8943):143-8. link to original article PubMed
  2. EORTC CLG 58951: De Moerloose B, Suciu S, Bertrand Y, Mazingue F, Robert A, Uyttebroeck A, Yakouben K, Ferster A, Margueritte G, Lutz P, Munzer M, Sirvent N, Norton L, Boutard P, Plantaz D, Millot F, Philippet P, Baila L, Benoit Y, Otten J; Children's Leukemia Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Improved outcome with pulses of vincristine and corticosteroids in continuation therapy of children with average risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): report of the EORTC randomized phase 3 trial 58951. Blood. 2010 Jul 8;116(1):36-44. Epub 2010 Apr 20. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00003728
    1. Update: Domenech C, Suciu S, De Moerloose B, Mazingue F, Plat G, Ferster A, Uyttebroeck A, Sirvent N, Lutz P, Yakouben K, Munzer M, Röhrlich P, Plantaz D, Millot F, Philippet P, Dastugue N, Girard S, Cavé H, Benoit Y, Bertrand Y; Children's Leukemia Group (CLG) of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Dexamethasone (6 mg/m2/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/m2/day) were equally effective as induction therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the EORTC CLG 58951 randomized trial. Haematologica. 2014 Jul;99(7):1220-7. Epub 2014 Apr 11. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Mondelaers V, Suciu S, De Moerloose B, Ferster A, Mazingue F, Plat G, Yakouben K, Uyttebroeck A, Lutz P, Costa V, Sirvent N, Plouvier E, Munzer M, Poirée M, Minckes O, Millot F, Plantaz D, Maes P, Hoyoux C, Cavé H, Rohrlich P, Bertrand Y, Benoit Y; Children–s Leukemia Group (CLG) of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Prolonged versus standard native E coli asparaginase therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: final results of the EORTC-CLG randomized phase III trial 58951. Haematologica. 2017 Oct;102(10):1727-1738. Epub 2017 Jul 27. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Doxorubicin, Mercaptopurine, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Prednisolone

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Albertsen et al. 2019 (NOPHO ALL2008) 2008-2016 Non-randomized portion of RCT

See protocol for initiation dependencies of 6-MP and pegaspargase.

Chemotherapy

  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) 40 mg/m2 IV over 4 hours once per day on days 1 & 22
  • Mercaptopurine (6-MP) 25 mg/m2 PO once per day on days 30 to 35
  • Pegaspargase (Oncaspar) 1000 units/m2 IM once on day 30
  • Vincristine (Oncovin) as follows:
    • Younger than 18: 2 mg/m2 (maximum dose of 2.5 mg) IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29
    • 18 or older: 2 mg/m2 (maximum dose of 2 mg) IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29
  • Prednisolone (Millipred) 20 mg/m2 PO three times per day on days 1 to 29, then 10 mg/m2 PO three times per day on days 30 to 32, then 5 mg/m2 PO three times per day on days 33 to 35, then 2.5 mg/m2 PO three times per day on days 36 to 38

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) as follows:
    • Ages 1 to 1.9: 8 mg IT once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 29
    • Ages 2 to 2.9: 10 mg IT once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 29
    • Age 3 and older: 12 mg IT once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 29

5-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See protocol for details of treatment beyond induction

References

  1. NOPHO ALL2008: Albertsen BK, Grell K, Abrahamsson J, Lund B, Vettenranta K, Jónsson ÓG, Frandsen TL, Wolthers BO, Heyman M, Schmiegelow K. Intermittent versus continuous PEG-asparaginase to reduce asparaginase-associated toxicities: a NOPHO ALL2008 randomized study. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Jul 1;37(19):1638-1646. Epub 2019 Apr 12. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed NCT00819351

Doxorubicin, Methotrexate, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Methylprednisolone

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy Comparative Toxicity
Place et al. 2015 (DFCI 05-001) 2005-2011 Phase III (E-switch-ic) Doxorubicin, L-Asparaginase, Methotrexate, Vincristine, Methylprednisolone Did not meet secondary endpoint of DFS Less anxiety
Burns et al. 2020 (DFCI 11-001) 2012-2015 Phase III (C) Calaspargase, Doxorubicin, Methotrexate, Vincristine, Methylprednisolone Not reported

Note: Burns et al. 2020 is both an update of DFCI 05-001 and the primary publication of DFCI 11-001. Day numbering takes into account the pre-phase.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day course

CNS prophylaxis

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. DFCI 05-001: Place AE, Stevenson KE, Vrooman LM, Harris MH, Hunt SK, O'Brien JE, Supko JG, Asselin BL, Athale UH, Clavell LA, Cole PD, Kelly KM, Laverdiere C, Leclerc JM, Michon B, Schorin MA, Welch JJ, Lipshultz SE, Kutok JL, Blonquist TM, Neuberg DS, Sallan SE, Silverman LB. Intravenous pegylated asparaginase versus intramuscular native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (DFCI 05-001): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1677-90. Epub 2015 Nov 6. link to original article PubMed NCT00400946
    1. Pooled update: Burns MA, Place AE, Stevenson KE, Gutiérrez A, Forrest S, Pikman Y, Vrooman LM, Harris MH, Hunt SK, O'Brien JE, Asselin BL, Athale UH, Clavell LA, Cole PD, Gennarini LM, Kahn JM, Kelly KM, Laverdiere C, Leclerc JM, Michon B, Schorin MA, Sulis ML, Welch JJG, Neuberg DS, Sallan SE, Silverman LB. Identification of prognostic factors in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from DFCI ALL Consortium Protocols 05-001 and 11-001. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Jan;68(1):e28719. Epub 2020 Oct 7. Erratum in: Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Mar;68(3):e28885. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed
  2. DFCI 11-001: Burns MA, Place AE, Stevenson KE, Gutiérrez A, Forrest S, Pikman Y, Vrooman LM, Harris MH, Hunt SK, O'Brien JE, Asselin BL, Athale UH, Clavell LA, Cole PD, Gennarini LM, Kahn JM, Kelly KM, Laverdiere C, Leclerc JM, Michon B, Schorin MA, Sulis ML, Welch JJG, Neuberg DS, Sallan SE, Silverman LB. Identification of prognostic factors in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from DFCI ALL Consortium Protocols 05-001 and 11-001. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Jan;68(1):e28719. Epub 2020 Oct 7. Erratum in: Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Mar;68(3):e28885. link to original article contains verified protocol in supplement PubMed NCT01574274

Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Maloney et al. 2019 (COG AALL0331) 2005-2010 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Angiolillo et al. 2021 (COG AALL0932) 2010-2018 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: there are very minor differences in timing between protocols; see papers for details.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

35-day course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. COG AALL0331: Maloney KW, Devidas M, Wang C, Mattano LA, Friedmann AM, Buckley P, Borowitz MJ, Carroll AJ, Gastier-Foster JM, Heerema NA, Kadan-Lottick N, Loh ML, Matloub YH, Marshall DT, Stork LC, Raetz EA, Wood B, Hunger SP, Carroll WL, Winick NJ. Outcome in Children With Standard-Risk B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results of Children's Oncology Group Trial AALL0331. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00103285
  2. COG AALL0932: Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Kairalla JA, Devidas M, Rabin KR, Zweidler-McKay P, Borowitz MJ, Wood B, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Relling MV, Hitzler J, Lane AR, Maloney KW, Wang C, Bassal M, Carroll WL, Winick NJ, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Hunger SP. Excellent Outcomes With Reduced Frequency of Vincristine and Dexamethasone Pulses in Standard-Risk B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group AALL0932. J Clin Oncol. 2021 May 1;39(13):1437-1447. Epub 2021 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01190930

Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Prednisone

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Avramis et al. 2002 (CCG 1962) 1997-1998 Randomized (E-RT-switch-ic) L-Asparaginase, Vincristine, Prednisone Did not meet secondary endpoint of EFS

Note: the primary endpoint of CCG 1962 was incidence of high-titer ASNase antibodies in the first dose intensification, which is neither an efficacy nor a toxicity endpoint.

Chemotherapy

Subsequent treatment

  • See protocol for details of treatment beyond induction

References

  1. CCG 1962: Avramis VI, Sencer S, Periclou AP, Sather H, Bostrom BC, Cohen LJ, Ettinger AG, Ettinger LJ, Franklin J, Gaynon PS, Hilden JM, Lange B, Majlessipour F, Mathew P, Needle M, Neglia J, Reaman G, Holcenberg JS, Stork L. A randomized comparison of native Escherichia coli asparaginase and polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase for treatment of children with newly diagnosed standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Cancer Group study. Blood. 2002 Mar 15;99(6):1986-94. Erratum in: Blood 2002 Sep 1;100(5):1531. link to original article PubMed

Early intensification therapy

Mercaptopurine & Methotrexate

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Mahoney et al. 1998 (POG 9005) 1991-1993 Phase III (E-switch-ic) LDMTX/IVMP Seems to have superior CCR
Lauer et al. 2001 (POG 9006) 1991-1994 Phase III (C) Intensive chemotherapy Might have inferior EFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. POG 9005: Mahoney DH Jr, Shuster J, Nitschke R, Lauer SJ, Winick N, Steuber CP, Camitta B. Intermediate-dose intravenous methotrexate with intravenous mercaptopurine is superior to repetitive low-dose oral methotrexate with intravenous mercaptopurine for children with lower-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Jan;16(1):246-54. link to original article PubMed
  2. POG 9006: Lauer SJ, Shuster JJ, Mahoney DH Jr, Winick N, Toledano S, Munoz L, Kiefer G, Pullen JD, Steuber CP, Camitta BM. A comparison of early intensive methotrexate/mercaptopurine with early intensive alternating combination chemotherapy for high-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III randomized trial. Leukemia. 2001 Jul;15(7):1038-45. link to original article PubMed

Consolidation after upfront therapy (including post-remission therapy)

Note that many of these regimens are complex and as such will be referred to by their study name, not by the individual drug names. This is also a phase of treatment often referred to as post-remission or postinduction therapy.

AALL0232 consolidation

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Larsen et al. 2016 (COG AALL0232) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

50-day course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. COG AALL0232: Larsen EC, Devidas M, Chen S, Salzer WL, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Mattano LA Jr, Cole C, Eicher A, Haugan M, Sorenson M, Heerema NA, Carroll AA, Gastier-Foster JM, Borowitz MJ, Wood BL, Willman CL, Winick NJ, Hunger SP, Carroll WL. Dexamethasone and high-dose methotrexate improve outcome for children and young adults with high-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from Children's Oncology Group study AALL0232. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jul 10;34(20):2380-8. Epub 2016 Apr 25. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00075725

Augmented BFM consolidation

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Nachman et al. 1998 1991-1995 Phase III (E-esc) Standard BFM consolidation Seems to have superior OS

Unlikely to be completed, but of historic interest.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Nachman JB, Sather HN, Sensel MG, Trigg ME, Cherlow JM, Lukens JN, Wolff L, Uckun FM, Gaynon PS. Augmented post-induction therapy for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a slow response to initial therapy. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jun 4;338(23):1663-71. link to original article PubMed

Cyclophosphamide & TBI, then allo HSCT

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Cy/TBI: Cyclophosphamide & Total Body Irradiation

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Thomas et al. 1979 1976-1977 Non-randomized


Details in the manuscripts are limited.

Chemotherapy

Radiotherapy



Immunotherapy

Stem cells transfused on day 0

References

  1. Thomas ED, Sanders JE, Flournoy N, Johnson FL, Buckner CD, Clift RA, Fefer A, Goodell BW, Storb R, Weiden PL. Marrow transplantation for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. Blood. 1979 Aug;54(2):468-76. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Etoposide & TBI, then allo HSCT

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Balduzzi et al. 2005 1995-2000 Quasi-randomized Chemotherapy Seems to have superior DFS
Peters et al. 2015 (ALL-SCT-BFM 2003) 2003-2011 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

Radiotherapy

Immunotherapy

Stem cells transfused on day 0

References

  1. Balduzzi A, Valsecchi MG, Uderzo C, De Lorenzo P, Klingebiel T, Peters C, Stary J, Felice MS, Magyarosy E, Conter V, Reiter A, Messina C, Gadner H, Schrappe M. Chemotherapy versus allogeneic transplantation for very-high-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first complete remission: comparison by genetic randomisation in an international prospective study. Lancet. 2005 Aug 20-26;366(9486):635-42. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. ALL-SCT-BFM-2003: Peters C, Schrappe M, von Stackelberg A, Schrauder A, Bader P, Ebell W, Lang P, Sykora KW, Schrum J, Kremens B, Ehlert K, Albert MH, Meisel R, Matthes-Martin S, Gungor T, Holter W, Strahm B, Gruhn B, Schulz A, Woessmann W, Poetschger U, Zimmermann M, Klingebiel T. Stem-cell transplantation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective international multicenter trial comparing sibling donors with matched unrelated donors-the ALL-SCT-BFM-2003 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Apr 10;33(11):1265-74. Epub 2015 Mar 9. link to original article PubMed

Mercaptopurine & Vincristine

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Angiolillo et al. 2021 (COG AALL0932) 2010-2018 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

28-day course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. COG AALL0932: Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Kairalla JA, Devidas M, Rabin KR, Zweidler-McKay P, Borowitz MJ, Wood B, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Relling MV, Hitzler J, Lane AR, Maloney KW, Wang C, Bassal M, Carroll WL, Winick NJ, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Hunger SP. Excellent Outcomes With Reduced Frequency of Vincristine and Dexamethasone Pulses in Standard-Risk B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group AALL0932. J Clin Oncol. 2021 May 1;39(13):1437-1447. Epub 2021 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01190930

Interim maintenance

Mercaptopurine, Methotrexate, Vincristine

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Larsen et al. 2016 (COG AALL0232) 2004-2011 Phase III (E-switch-ic) Mercaptopurine, Capizzi MTX, Pegaspargase, Vincristine Superior EFS

Chemotherapy

Intrathecal component

References

  1. COG AALL0232: Larsen EC, Devidas M, Chen S, Salzer WL, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Mattano LA Jr, Cole C, Eicher A, Haugan M, Sorenson M, Heerema NA, Carroll AA, Gastier-Foster JM, Borowitz MJ, Wood BL, Willman CL, Winick NJ, Hunger SP, Carroll WL. Dexamethasone and high-dose methotrexate improve outcome for children and young adults with high-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from Children's Oncology Group study AALL0232. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jul 10;34(20):2380-8. Epub 2016 Apr 25. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00075725

Methotrexate & Vincristine

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Matloub et al. 2011 (COG CCG-1991) 2000-2005 Phase III (E-de-esc) Mercaptopurine, MTX, Vincristine, Dexamethasone Superior EFS
Angiolillo et al. 2021 (COG AALL0932) 2010-2018 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Methotrexate (MTX) 100 mg/m2 IV once on day 1, then 150 mg/m2 IV once on day 11, then 200 mg/m2 IV once on day 21, then 250 mg/m2 IV once on day 31, then 300 mg/m2 IV once on day 41
  • Vincristine (Oncovin) 1.5 mg/m2 (maximum dose of 2 mg) IV once per day on days 1, 11, 21, 31, 41

CNS prophylaxis

8-week course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. COG CCG-1991: Matloub Y, Bostrom BC, Hunger SP, Stork LC, Angiolillo A, Sather H, La M, Gastier-Foster JM, Heerema NA, Sailer S, Buckley PJ, Thomson B, Cole C, Nachman JB, Reaman G, Winick N, Carroll WL, Devidas M, Gaynon PS. Escalating intravenous methotrexate improves event-free survival in children with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood. 2011 Jul 14;118(2):243-51. Epub 2011 May 11. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. COG AALL0932: Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Kairalla JA, Devidas M, Rabin KR, Zweidler-McKay P, Borowitz MJ, Wood B, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Relling MV, Hitzler J, Lane AR, Maloney KW, Wang C, Bassal M, Carroll WL, Winick NJ, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Hunger SP. Excellent Outcomes With Reduced Frequency of Vincristine and Dexamethasone Pulses in Standard-Risk B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group AALL0932. J Clin Oncol. 2021 May 1;39(13):1437-1447. Epub 2021 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01190930

Delayed intensification

AALL0932 delayed intensification

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Angiolillo et al. 2021 (COG AALL0932) 2010-2018 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

8-week course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. COG AALL0932: Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Kairalla JA, Devidas M, Rabin KR, Zweidler-McKay P, Borowitz MJ, Wood B, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Relling MV, Hitzler J, Lane AR, Maloney KW, Wang C, Bassal M, Carroll WL, Winick NJ, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Hunger SP. Excellent Outcomes With Reduced Frequency of Vincristine and Dexamethasone Pulses in Standard-Risk B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group AALL0932. J Clin Oncol. 2021 May 1;39(13):1437-1447. Epub 2021 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01190930

Interim maintenance II

Methotrexate & Vincristine

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Angiolillo et al. 2021 (COG AALL0932) 2010-2018 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: starting dose of the systemic MTX is 2/3 of the MTD from interim maintenance I; dosage below assumes that the final maximum dose was tolerated.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Methotrexate (MTX) 200 mg/m2 IV once on day 1, then 250 mg/m2 IV once on day 11, then 300 mg/m2 IV once on day 21, then 350 mg/m2 IV once on day 31, then 400 mg/m2 IV once on day 41
  • Vincristine (Oncovin) 1.5 mg/m2 (maximum dose of 2 mg) IV once per day on days 1, 11, 21, 31, 41

CNS prophylaxis

8-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • Randomization to one of four maintenance arms; see paper for details.

References

  1. COG AALL0932: Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Kairalla JA, Devidas M, Rabin KR, Zweidler-McKay P, Borowitz MJ, Wood B, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Relling MV, Hitzler J, Lane AR, Maloney KW, Wang C, Bassal M, Carroll WL, Winick NJ, Raetz EA, Loh ML, Hunger SP. Excellent Outcomes With Reduced Frequency of Vincristine and Dexamethasone Pulses in Standard-Risk B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group AALL0932. J Clin Oncol. 2021 May 1;39(13):1437-1447. Epub 2021 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01190930

Maintenance after upfront therapy

Mercaptopurine & Methotrexate

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Millot et al. 2001 (EORTC 58881) 1990-1996 Phase III (C) 6-MP & MTX; IV 6-MP & PO MTX Superior DFS1
Conter et al. 2007 (I-BFM-SG IR ALL) 1995-2000 Phase III (C) D-OMP Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS

1Reported efficacy for EORTC 58881 is based on the 2005 update.

Preceding treatment

  • I-BFM-SG IR ALL: BFM re-induction

Chemotherapy

7-day cycle for 74 cycles or a total of 2 years from start of treatment

References

  1. EORTC 58881: Millot F, Suciu S, Philippe N, Benoit Y, Mazingue F, Uyttebroeck A, Lutz P, Mechinaud F, Robert A, Boutard P, Marguerite G, Ferster A, Plouvier E, Rialland X, Behard C, Plantaz D, Dresse MF, Philippet P, Norton L, Thyss A, Dastugue N, Waterkeyn C, Vilmer E, Otten J; Children's Leukemia Cooperative Group of the European Organiztaion for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Value of high-dose cytarabine during interval therapy of a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-based protocol in increased-risk children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma: results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 58881 randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Apr 1;19(7):1935-42. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Duval M, Suciu S, Ferster A, Rialland X, Nelken B, Lutz P, Benoit Y, Robert A, Manel AM, Vilmer E, Otten J, Philippe N. Comparison of Escherichia coli-asparaginase with Erwinia-asparaginase in the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies: results of a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Children's Leukemia Group phase 3 trial. Blood. 2002 Apr 15;99(8):2734-9. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: van der Werff Ten Bosch J, Suciu S, Thyss A, Bertrand Y, Norton L, Mazingue F, Uyttebroeck A, Lutz P, Robert A, Boutard P, Ferster A, Plouvier E, Maes P, Munzer M, Plantaz D, Dresse MF, Philippet P, Sirvent N, Waterkeyn C, Vilmer E, Philippe N, Otten J. Value of intravenous 6-mercaptopurine during continuation treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: final results of a randomized phase III trial (58881) of the EORTC CLG. Leukemia. 2005 May;19(5):721-6. link to original article PubMed
  2. I-BFM-SG IR ALL: Conter V, Valsecchi MG, Silvestri D, Campbell M, Dibar E, Magyarosy E, Gadner H, Stary J, Benoit Y, Zimmermann M, Reiter A, Riehm H, Masera G, Schrappe M. Pulses of vincristine and dexamethasone in addition to intensive chemotherapy for children with intermediate-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 13;369(9556):123-31. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00411541

Relapsed or refractory

Blinatumomab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
von Stackelberg et al. 2016 (MT103-205) 2012-2014 Phase I/II (RT)

Note: this is the MTD of a phase I/II trial enrolling children under the age of 18.

Immunotherapy

  • Blinatumomab (Blincyto) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 5 mcg/day IV continuous infusion over 7 days, started on day 1, then 15 mcg/day IV continuous infusion over 21 days, started on day 8 (total dose: 350 mcg)
    • Cycles 2 to 5: 28 mcg/day IV continuous infusion over 28 days, started on day 1 (total dose per cycle: 784 mcg)

42-day cycle for up to 5 cycles

References

  1. MT103-205: von Stackelberg A, Locatelli F, Zugmaier G, Handgretinger R, Trippett TM, Rizzari C, Bader P, O'Brien MM, Brethon B, Bhojwani D, Schlegel PG, Borkhardt A, Rheingold SR, Cooper TM, Zwaan CM, Barnette P, Messina C, Michel G, DuBois SG, Hu K, Zhu M, Whitlock JA, Gore L. Phase I/Phase II Study of Blinatumomab in Pediatric Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Dec 20;34(36):4381-4389. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01471782

CCE

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CCE: Clofarabine, Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide

Regimen

Study Evidence
Locatelli et al. 2009 Non-randomized

Patients in this study were pediatric: ≤ 15 years old at diagnosis and ≤ 21 years old at time of treatment. No patients had CNS disease at time of treatment, and no patients received CNS prophylaxis.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Prophylactic steroids used for patients with greater than 30 x 109 blasts/L in the peripheral blood prior to treatment

5-day course

2 out of 25 patients received a second course of CCE as consolidation therapy. Responding patients were given allogeneic HSCT if a suitable donor was immediately available or were given consolidation courses of chemotherapy including multiple agents active against ALL cells, chosen according to the treating physician's preference."

References

  1. Locatelli F, Testi AM, Bernardo ME, Rizzari C, Bertaina A, Merli P, Pession A, Giraldi E, Parasole R, Barberi W, Zecca M. Clofarabine, cyclophosphamide and etoposide as single-course re-induction therapy for children with refractory/multiple relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2009 Nov;147(3):371-8. Epub 2009 Aug 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Clofarabine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Jeha et al. 2003 2000-2002 Phase 1, <20 pts (RT)
Jeha et al. 2006 2002-2004 Phase II (RT)

Note: this dose was the MTD in Jeha et al. 2003.

Chemotherapy

2- to 6-week cycles, depending on response count recovery

References

  1. Phase 1: Jeha S, Gandhi V, Chan KW, McDonald L, Ramirez I, Madden R, Rytting M, Brandt M, Keating M, Plunkett W, Kantarjian H. Clofarabine, a novel nucleoside analog, is active in pediatric patients with advanced leukemia. Blood. 2004 Feb 1;103(3):784-9. Epub 2003 Oct 9. link to original article PubMed
  2. Jeha S, Gaynon PS, Razzouk BI, Franklin J, Kadota R, Shen V, Luchtman-Jones L, Rytting M, Bomgaars LR, Rheingold S, Ritchey K, Albano E, Arceci RJ, Goldman S, Griffin T, Altman A, Gordon B, Steinherz L, Weitman S, Steinherz P. Phase II study of clofarabine in pediatric patients with refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Apr 20;24(12):1917-23. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Inotuzumab ozogamicin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Kantarjian et al. 2012 (MDACC 2009-0872) 2010-2011 Phase II

Antibody-drug conjugate therapy

  • Inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa) 0.8 mg/m2 IV once on day 1, then 0.5 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • For patients achieving CR or CRi, day 1 dose was reduced to 0.5 mg/m2

21-day cycle for 1 cycle, then 28-day cycle for up to 5 cycles

References

  1. MDACC 2009-0872: Kantarjian H, Thomas D, Jorgensen J, Jabbour E, Kebriaei P, Rytting M, York S, Ravandi F, Kwari M, Faderl S, Rios MB, Cortes J, Fayad L, Tarnai R, Wang SA, Champlin R, Advani A, O'Brien S. Inotuzumab ozogamicin, an anti-CD22-calecheamicin conjugate, for refractory and relapsed acute lymphocytic leukaemia: a phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Apr;13(4):403-11. Epub 2012 Feb 21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT01134575

Mitoxantrone, Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi, Vincristine, Dexamethasone

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Parker et al. 2010 (CCLG ALL R3) 2003-2007 Phase III (E-switch-ic) Idarubicin, Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi, Vincristine, Dexamethasone Superior OS

Note: per the protocol, this regimen is intended only for patients 18 and younger. This regimen is for patients allergic to pegaspargase.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) as follows:
    • Age less than 2: 8 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Age 2: 10 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Age older than 2: 12 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8

4-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See paper for details of treatment beyond induction

References

  1. CCLG ALL R3: Parker C, Waters R, Leighton C, Hancock J, Sutton R, Moorman AV, Ancliff P, Morgan M, Masurekar A, Goulden N, Green N, Révész T, Darbyshire P, Love S, Saha V. Effect of mitoxantrone on outcome of children with first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL R3): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2010 Dec 11;376(9757):2009-17. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed ISCRTN45724312

Mitoxantrone, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Parker et al. 2010 (CCLG ALL R3) 2003-2007 Phase III (E-switch-ic) Idarubicin, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone Superior OS

Note: per the protocol, this regimen is intended only for patients 18 and younger.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) as follows:
    • Age less than 2: 8 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Age 2: 10 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Age older than 2: 12 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8

4-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • See paper for details of treatment beyond induction

References

  1. CCLG ALL R3: Parker C, Waters R, Leighton C, Hancock J, Sutton R, Moorman AV, Ancliff P, Morgan M, Masurekar A, Goulden N, Green N, Révész T, Darbyshire P, Love S, Saha V. Effect of mitoxantrone on outcome of children with first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL R3): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2010 Dec 11;376(9757):2009-17. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed ISCRTN45724312

Tisagenlecleucel monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Efficacy
Grupp et al. 2013 (Pedi CART19) 2011-NR Pilot
Maude et al. 2014 (UPCC04409) 2012-2014 Phase I/IIa
Maude et al. 2018 (ELIANA) 2015-2017 Phase II (RT) ORR: 81%

Note: dosing instructions are based on ELIANA.

Preceding treatment

  • Lymphodepleting therapy with FC or CYVE

Immunotherapy

  • Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah) as follows:
    • Up to 50 kg: 2.0 to 5.0 x 106 CTL019 transduced viable T-cells per kg body weight IV once on day 0
    • Greater than 50 kg: 1.0 to 2.5 x 108 CTL019 transduced viable T-cells IV once on day 0

One course

References

  1. Pedi CART19: Grupp SA, Kalos M, Barrett D, Aplenc R, Porter DL, Rheingold SR, Teachey DT, Chew A, Hauck B, Wright JF, Milone MC, Levine BL, June CH. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells for acute lymphoid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 18;368(16):1509-1518. Epub 2013 Mar 25. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 10;374(10):998. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT01626495
  2. UPCC04409: Maude SL, Frey N, Shaw PA, Aplenc R, Barrett DM, Bunin NJ, Chew A, Gonzalez VE, Zheng Z, Lacey SF, Mahnke YD, Melenhorst JJ, Rheingold SR, Shen A, Teachey DT, Levine BL, June CH, Porter DL, Grupp SA. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 16;371(16):1507-17. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 10;374(10):998. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT01029366
  3. ELIANA: Maude SL, Laetsch TW, Buechner J, Rives S, Boyer M, Bittencourt H, Bader P, Verneris MR, Stefanski HE, Myers GD, Qayed M, De Moerloose B, Hiramatsu H, Schlis K, Davis KL, Martin PL, Nemecek ER, Yanik GA, Peters C, Baruchel A, Boissel N, Mechinaud F, Balduzzi A, Krueger J, June CH, Levine BL, Wood P, Taran T, Leung M, Mueller KT, Zhang Y, Sen K, Lebwohl D, Pulsipher MA, Grupp SA. Tisagenlecleucel in children and young adults with B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 1;378(5):439-448. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplement link to PMC article PubMed NCT02435849

Consolidation after salvage therapy

Blinatumomab monotherapy

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Regimen variant #1, 1 cycle

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Locatelli et al. 2021 (Amgen 20120215) 2015-2019 Phase III (E-switch-ooc) Standard salvage consolidation chemotherapy Superior EFS

Immunotherapy

  • Blinatumomab (Blincyto) 15 mcg/m2/day IV continuous infusion over 28 days, started on day 1 (total dose: 420 mcg/m2)

42-day course

Subsequent treatment

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant

Regimen variant #2, 2 cycles

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Brown et al. 2021 (COG AALL1331) 2014-2019 Phase III (E-switch-ooc) Standard salvage consolidation chemotherapy Might have superior DFS

Note: insufficient dosing information was present in the abstract.

Immunotherapy

Subsequent treatment

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant

References

  1. COG AALL1331: Brown PA, Ji L, Xu X, Devidas M, Hogan LE, Borowitz MJ, Raetz EA, Zugmaier G, Sharon E, Bernhardt MB, Terezakis SA, Gore L, Whitlock JA, Pulsipher MA, Hunger SP, Loh ML. Effect of Postreinduction Therapy Consolidation With Blinatumomab vs Chemotherapy on Disease-Free Survival in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With First Relapse of B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Mar 2;325(9):833-842. link to original article PubMed NCT02101853
  2. Amgen 20120215: Locatelli F, Zugmaier G, Rizzari C, Morris JD, Gruhn B, Klingebiel T, Parasole R, Linderkamp C, Flotho C, Petit A, Micalizzi C, Mergen N, Mohammad A, Kormany WN, Eckert C, Möricke A, Sartor M, Hrusak O, Peters C, Saha V, Vinti L, von Stackelberg A. Effect of Blinatumomab vs Chemotherapy on Event-Free Survival Among Children With High-risk First-Relapse B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Mar 2;325(9):843-854. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT02393859

Cyclophosphamide & TBI, then allo HSCT

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Cy/TBI: Cyclophosphamide & Total Body Irradiation

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Johnson et al. 1981 1976-1980 Non-randomized
Kersey et al. 1987 1982-1985 Quasi-randomized Auto HSCT Superior RFS


Details in the manuscripts are limited.

Chemotherapy

Radiotherapy



Immunotherapy

Stem cells transfused on day 0

References

  1. Johnson FL, Thomas ED, Clark BS, Chard RL, Hartmann JR, Storb R. A comparison of marrow transplantation with chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second or subsequent remission. N Engl J Med. 1981 Oct 8;305(15):846-51. link to original article PubMed
  2. Kersey JH, Weisdorf D, Nesbit ME, LeBien TW, Woods WG, McGlave PB, Kim T, Vallera DA, Goldman AI, Bostrom B, Hurd D, Ramsay NKC. Comparison of autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for treatment of high-risk refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1987 Aug 20;317(8):461-7. link to original article PubMed

Further notes

Pediatric ALL regimens tend to be very complex. This list on ped-onc.org appears to be fairly comprehensive and includes regimen details for some of the common regimens e.g. COG-AALL0232. For now we will try to include a list of references here and potentially build these regimens here, over time.