Multiple myeloma, consolidation and maintenance

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Andrew J. Cowan, MD
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Are you looking for a regimen but can't find it here? It is possible that we've moved it to the historical regimens page. If you still can't find it, please let us know so we can add it!.
Note: due to its size/complexity, the multiple myeloma page has been split into three sub-pages:

28 regimens on this page
57 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ASCO

BSH/UKMF

European Myeloma Network (EMN)

ESMO

IMWG

NCCN

Consolidation after first-line therapy

Note that there is no crisp distinction between consolidation and maintenance. Generally regimens that are intended for a long or indefinite duration would be considered maintenance, whereas regimens with a short intended course would be considered consolidation.

Bortezomib monotherapy

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Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Mellqvist et al. 2013 (NMSG 15/05) Phase III (E) Observation Might have superior PFS

This trial only included bortezomib-naive patients; induction regimen was not specified but the majority received Cy-Dex.

Preceding treatment

  • All patients underwent autologous hematopoietic cell transplant at least 3 months prior to starting consolidation.

Chemotherapy

  • Bortezomib (Velcade) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 & 2: 1.3 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 4, 8, 11 of a 21-day cycle
    • Cycles 3 to 6: 1.3 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15 of a 28-day cycle

Supportive medications

22-week course

Variant #2, 4 out of 5 weeks for 6 months

Study Evidence
Niesvizky et al. 2015 (UPFRONT) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

35-day cycle for 5 cycles

Variant #3, 4 out of 6 weeks for 6 months

Study Evidence
Kumar et al. 2012 (EVOLUTION) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

42-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. EVOLUTION: Kumar S, Flinn I, Richardson PG, Hari P, Callander N, Noga SJ, Stewart AK, Turturro F, Rifkin R, Wolf J, Estevam J, Mulligan G, Shi H, Webb IJ, Rajkumar SV. Randomized, multicenter, phase 2 study (EVOLUTION) of combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide in previously untreated multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 May 10;119(19):4375-82. Epub 2012 Mar 15. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. NMSG 15/05: Mellqvist UH, Gimsing P, Hjertner O, Lenhoff S, Laane E, Remes K, Steingrimsdottir H, Abildgaard N, Ahlberg L, Blimark C, Dahl IM, Forsberg K, Gedde-Dahl T, Gregersen H, Gruber A, Guldbrandsen N, Haukås E, Carlson K, Kvam AK, Nahi H, Lindås R, Andersen NF, Turesson I, Waage A, Westin J; Nordic Myeloma Study Group. Bortezomib consolidation after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: a Nordic Myeloma Study Group randomized phase 3 trial. Blood. 2013 Jun 6;121(23):4647-54. Epub 2013 Apr 24. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. UPFRONT: Niesvizky R, Flinn IW, Rifkin R, Gabrail N, Charu V, Clowney B, Essell J, Gaffar Y, Warr T, Neuwirth R, Zhu Y, Elliott J, Esseltine DL, Niculescu L, Reeves J. Community-based phase IIIB trial of three UPFRONT bortezomib-based myeloma regimens. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Nov 20;33(33):3921-9. Epub 2015 Jun 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Bortezomib & Melphalan, then auto HSCT

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Bor-HDM: Bortezomib, High Dose Melphalan

Regimen

Study Evidence
Roussel et al. 2009 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

References

  1. Roussel M, Moreau P, Huynh A, Mary JY, Danho C, Caillot D, Hulin C, Fruchart C, Marit G, Pégourié B, Lenain P, Araujo C, Kolb B, Randriamalala E, Royer B, Stoppa AM, Dib M, Dorvaux V, Garderet L, Mathiot C, Avet-Loiseau H, Harousseau JL, Attal M; Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM). Bortezomib and high-dose melphalan as conditioning regimen before autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with de novo multiple myeloma: a phase 2 study of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome (IFM). Blood. 2010 Jan 7;115(1):32-7. Epub 2009 Nov 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

DCEP

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DCEP: Dexamethasone, Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Harousseau et al. 2010 (IFM 2005-01) Phase III (E) No DCEP Did not meet primary endpoint of CR/nCR rate

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. IFM 2005-01: Harousseau JL, Attal M, Avet-Loiseau H, Marit G, Caillot D, Mohty M, Lenain P, Hulin C, Facon T, Casassus P, Michallet M, Maisonneuve H, Benboubker L, Maloisel F, Petillon MO, Webb I, Mathiot C, Moreau P. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone is superior to vincristine plus doxorubicin plus dexamethasone as induction treatment prior to autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the IFM 2005-01 phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Oct 20;28(30):4621-9. Epub 2010 Sep 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

KTd

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KTd: Kyprolis (Carfilzomib), Thalidomide, dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Sonneveld et al. 2014 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. Sonneveld P, Asselbergs E, Zweegman S, van der Holt B, Kersten MJ, Vellenga E, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Broyl A, de Weerdt O, Lonergan S, Palumbo A, Lokhorst H. Phase 2 study of carfilzomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone as induction/consolidation therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2015 Jan 15;125(3):449-56. Epub 2014 Nov 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Melphalan, then auto HSCT

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Synopsis

To be completed. This section will give an overview of this commonly used regimen.

Variant #1, 140 mg/m2

Study Evidence
Barlogie et al. 1986 Non-randomized, <20 pts

Chemotherapy

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

Variant #2, 200 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Moreau et al. 2002 (IFM 9502) Phase III (E) Melphalan & TBI, then auto HSCT Might have superior OS
Bladé et al. 2005 Phase III (E) VBMCP/VBAD Did not meet efficacy endpoint
Cavo et al. 2007 (Bologna 96) Phase III (C) Melphalan, then auto HSCT, then Melphalan & Busulfan, then auto HSCT Inferior EFS
Lokhorst et al. 2009 (HOVON-50) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Morgan et al. 2010 (MRC Myeloma IX) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Björkstrand et al. 2011 (EBMT-NMAM2000) Phase III (C) MEL200, then auto HSCT, then RIC allo HSCT Seems to have inferior OS
Moreau et al. 2011 (IFM 2007-02) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Rosiñol et al. 2012 (GEM05/MENOS65) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Sonneveld et al. 2012 (HOVON-65) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Lok et al. 2014 Non-randomized
Roussel et al. 2014 Phase II
Sonneveld et al. 2014 Phase II
Mai et al. 2015 (GMMG-MM5) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Mai et al. 2016 (GMMG-HD2) Phase III (C) Tandem melphalan, then auto HSCT Non-inferior EFS
Attal et al. 2017 (IFM 2009) Phase III (C) RVD consolidation Superior PFS
Bashir et al. 2019 (MDACC 2010-0071) Phase III (C) Bu/Mel, then auto HSCT Seems to have inferior PFS

Preceding treatment

Treatment preceded by varying induction regimens:

Trial Induction regimen # of cycles
IFM 9502 VAD 3
Bladé et al. 2005 VBMCP/VBAD 4
Bologna 96 VAD 4
HOVON-50 TAD 3
VAD 3
IFM2007-02 vtD 4
VD 4
MRC Myeloma IX CTD 4 to 6
CVAD 4 to 6
GEM05/MENOS65 TD 6
VBMCP/VBAD/B 6
VTD 6
HOVON-65 PAD 3
VAD 3
Lok et al. 2014 vtD 4
Roussel et al. 2014 RVD 3
Sonneveld et al. 2014 KTd 4
GMMG-MM5 VCD 3
PAd 3
IFM 2009 RVD 3

Chemotherapy

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

Subsequent treatment

Treatment followed by varying consolidation and/or maintenance regimens:

Trial Subsequent treatment Type of regimen Duration
IFM 9502 Interferon alfa Maintenance 1 year
Bladé et al. 2005 IFN & Dexamethasone Maintenance Indefinite
Bologna 96 Interferon alfa Maintenance Indefinite
HOVON-50 Interferon alfa (if induced with VAD) Maintenance Indefinite
Thalidomide (if induced with TAD) Maintenance Indefinite
IFM2007-02 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
MRC Myeloma IX Thalidomide Maintenance Indefinite
No further treatment N/A N/A
GEM05/MENOS65 Interferon alfa-2b Maintenance 3 years
Thalidomide Maintenance 3 years
TV Maintenance 3 years
HOVON-65 Bortezomib (if induced with PAD) Maintenance 2 years
Thalidomide (if induced with VAD) Maintenance 2 years
Lok et al. 2014 vtD Consolidation 2 cycles
Roussel et al. 2014 RVD Consolidation 2 cycles
Sonneveld et al. 2014 KTd Consolidation 4 cycles
GMMG-MM5 MEL200, then auto HSCT (if at least nCR not achieved) Consolidation 1 cycle
Lenalidomide Consolidation Not specified in abstract
IFM 2009 RVD Consolidation 2 cycles

References

  1. Barlogie B, Hall R, Zander A, Dicke K, Alexanian R. High-dose melphalan with autologous bone marrow transplantation for multiple myeloma. Blood. 1986 May;67(5):1298-301. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. IFM 9502: Moreau P, Facon T, Attal M, Hulin C, Michallet M, Maloisel F, Sotto JJ, Guilhot F, Marit G, Doyen C, Jaubert J, Fuzibet JG, François S, Benboubker L, Monconduit M, Voillat L, Macro M, Berthou C, Dorvaux V, Pignon B, Rio B, Matthes T, Casassus P, Caillot D, Najman N, Grosbois B, Bataille R, Harousseau JL; Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. Comparison of 200 mg/m(2) melphalan and 8 Gy total body irradiation plus 140 mg/m(2) melphalan as conditioning regimens for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: final analysis of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome 9502 randomized trial. Blood. 2002 Feb 1;99(3):731-5. link to original article PubMed
  3. Bladé J, Rosiñol L, Sureda A, Ribera JM, Díaz-Mediavilla J, García-Laraña J, Mateos MV, Palomera L, Fernández-Calvo J, Martí JM, Giraldo P, Carbonell F, Callís M, Trujillo J, Gardella S, Moro MJ, Barez A, Soler A, Font L, Fontanillas M, San Miguel J; Programa para el Estudio de la Terapéutica en Hemopatía Maligna (PETHEMA). High-dose therapy intensification compared with continued standard chemotherapy in multiple myeloma patients responding to the initial chemotherapy: long-term results from a prospective randomized trial from the Spanish cooperative group PETHEMA. Blood. 2005 Dec 1;106(12):3755-9. Epub 2005 Aug 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. Bologna 96: Cavo M, Tosi P, Zamagni E, Cellini C, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F, Di Raimondo F, Volpe E, Ronconi S, Cangini D, Narni F, Carubelli A, Masini L, Catalano L, Fiacchini M, de Vivo A, Gozzetti A, Lazzaro A, Tura S, Baccarani M. Prospective, randomized study of single compared with double autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: Bologna 96 clinical study. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jun 10;25(17):2434-41. Epub 2007 May 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. HOVON-50: Lokhorst HM, van der Holt B, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, van Oers MH, von dem Borne P, Wijermans P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Wittebol S, Delforge M, Berenschot H, Bos GM, Jie KS, Sinnige H, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Joosten P, Minnema MC, van Ammerlaan R, Sonneveld P; Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Group (HOVON). A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2010 Feb 11;115(6):1113-20. Epub 2009 Oct 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: van de Donk NW, van der Holt B, Minnema MC, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, Kersten MJ, von dem Borne PA, Ypma P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Klein SK, Delforge M, Levin MD, Bos GM, Jie KG, Sinnige H, Coenen JL, de Waal EG, Zweegman S, Sonneveld P, Lokhorst HM. Thalidomide before and after autologous stem cell transplantation in recently diagnosed multiple myeloma (HOVON-50): long-term results from the phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Haematol. 2018 Oct;5(10):e479-e492. link to original article PubMed
  6. MRC Myeloma IX: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Cocks K, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro-Coy N, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Feyler S, Ashcroft AJ, Ross F, Byrne J, Roddie H, Rudin C, Cook G, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Study Group. First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 Dec 11;376(9757):1989-99. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Russell NH, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro Coy N, Cook G, Feyler S, Byrne JL, Roddie H, Rudin C, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson GH, Child JA; NCRI Haematological Oncology Study Group. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD) as initial therapy for patients with multiple myeloma unsuitable for autologous transplantation. Blood. 2011 Aug 4;118(5):1231-8. Epub 2011 Jun 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Morgan GJ, Gregory WM, Davies FE, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Brown JM, Coy NN, Cook G, Russell NH, Rudin C, Roddie H, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. The role of maintenance thalidomide therapy in multiple myeloma: MRC Myeloma IX results and meta-analysis. Blood. 2012 Jan 5;119(1):7-15. Epub 2011 Oct 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    3. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro Coy N, Cook G, Feyler S, Johnson PR, Rudin C, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Russell NH, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients destined for autologous stem-cell transplantation: MRC Myeloma IX randomized trial results. Haematologica. 2012 Mar;97(3):442-50. Epub 2011 Nov 4. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    4. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Cook G, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson G, Child JA. Long-term follow-up of MRC Myeloma IX trial: Survival outcomes with bisphosphonate and thalidomide treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 1;19(21):6030-8. Epub 2013 Aug 30. link to original article PubMed
  7. EBMT-NMAM2000: Björkstrand B, Iacobelli S, Hegenbart U, Gruber A, Greinix H, Volin L, Narni F, Musto P, Beksac M, Bosi A, Milone G, Corradini P, Goldschmidt H, de Witte T, Morris C, Niederwieser D, Gahrton G. Tandem autologous/reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem-cell transplantation versus autologous transplantation in myeloma: long-term follow-up. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 1;29(22):3016-22. Epub 2011 Jul 5. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2011 Sep 20;29(27):3721. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Gahrton G, Iacobelli S, Björkstrand B, Hegenbart U, Gruber A, Greinix H, Volin L, Narni F, Carella AM, Beksac M, Bosi A, Milone G, Corradini P, Schönland S, Friberg K, van Biezen A, Goldschmidt H, de Witte T, Morris C, Niederwieser D, Garderet L, Kröger N; EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party Plasma Cell Disorders Subcommittee. Autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation vs autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma: long-term results of the EBMT-NMAM2000 study. Blood. 2013 Jun 20;121(25):5055-63. Epub 2013 Mar 12. link to original article PubMed
  8. IFM 2007-02: Moreau P, Avet-Loiseau H, Facon T, Attal M, Tiab M, Hulin C, Doyen C, Garderet L, Randriamalala E, Araujo C, Lepeu G, Marit G, Caillot D, Escoffre M, Lioure B, Benboubker L, Pégourié B, Kolb B, Stoppa AM, Fuzibet JG, Decaux O, Dib M, Berthou C, Chaleteix C, Sebban C, Traullé C, Fontan J, Wetterwald M, Lenain P, Mathiot C, Harousseau JL. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone versus reduced-dose bortezomib, thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction treatment before autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2011 Nov 24;118(22):5752-8. Epub 2011 Aug 17. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. GEM05/MENOS65: Rosiñol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI, Hernández D, López-Jiménez J, de la Rubia J, Granell M, Besalduch J, Palomera L, González Y, Etxebeste MA, Díaz-Mediavilla J, Hernández MT, de Arriba F, Gutiérrez NC, Martín-Ramos ML, Cibeira MT, Mateos MV, Martínez J, Alegre A, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel J, Bladé J; Programa para el Estudio y la Terapéutica de las Hemopatías Malignas/Grupo Español de Mieloma (PETHEMA/GEM) group. Superiority of bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) as induction pretransplantation therapy in multiple myeloma: a randomized phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM study. Blood. 2012 Aug 3;120(8):1589-96. Epub 2012 Jul 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Rosiñol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI, de la Guía AL, Blanchard M, de la Rubia J, Granell M, Sampol M, Palomera L, González Y, Etxebeste M, Martínez-Martínez R, Hernández MT, de Arriba F, Alegre A, Cibeira M, Mateos M, Martínez-López J, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel J, Bladé J. Bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance after stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a PETHEMA/GEM trial. Leukemia. 2017 Sep;31(9):1922-1927. Epub 2017 Jan 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4: Sonneveld P, Schmidt-Wolf IG, van der Holt B, El Jarari L, Bertsch U, Salwender H, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Broyl A, Blau IW, Weisel KC, Wittebol S, Bos GM, Stevens-Kroef M, Scheid C, Pfreundschuh M, Hose D, Jauch A, van der Velde H, Raymakers R, Schaafsma MR, Kersten MJ, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Duehrsen U, Lindemann W, Wijermans PW, Lokhorst HM, Goldschmidt HM. Bortezomib induction and maintenance treatment in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the randomized phase III HOVON-65/ GMMG-HD4 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Aug 20;30(24):2946-55. Epub 2012 Jul 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Neben K, Lokhorst HM, Jauch A, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, van der Holt B, Salwender H, Blau IW, Weisel K, Pfreundschuh M, Scheid C, Dührsen U, Lindemann W, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Peter N, Teschendorf C, Martin H, Haenel M, Derigs HG, Raab MS, Ho AD, van de Velde H, Hose D, Sonneveld P, Goldschmidt H. Administration of bortezomib before and after autologous stem cell transplantation improves outcome in multiple myeloma patients with deletion 17p. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):940-8. Epub 2011 Dec 8. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Goldschmidt H, Lokhorst HM, Mai EK, van der Holt B, Blau IW, Zweegman S, Weisel KC, Vellenga E, Pfreundschuh M, Kersten MJ, Scheid C, Croockewit S, Raymakers R, Hose D, Potamianou A, Jauch A, Hillengass J, Stevens-Kroef M, Raab MS, Broijl A, Lindemann HW, Bos GMJ, Brossart P, van Marwijk Kooy M, Ypma P, Duehrsen U, Schaafsma RM, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, Jarari L, Salwender HJ, Sonneveld P. Bortezomib before and after high-dose therapy in myeloma: long-term results from the phase III HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Leukemia. 2018 Feb;32(2):383-390. Epub 2017 Jul 4. link to original article PubMed
  11. Lok A, Mocquard J, Bourcier J, Redelsperger L, Bonnet A, Chauvin C, Thomare P, Mahe B, Touzeau C, Moreau P. Subcutaneous bortezomib incorporated into the bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone regimen as part of frontline therapy in the context of autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Haematologica. 2014 Mar;99(3):e33-4. Epub 2014 Feb 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  12. Roussel M, Lauwers-Cances V, Robillard N, Hulin C, Leleu X, Benboubker L, Marit G, Moreau P, Pegourie B, Caillot D, Fruchart C, Stoppa AM, Gentil C, Wuilleme S, Huynh A, Hebraud B, Corre J, Chretien ML, Facon T, Avet-Loiseau H, Attal M. Front-line transplantation program with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination as induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 1;32(25):2712-7. Epub 2014 Jul 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  13. Sonneveld P, Asselbergs E, Zweegman S, van der Holt B, Kersten MJ, Vellenga E, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Broyl A, de Weerdt O, Lonergan S, Palumbo A, Lokhorst H. Phase 2 study of carfilzomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone as induction/consolidation therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2015 Jan 15;125(3):449-56. Epub 2014 Nov 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  14. GMMG-MM5: Mai EK, Bertsch U, Dürig J, Kunz C, Haenel M, Blau IW, Munder M, Jauch A, Schurich B, Hielscher T, Merz M, Huegle-Doerr B, Seckinger A, Hose D, Hillengass J, Raab MS, Neben K, Lindemann HW, Zeis M, Gerecke C, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Weisel K, Scheid C, Salwender H, Goldschmidt H. Phase III trial of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) versus bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (PAd) in newly diagnosed myeloma. Leukemia. 2015 Aug;29(8):1721-9. Epub 2015 Mar 19. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  15. GMMG-HD2: Mai EK, Benner A, Bertsch U, Brossart P, Hänel A, Kunzmann V, Naumann R, Neben K, Egerer G, Ho AD, Hillengass J, Raab MS, Neubauer A, Peyn A, Ko YD, Peter N, Scheid C, Goldschmidt H. Single versus tandem high-dose melphalan followed by autologous blood stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: long-term results from the phase III GMMG-HD2 trial. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(5):731-41. Epub 2016 Mar 17. link to original article PubMed
  16. IFM 2009: Attal M, Lauwers-Cances V, Hulin C, Leleu X, Caillot D, Escoffre M, Arnulf B, Macro M, Belhadj K, Garderet L, Roussel M, Payen C, Mathiot C, Fermand JP, Meuleman N, Rollet S, Maglio ME, Zeytoonjian AA, Weller EA, Munshi N, Anderson KC, Richardson PG, Facon T, Avet-Loiseau H, Harousseau JL, Moreau P; IFM 2009 Study. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone with transplantation for myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 6;376(14):1311-1320. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  17. MDACC 2010-0071: Bashir Q, Thall PF, Milton DR, Fox PS, Kawedia JD, Kebriaei P, Shah N, Patel K, Andersson BS, Nieto YL, Valdez BC, Parmar S, Rondon G, Delgado R, Hosing C, Popat UR, Oran B, Ciurea SO, Lin P, Weber DM, Thomas SK, Lee HC, Manasanch EE, Orlowski RZ, Williams LA, Champlin RE, Qazilbash MH. Conditioning with busulfan plus melphalan versus melphalan alone before autologous haemopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Haematol. 2019 May;6(5):e266-e275. Epub 2019 Mar 22. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

MPR

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MPR: Melphalan, Prednisone, Revlimid (Lenalidomide)

Variant #1, 0.18/2/10

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Palumbo et al. 2014 (MPRvsMEL200) Phase III (C) Tandem Melphalan, then auto HSCT Seems to have inferior OS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. To our knowledge, this regimen was not tested as an experimental arm in an RCT prior to becoming a standard comparator arm.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Falco et al. 2012 Phase II

Note: this is a component of the sequential "RP-MPR-RP" protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Thromboprophylaxis: Aspirin 100 mg PO once per day, taken during Lenalidomide (Revlimid) treatment (unclear from protocol if this also means off weeks)
  • Antiviral prophylaxis if history of VZV.

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Falco P, Cavallo F, Larocca A, Rossi D, Guglielmelli T, Rocci A, Grasso M, Siez ML, De Paoli L, Oliva S, Molica S, Mina R, Gay F, Benevolo G, Musto P, Omedè P, Freilone R, Bringhen S, Carella AM, Gaidano G, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Lenalidomide-prednisone induction followed by lenalidomide-melphalan-prednisone consolidation and lenalidomide-prednisone maintenance in newly diagnosed elderly unfit myeloma patients. Leukemia. 2013 Mar;27(3):695-701. Epub 2012 Sep 21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. MPRvsMEL200: Palumbo A, Cavallo F, Gay F, Di Raimondo F, Ben Yehuda D, Petrucci MT, Pezzatti S, Caravita T, Cerrato C, Ribakovsky E, Genuardi M, Cafro A, Marcatti M, Catalano L, Offidani M, Carella AM, Zamagni E, Patriarca F, Musto P, Evangelista A, Ciccone G, Omedé P, Crippa C, Corradini P, Nagler A, Boccadoro M, Cavo M. Autologous transplantation and maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Sep 4;371(10):895-905. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

RP

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RP: Revlimid (Lenalidomide) & Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Palumbo et al. 2010 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Palumbo A, Gay F, Falco P, Crippa C, Montefusco V, Patriarca F, Rossini F, Caltagirone S, Benevolo G, Pescosta N, Guglielmelli T, Bringhen S, Offidani M, Giuliani N, Petrucci MT, Musto P, Liberati AM, Rossi G, Corradini P, Boccadoro M. Bortezomib as induction before autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide as consolidation-maintenance in untreated multiple myeloma patients. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 10;28(5):800-7. Epub 2010 Jan 4. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 May 1;28(13):2314. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Gay F, Magarotto V, Crippa C, Pescosta N, Guglielmelli T, Cavallo F, Pezzatti S, Ferrari S, Liberati AM, Oliva S, Patriarca F, Offidani M, Omedé P, Montefusco V, Petrucci MT, Giuliani N, Passera R, Pietrantuono G, Boccadoro M, Corradini P, Palumbo A. Bortezomib induction, reduced-intensity transplantation, and lenalidomide consolidation-maintenance for myeloma: updated results. Blood. 2013 Aug 22;122(8):1376-83. Epub 2013 Jun 17. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

RVD

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RVD: Revlimid (Lenalidomide), Velcade (Bortezomib), Dexamethasone
VDR: Velcade (Bortezomib), Dexamethasone, Revlimid (Lenalidomide)
VRD: Velcade (Bortezomib), Revlimid (Lenalidomide), Dexamethasone
VRd: Velcade (Bortezomib), Revlimid (Lenalidomide), low-dose dexamethasone

Variant #1, 2 cycles post-transplant with lower-dose dex

Study Evidence
Attal et al. 2017 (IFM 2009) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, 2 cycles post-transplant with higher-dose dex

Study Evidence
Roussel et al. 2014 Phase II

Two months after hematologic recovery, patients without progressive disease began treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, 5 cycles, no transplant

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Attal et al. 2017 (IFM 2009) Phase III (C) Melphalan, then auto HSCT Inferior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 5 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #4, 8 cycles, no transplant

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Jacobus et al. 2016 (E1A05) Phase III (E) Rd Not reported

Note: this trial closed early due to poor accrual so only descriptive results are available.

Preceding treatment

  • Dexamethasone-based induction for 1 to 6 cycles

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

References

  1. Retrospective: Nooka AK, Kaufman JL, Muppidi S, Langston A, Heffner LT, Gleason C, Casbourne D, Saxe D, Boise LH, Lonial S. Consolidation and maintenance therapy with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD) in high-risk myeloma patients. Leukemia. 2014 Mar;28(3):690-3. Epub 2013 Nov 13. link to original article PubMed
  2. Roussel M, Lauwers-Cances V, Robillard N, Hulin C, Leleu X, Benboubker L, Marit G, Moreau P, Pegourie B, Caillot D, Fruchart C, Stoppa AM, Gentil C, Wuilleme S, Huynh A, Hebraud B, Corre J, Chretien ML, Facon T, Avet-Loiseau H, Attal M. Front-line transplantation program with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination as induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 1;32(25):2712-7. Epub 2014 Jul 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. E1A05: Jacobus SJ, Rajkumar SV, Weiss M, Stewart AK, Stadtmauer EA, Callander NS, Dreosti LM, Lacy MQ, Fonseca R. Randomized phase III trial of consolidation therapy with bortezomib-lenalidomide-Dexamethasone (VRd) vs bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd) for patients with multiple myeloma who have completed a dexamethasone based induction regimen. Blood Cancer J. 2016 Jul 29;6(7):e448. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. IFM 2009: Attal M, Lauwers-Cances V, Hulin C, Leleu X, Caillot D, Escoffre M, Arnulf B, Macro M, Belhadj K, Garderet L, Roussel M, Payen C, Mathiot C, Fermand JP, Meuleman N, Rollet S, Maglio ME, Zeytoonjian AA, Weller EA, Munshi N, Anderson KC, Richardson PG, Facon T, Avet-Loiseau H, Harousseau JL, Moreau P; IFM 2009 Study. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone with transplantation for myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 6;376(14):1311-1320. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Tandem melphalan, then auto HSCT

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Variant #1, MEL100 x 2

Study Evidence Efficacy
Palumbo et al. 2010 Phase II VGPR or better: 82%

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy, first transplant

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

Chemotherapy, second transplant

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, MEL140, then MEL200

Study Evidence
Attal et al. 2006 (IFM 99-02) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy, first transplant

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

Chemotherapy, second transplant

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, MEL200 x 2

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Lokhorst et al. 2009 (HOVON-50) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Palumbo et al. 2009 (GIS MM2001) Phase III (C) MEL100 x 2 Superior PFS
Krishnan et al. 2011 (BMT CTN 0102) Phase III (C) MEL200, then auto HSCT, then RIC allo HSCT Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS36
Sonneveld et al. 2012 (GMMG-HD4) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Palumbo et al. 2014 (MPRvsMEL200) Phase III (E) MPR consolidation Seems to have superior OS
Gay et al. 2015 (EMN-441) Phase III (E) CRD consolidation Superior PFS
Mai et al. 2016 (GMMG-HD2) Phase III (E) Melphalan, then auto HSCT Non-inferior EFS

Preceding treatment

Trial Induction regimen # of cycles
HOVON-50 TAD 3
VAD 3
BMT CTN 0102 Not specified N/A
GMMG-HD4 PAD 3
VAD 3
MPRvsMEL200 Rd 4
EMN-441 Rd 4

Chemotherapy, first transplant

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

Chemotherapy, second transplant

Stem cells re-infused on day 0

Subsequent treatment

Treatment followed by varying consolidation and/or maintenance regimens:

Trial Subsequent regimen Type of regimen Duration
HOVON-50 Interferon alfa (if induced with VAD) Maintenance Indefinite
Thalidomide (if induced with TAD) Maintenance Indefinite
BMT CTN 0102 No further treatment N/A N/A
Thal-Dex Maintenance 1 year
HOVON-65 Bortezomib (if induced with PAD) Maintenance 2 years
Thalidomide (if induced with VAD) Maintenance 2 years
MPRvsMEL200 Lenalidomide Maintenance Indefinite
No further treatment N/A N/A
EMN-441 Lenalidomide Maintenance Indefinite
RP Maintenance Indefinite

Variant #4, MEL200 x 2 (split doses)

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Barlogie et al. 1997 (Total Therapy 1) Non-randomized 83%
Bruno et al. 2007 Randomized (C) TBI, then allo HSCT Inferior OS

Note: reported efficacy for Total Therapy 1 is based on the 1999 update. Bruno et al. 2007 does not contain treatment details.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy, first transplant

Immunotherapy

Stem cells transfused on day 0

Chemotherapy, second transplant

Immunotherapy

Stem cells transfused on day 0

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Total Therapy 1: Barlogie B, Jagannath S, Vesole DH, Naucke S, Cheson B, Mattox S, Bracy D, Salmon S, Jacobson J, Crowley J, Tricot G. Superiority of tandem autologous transplantation over standard therapy for previously untreated multiple myeloma. Blood. 1997 Feb 1;89(3):789-93. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Barlogie B, Jagannath S, Desikan KR, Mattox S, Vesole D, Siegel D, Tricot G, Munshi N, Fassas A, Singhal S, Mehta J, Anaissie E, Dhodapkar D, Naucke S, Cromer J, Sawyer J, Epstein J, Spoon D, Ayers D, Cheson B, Crowley J. Total therapy with tandem transplants for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 1999 Jan 1;93(1):55-65. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Barlogie B, Attal M, Crowley J, van Rhee F, Szymonifka J, Moreau P, Durie BG, Harousseau JL. Long-term follow-up of autotransplantation trials for multiple myeloma: update of protocols conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome, Southwest Oncology Group, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1209-14. Epub 2010 Jan 19. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 20;28(21):3543. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. IFM 99-02: Attal M, Harousseau JL, Leyvraz S, Doyen C, Hulin C, Benboubker L, Yakoub Agha I, Bourhis JH, Garderet L, Pegourie B, Dumontet C, Renaud M, Voillat L, Berthou C, Marit G, Monconduit M, Caillot D, Grobois B, Avet-Loiseau H, Moreau P, Facon T; Inter-Groupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM). Maintenance therapy with thalidomide improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2006 Nov 15;108(10):3289-94. Epub 2006 Jul 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Barlogie B, Attal M, Crowley J, van Rhee F, Szymonifka J, Moreau P, Durie BG, Harousseau JL. Long-term follow-up of autotransplantation trials for multiple myeloma: update of protocols conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome, Southwest Oncology Group, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1209-14. Epub 2010 Jan 19. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 20;28(21):3543. link to original article PubMed
  3. Bruno B, Rotta M, Patriarca F, Mordini N, Allione B, Carnevale-Schianca F, Giaccone L, Sorasio R, Omedè P, Baldi I, Bringhen S, Massaia M, Aglietta M, Levis A, Gallamini A, Fanin R, Palumbo A, Storb R, Ciccone G, Boccadoro M. A comparison of allografting with autografting for newly diagnosed myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2007 Mar 15;356(11):1110-20. link to original article does not contain protocol PubMed
  4. HOVON-50: Lokhorst HM, van der Holt B, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, van Oers MH, von dem Borne P, Wijermans P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Wittebol S, Delforge M, Berenschot H, Bos GM, Jie KS, Sinnige H, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Joosten P, Minnema MC, van Ammerlaan R, Sonneveld P; Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Group (HOVON). A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2010 Feb 11;115(6):1113-20. Epub 2009 Oct 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: van de Donk NW, van der Holt B, Minnema MC, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, Kersten MJ, von dem Borne PA, Ypma P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Klein SK, Delforge M, Levin MD, Bos GM, Jie KG, Sinnige H, Coenen JL, de Waal EG, Zweegman S, Sonneveld P, Lokhorst HM. Thalidomide before and after autologous stem cell transplantation in recently diagnosed multiple myeloma (HOVON-50): long-term results from the phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Haematol. 2018 Oct;5(10):e479-e492. link to original article PubMed
  5. GIS MM2001: Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Bruno B, Falcone AP, Liberati AM, Grasso M, Ria R, Pisani F, Cangialosi C, Caravita T, Levi A, Meloni G, Nozza A, Pregno P, Gabbas A, Callea V, Rizzo M, Annino L, De Stefano V, Musto P, Baldi I, Cavallo F, Petrucci MT, Massaia M, Boccadoro M. Melphalan 200 mg/m(2) versus melphalan 100 mg/m(2) in newly diagnosed myeloma patients: a prospective, multicenter phase 3 study. Blood. 2010 Mar 11;115(10):1873-9. Epub 2009 Dec 1. Erratum in: Blood. 2010 Sep 23;116(12):2195. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. Palumbo A, Gay F, Falco P, Crippa C, Montefusco V, Patriarca F, Rossini F, Caltagirone S, Benevolo G, Pescosta N, Guglielmelli T, Bringhen S, Offidani M, Giuliani N, Petrucci MT, Musto P, Liberati AM, Rossi G, Corradini P, Boccadoro M. Bortezomib as induction before autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide as consolidation-maintenance in untreated multiple myeloma patients. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 10;28(5):800-7. Epub 2010 Jan 4. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 May 1;28(13):2314. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Gay F, Magarotto V, Crippa C, Pescosta N, Guglielmelli T, Cavallo F, Pezzatti S, Ferrari S, Liberati AM, Oliva S, Patriarca F, Offidani M, Omedé P, Montefusco V, Petrucci MT, Giuliani N, Passera R, Pietrantuono G, Boccadoro M, Corradini P, Palumbo A. Bortezomib induction, reduced-intensity transplantation, and lenalidomide consolidation-maintenance for myeloma: updated results. Blood. 2013 Aug 22;122(8):1376-83. Epub 2013 Jun 17. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  7. GIMEMA MM-BO2005: Cavo M, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F, Petrucci MT, Pantani L, Galli M, Di Raimondo F, Crippa C, Zamagni E, Palumbo A, Offidani M, Corradini P, Narni F, Spadano A, Pescosta N, Deliliers GL, Ledda A, Cellini C, Caravita T, Tosi P, Baccarani M; GIMEMA Italian Myeloma Network. Bortezomib with thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a randomised phase 3 study. Lancet. 2010 Dec 18;376(9758):2075-85. Epub 2010 Dec 9. Erratum in: Lancet. 2011 Nov 26;378(9806):1846. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Cavo M, Pantani L, Petrucci MT, Patriarca F, Zamagni E, Donnarumma D, Crippa C, Boccadoro M, Perrone G, Falcone A, Nozzoli C, Zambello R, Masini L, Furlan A, Brioli A, Derudas D, Ballanti S, Dessanti ML, De Stefano V, Carella AM, Marcatti M, Nozza A, Ferrara F, Callea V, Califano C, Pezzi A, Baraldi A, Grasso M, Musto P, Palumbo A; GIMEMA (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto) Italian Myeloma Network. Bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone is superior to thalidomide-dexamethasone as consolidation therapy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 Jul 5;120(1):9-19. Epub 2012 Apr 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. Krishnan A, Pasquini MC, Logan B, Stadtmauer EA, Vesole DH, Alyea E 3rd, Antin JH, Comenzo R, Goodman S, Hari P, Laport G, Qazilbash MH, Rowley S, Sahebi F, Somlo G, Vogl DT, Weisdorf D, Ewell M, Wu J, Geller NL, Horowitz MM, Giralt S, Maloney DG; Blood Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN). Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Dec;12(13):1195-203. Epub 2011 Sep 29. link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4: Sonneveld P, Schmidt-Wolf IG, van der Holt B, El Jarari L, Bertsch U, Salwender H, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Broyl A, Blau IW, Weisel KC, Wittebol S, Bos GM, Stevens-Kroef M, Scheid C, Pfreundschuh M, Hose D, Jauch A, van der Velde H, Raymakers R, Schaafsma MR, Kersten MJ, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Duehrsen U, Lindemann W, Wijermans PW, Lokhorst HM, Goldschmidt HM. Bortezomib induction and maintenance treatment in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the randomized phase III HOVON-65/ GMMG-HD4 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Aug 20;30(24):2946-55. Epub 2012 Jul 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Neben K, Lokhorst HM, Jauch A, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, van der Holt B, Salwender H, Blau IW, Weisel K, Pfreundschuh M, Scheid C, Dührsen U, Lindemann W, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Peter N, Teschendorf C, Martin H, Haenel M, Derigs HG, Raab MS, Ho AD, van de Velde H, Hose D, Sonneveld P, Goldschmidt H. Administration of bortezomib before and after autologous stem cell transplantation improves outcome in multiple myeloma patients with deletion 17p. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):940-8. Epub 2011 Dec 8. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Goldschmidt H, Lokhorst HM, Mai EK, van der Holt B, Blau IW, Zweegman S, Weisel KC, Vellenga E, Pfreundschuh M, Kersten MJ, Scheid C, Croockewit S, Raymakers R, Hose D, Potamianou A, Jauch A, Hillengass J, Stevens-Kroef M, Raab MS, Broijl A, Lindemann HW, Bos GMJ, Brossart P, van Marwijk Kooy M, Ypma P, Duehrsen U, Schaafsma RM, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, Jarari L, Salwender HJ, Sonneveld P. Bortezomib before and after high-dose therapy in myeloma: long-term results from the phase III HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Leukemia. 2018 Feb;32(2):383-390. Epub 2017 Jul 4. link to original article PubMed
  10. Meta-analysis: Armeson KE, Hill EG, Costa LJ. Tandem autologous vs autologous plus reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation in the upfront management of multiple myeloma: meta-analysis of trials with biological assignment. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2013 Apr;48(4):562-7. Epub 2012 Sep 10. Review. link to original article PubMed
  11. MPRvsMEL200: Palumbo A, Cavallo F, Gay F, Di Raimondo F, Ben Yehuda D, Petrucci MT, Pezzatti S, Caravita T, Cerrato C, Ribakovsky E, Genuardi M, Cafro A, Marcatti M, Catalano L, Offidani M, Carella AM, Zamagni E, Patriarca F, Musto P, Evangelista A, Ciccone G, Omedé P, Crippa C, Corradini P, Nagler A, Boccadoro M, Cavo M. Autologous transplantation and maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Sep 4;371(10):895-905. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  12. EMN-441: Gay F, Oliva S, Petrucci MT, Conticello C, Catalano L, Corradini P, Siniscalchi A, Magarotto V, Pour L, Carella A, Malfitano A, Petrò D, Evangelista A, Spada S, Pescosta N, Omedè P, Campbell P, Liberati AM, Offidani M, Ria R, Pulini S, Patriarca F, Hajek R, Spencer A, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Chemotherapy plus lenalidomide versus autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide plus prednisone versus lenalidomide maintenance, in patients with multiple myeloma: a randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1617-29. Epub 2015 Nov 17. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  13. GMMG-HD2: Mai EK, Benner A, Bertsch U, Brossart P, Hänel A, Kunzmann V, Naumann R, Neben K, Egerer G, Ho AD, Hillengass J, Raab MS, Neubauer A, Peyn A, Ko YD, Peter N, Scheid C, Goldschmidt H. Single versus tandem high-dose melphalan followed by autologous blood stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: long-term results from the phase III GMMG-HD2 trial. Br J Haematol. 2016 Jun;173(5):731-41. Epub 2016 Mar 17. link to original article PubMed

TD

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TD: Thalidomide, Dexamethasone
Thal-Dex: Thalidomide, Dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Cavo et al. 2010 (GIMEMA MM-BO2005) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

35-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. GIMEMA MM-BO2005: Cavo M, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F, Petrucci MT, Pantani L, Galli M, Di Raimondo F, Crippa C, Zamagni E, Palumbo A, Offidani M, Corradini P, Narni F, Spadano A, Pescosta N, Deliliers GL, Ledda A, Cellini C, Caravita T, Tosi P, Baccarani M; GIMEMA Italian Myeloma Network. Bortezomib with thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a randomised phase 3 study. Lancet. 2010 Dec 18;376(9758):2075-85. Epub 2010 Dec 9. Erratum in: Lancet. 2011 Nov 26;378(9806):1846. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Cavo M, Pantani L, Petrucci MT, Patriarca F, Zamagni E, Donnarumma D, Crippa C, Boccadoro M, Perrone G, Falcone A, Nozzoli C, Zambello R, Masini L, Furlan A, Brioli A, Derudas D, Ballanti S, Dessanti ML, De Stefano V, Carella AM, Marcatti M, Nozza A, Ferrara F, Callea V, Califano C, Pezzi A, Baraldi A, Grasso M, Musto P, Palumbo A; GIMEMA (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto) Italian Myeloma Network. Bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone is superior to thalidomide-dexamethasone as consolidation therapy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 Jul 5;120(1):9-19. Epub 2012 Apr 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

VMP

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VMP: Velcade (Bortezomib), Melphalan, Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Mateos et al. 2006 Phase I/II

Note: this was the phase II portion of this phase I/II study.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

35-day cycle for 5 cycles

References

  1. Mateos MV, Hernández JM, Hernández MT, Gutiérrez NC, Palomera L, Fuertes M, Díaz-Mediavilla J, Lahuerta JJ, de la Rubia J, Terol MJ, Sureda A, Bargay J, Ribas P, de Arriba F, Alegre A, Oriol A, Carrera D, García-Laraña J, García-Sanz R, Bladé J, Prósper F, Mateo G, Esseltine DL, van de Velde H, San Miguel JF. Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone in elderly untreated patients with multiple myeloma: results of a multicenter phase 1/2 study. Blood. 2006 Oct 1;108(7):2165-72. Epub 2006 Jun 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

VTD

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VTD: Velcade (Bortezomib), Thalidomide, Dexamethasone

Variant #1, "vTD"

Study Evidence
Lok et al. 2014 Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 2 cycles

Variant #2

Study Evidence
Cavo et al. 2010 (GIMEMA MM-BO2005) Non-randomized portion of RCT

VTD consolidation is to begin 3 months after the second transplant.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

35-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3

Study Evidence
Ladetto et al. 2010 (GIMEMA VEL-03-096) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

35-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. GIMEMA VEL-03-096: Ladetto M, Pagliano G, Ferrero S, Cavallo F, Drandi D, Santo L, Crippa C, De Rosa L, Pregno P, Grasso M, Liberati AM, Caravita T, Pisani F, Guglielmelli T, Callea V, Musto P, Cangialosi C, Passera R, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Major tumor shrinking and persistent molecular remissions after consolidation with bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone in patients with autografted myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr 20;28(12):2077-84. Epub 2010 Mar 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ferrero S, Ladetto M, Drandi D, Cavallo F, Genuardi E, Urbano M, Caltagirone S, Grasso M, Rossini F, Guglielmelli T, Cangialosi C, Liberati AM, Callea V, Carovita T, Crippa C, De Rosa L, Pisani F, Falcone AP, Pregno P, Oliva S, Terragna C, Musto P, Passera R, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Long-term results of the GIMEMA VEL-03-096 trial in MM patients receiving VTD consolidation after ASCT: MRD kinetics' impact on survival. Leukemia. 2015 Mar;29(3):689-95. Epub 2014 Jul 16. link to original article PubMed
  2. GIMEMA MM-BO2005: Cavo M, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F, Petrucci MT, Pantani L, Galli M, Di Raimondo F, Crippa C, Zamagni E, Palumbo A, Offidani M, Corradini P, Narni F, Spadano A, Pescosta N, Deliliers GL, Ledda A, Cellini C, Caravita T, Tosi P, Baccarani M; GIMEMA Italian Myeloma Network. Bortezomib with thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a randomised phase 3 study. Lancet. 2010 Dec 18;376(9758):2075-85. Epub 2010 Dec 9. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Cavo M, Pantani L, Petrucci MT, Patriarca F, Zamagni E, Donnarumma D, Crippa C, Boccadoro M, Perrone G, Falcone A, Nozzoli C, Zambello R, Masini L, Furlan A, Brioli A, Derudas D, Ballanti S, Dessanti ML, De Stefano V, Carella AM, Marcatti M, Nozza A, Ferrara F, Callea V, Califano C, Pezzi A, Baraldi A, Grasso M, Musto P, Palumbo A; GIMEMA (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto) Italian Myeloma Network. Bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone is superior to thalidomide-dexamethasone as consolidation therapy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 Jul 5;120(1):9-19. Epub 2012 Apr 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Lok A, Mocquard J, Bourcier J, Redelsperger L, Bonnet A, Chauvin C, Thomare P, Mahe B, Touzeau C, Moreau P. Subcutaneous bortezomib incorporated into the bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone regimen as part of frontline therapy in the context of autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Haematologica. 2014 Mar;99(3):e33-4. Epub 2014 Feb 14. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Maintenance after first-line therapy

Note that there is no crisp distinction between consolidation and maintenance. Generally regimens that are intended for a long or indefinite duration would be considered maintenance, whereas regimens with a short intended course would be considered consolidation.

Bortezomib monotherapy

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Variant #1, IV x 2 years

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Sonneveld et al. 2012 (HOVON-65) Phase III (E) Thalidomide Superior PFS (*)
Sonneveld et al. 2012 (GMMG-HD4) Phase III (E) Thalidomide Superior PFS (*)

Note that in the initial publication, this arm seemed to have an overall survival advantage; this was no longer present in the updated report of 2017; PFS was the primary endpoint.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 52 cycles (2 years)

Variant #2, SC, indefinite

Study Evidence
Larocca et al. 2016 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4: Sonneveld P, Schmidt-Wolf IG, van der Holt B, El Jarari L, Bertsch U, Salwender H, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Broyl A, Blau IW, Weisel KC, Wittebol S, Bos GM, Stevens-Kroef M, Scheid C, Pfreundschuh M, Hose D, Jauch A, van der Velde H, Raymakers R, Schaafsma MR, Kersten MJ, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Duehrsen U, Lindemann W, Wijermans PW, Lokhorst HM, Goldschmidt HM. Bortezomib induction and maintenance treatment in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the randomized phase III HOVON-65/ GMMG-HD4 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Aug 20;30(24):2946-55. Epub 2012 Jul 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Neben K, Lokhorst HM, Jauch A, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, van der Holt B, Salwender H, Blau IW, Weisel K, Pfreundschuh M, Scheid C, Dührsen U, Lindemann W, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Peter N, Teschendorf C, Martin H, Haenel M, Derigs HG, Raab MS, Ho AD, van de Velde H, Hose D, Sonneveld P, Goldschmidt H. Administration of bortezomib before and after autologous stem cell transplantation improves outcome in multiple myeloma patients with deletion 17p. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):940-8. Epub 2011 Dec 8. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Goldschmidt H, Lokhorst HM, Mai EK, van der Holt B, Blau IW, Zweegman S, Weisel KC, Vellenga E, Pfreundschuh M, Kersten MJ, Scheid C, Croockewit S, Raymakers R, Hose D, Potamianou A, Jauch A, Hillengass J, Stevens-Kroef M, Raab MS, Broijl A, Lindemann HW, Bos GMJ, Brossart P, van Marwijk Kooy M, Ypma P, Duehrsen U, Schaafsma RM, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, Jarari L, Salwender HJ, Sonneveld P. Bortezomib before and after high-dose therapy in myeloma: long-term results from the phase III HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Leukemia. 2018 Feb;32(2):383-390. Epub 2017 Jul 4. link to original article PubMed
  2. Larocca A, Bringhen S, Petrucci MT, Oliva S, Falcone AP, Caravita T, Villani O, Benevolo G, Liberati AM, Morabito F, Montefusco V, Passera R, De Rosa L, Omedé P, Vincelli ID, Spada S, Carella AM, Ponticelli E, Derudas D, Genuardi M, Guglielmelli T, Nozzoli C, Aghemo E, De Paoli L, Conticello C, Musolino C, Offidani M, Boccadoro M, Sonneveld P, Palumbo A. A phase 2 study of three low-dose intensity subcutaneous bortezomib regimens in elderly frail patients with untreated multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2016 Jun;30(6):1320-6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Carfilzomib monotherapy

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Variant #1, bi-weekly

Study Evidence
Bringhen et al. 2014 (IST-CAR-506) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, weekly

Study Evidence
Bringhen et al. 2017 (IST-CAR-561) Phase I/II

Note: this is the MTD established for the phase II portion of the trial.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. IST-CAR-506: Bringhen S, Petrucci MT, Larocca A, Conticello C, Rossi D, Magarotto V, Musto P, Boccadifuoco L, Offidani M, Omedé P, Gentilini F, Ciccone G, Benevolo G, Genuardi M, Montefusco V, Oliva S, Caravita T, Tacchetti P, Boccadoro M, Sonneveld P, Palumbo A. Carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a multicenter, phase 2 study. Blood. 2014 Jul 3;124(1):63-9. Epub 2014 May 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. IST-CAR-561: Bringhen S, D'Agostino M, De Paoli L, Montefusco V, Liberati AM, Galieni P, Grammatico S, Muccio VE, Esma F, De Angelis C, Musto P, Ballanti S, Offidani M, Petrucci MT, Gaidano G, Corradini P, Palumbo A, Sonneveld P, Boccadoro M. Phase 1/2 study of weekly carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone in newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible myeloma. Leukemia. 2018 Apr;32(4):979-985. Epub 2017 Nov 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Daratumumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Mateos et al. 2017 (ALCYONE) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycles

References

  1. ALCYONE: Mateos MV, Dimopoulos MA, Cavo M, Suzuki K, Jakubowiak A, Knop S, Doyen C, Lucio P, Nagy Z, Kaplan P, Pour L, Cook M, Grosicki S, Crepaldi A, Liberati AM, Campbell P, Shelekhova T, Yoon SS, Iosava G, Fujisaki T, Garg M, Chiu C, Wang J, Carson R, Crist W, Deraedt W, Nguyen H, Qi M, San-Miguel J; ALCYONE Trial Investigators. Daratumumab plus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone for untreated myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 8;378(6):518-528. Epub 2017 Dec 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Ixazomib monotherapy

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Variant #1, indefinite

Study Evidence
Kumar et al. 2014 (C16005) Phase I/II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

Variant #2, 2-year course

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Dimopoulos et al. 2018 (TOURMALINE-MM3) Phase III (E) Placebo Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Ixazomib (Ninlaro) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 4: 3 mg PO once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycle 5 onwards, if tolerated: 4 mg PO once per day on days 1, 8, 15

28-day cycle for up to 26 cycles (2 years)

References

  1. C16005: Kumar SK, Berdeja JG, Niesvizky R, Lonial S, Laubach JP, Hamadani M, Stewart AK, Hari P, Roy V, Vescio R, Kaufman JL, Berg D, Liao E, Di Bacco A, Estevam J, Gupta N, Hui AM, Rajkumar V, Richardson PG. Safety and tolerability of ixazomib, an oral proteasome inhibitor, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma: an open-label phase 1/2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Dec;15(13):1503-12. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Kumar SK, Berdeja JG, Niesvizky R, Lonial S, Laubach JP, Hamadani M, Stewart AK, Hari P, Roy V, Vescio R, Kaufman JL, Berg D, Liao E, Rajkumar SV, Richardson PG. Ixazomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: long-term follow-up including ixazomib maintenance. Leukemia. 2019 Jul;33(7):1736-1746. Epub 2019 Jan 29. link to original article PubMed
  2. TOURMALINE-MM3: Dimopoulos MA, Gay F, Schjesvold F, Beksac M, Hajek R, Weisel KC, Goldschmidt H, Maisnar V, Moreau P, Min CK, Pluta A, Chng WJ, Kaiser M, Zweegman S, Mateos MV, Spencer A, Iida S, Morgan G, Suryanarayan K, Teng Z, Skacel T, Palumbo A, Dash AB, Gupta N, Labotka R, Rajkumar SV; TOURMALINE-MM3 study group. Oral ixazomib maintenance following autologous stem cell transplantation (TOURMALINE-MM3): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2019 Jan 19;393(10168):253-264. Epub 2018 Dec 10. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

KRd

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KRd: Kyprolis (Carfilzomib), Revlimid (Lenalidomide), low-dose dexamethasone
CRd: Carfilzomib, Revlimid (Lenalidomide), low-dose dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Jakubowiak et al. 2012 (UMCC 2009.056) Phase II

This is the MTD dosing in this phase I/II trial.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 16 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. UMCC 2009.056: Jakubowiak AJ, Dytfeld D, Griffith KA, Lebovic D, Vesole DH, Jagannath S, Al-Zoubi A, Anderson T, Nordgren B, Detweiler-Short K, Stockerl-Goldstein K, Ahmed A, Jobkar T, Durecki DE, McDonnell K, Mietzel M, Couriel D, Kaminski M, Vij R. A phase 1/2 study of carfilzomib in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone as a frontline treatment for multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 Aug 30;120(9):1801-9. Epub 2012 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Lenalidomide monotherapy

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Variant #1, indefinite 10 mg 21/28

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Palumbo et al. 2007a Phase II
Palumbo et al. 2010 Phase II
Palumbo et al. 2012 (MM-015) Phase III (E) Placebo Superior PFS
Palumbo et al. 2014 (MPRvsMEL200) Phase III (E) Observation Superior PFS
Stewart et al. 2015 (ECOG E1A06) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Gay et al. 2015 (EMN-441) Phase III (C) RP Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS
Magarotto et al. 2016 (EMN01) Phase III (C) RP Not reported
Zweegman et al. 2016 (HOVON87/NMSG18) Phase III (E) Thalidomide Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS
Jackson et al. 2018 (UK NCRI Myeloma XI) Phase III (E) Observation Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Varies depending on reference:
  • MM-015: Aspirin 75 to 100 mg PO once per day
  • Palumbo et al. 2007a and Palumbo et al. 2010: Aspirin 100 mg PO once per day
  • ECOG E1A06: Aspirin was required (dose not specified)
    • Full anticoagulation was used for patients at "higher risk" for DVT
  • EMN01: Aspirin or LMWH or Warfarin (Coumadin) at physician's discretion (mandatory)
  • ECOG E1A06: Pamidronate (Aredia) 90 mg IV once per month recommended for patients with "active bone disease"
  • Palumbo et al. 2007a: Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) 500 mg PO twice per day

28-day cycles

Variant #2, indefinite 15 mg per day

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Attal et al. 2012 (IFM 2005-02) Phase III (E-RT) Placebo Superior PFS

Note: this is "Maintenance Study 2" listed in the package insert.

Chemotherapy, consolidation

28-day cycle for 2 cycles, then

Chemotherapy, maintenance

Supportive medications

  • "Thromboprophylaxis was not used"

Continued indefinitely

Variant #3, indefinite 30 mg per day

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
McCarthy et al. 2012 (CALGB 100104) Phase III (E-RT) Placebo Seems to have superior OS

Note: this is "Maintenance Study 1" listed in the package insert.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Lenalidomide (Revlimid) 20 mg PO once per day; after 3 months, dose may be increased to 30 mg PO once per day if the patient's ANC remains at least 1000/uL and platelet count is at least 75 x 109/L
    • Dose adjustments can be found in the paper's supplementary appendix

Supportive medications

  • Patients at high risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) received Aspirin, low molecular weight heparin, or Warfarin (Coumadin) unless contraindicated. High risk patients were defined as people with: history of diabetes, coronary artery disease, "DVT/PE, significant family history, performance status of at least 2, smoking history, use of oral contraceptives, and[/or] concurrent use of epoetin."

Continued indefinitely

Variant #4, 2 years of 25 mg 21/28

Study Evidence
Korde et al. 2016 (NCI 12-C-0107) Phase II
Korde et al. 2016 (NCI 11-C-0221) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for up to 24 cycles

Variant #5, 1 year of 10 to 15 mg per day

Study Evidence
Roussel et al. 2014 Phase II
Attal et al. 2017 (IFM 2009) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

12-month course

Variant #6, indefinite 25 mg 21/28

Study Evidence
Jakubowiak et al. 2012 (UMCC 2009.056) Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Palumbo A, Falco P, Corradini P, Falcone A, Di Raimondo F, Giuliani N, Crippa C, Ciccone G, Omedè P, Ambrosini MT, Gay F, Bringhen S, Musto P, Foà R, Knight R, Zeldis JB, Boccadoro M, Petrucci MT; GIMEMA--Italian Multiple Myeloma Network. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide treatment for newly diagnosed myeloma: a report from the GIMEMA--Italian Multiple Myeloma Network. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 1;25(28):4459-65. Epub 2007 Sep 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Palumbo A, Gay F, Falco P, Crippa C, Montefusco V, Patriarca F, Rossini F, Caltagirone S, Benevolo G, Pescosta N, Guglielmelli T, Bringhen S, Offidani M, Giuliani N, Petrucci MT, Musto P, Liberati AM, Rossi G, Corradini P, Boccadoro M. Bortezomib as induction before autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide as consolidation-maintenance in untreated multiple myeloma patients. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 10;28(5):800-7. Epub 2010 Jan 4. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 May 1;28(13):2314. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Gay F, Magarotto V, Crippa C, Pescosta N, Guglielmelli T, Cavallo F, Pezzatti S, Ferrari S, Liberati AM, Oliva S, Patriarca F, Offidani M, Omedé P, Montefusco V, Petrucci MT, Giuliani N, Passera R, Pietrantuono G, Boccadoro M, Corradini P, Palumbo A. Bortezomib induction, reduced-intensity transplantation, and lenalidomide consolidation-maintenance for myeloma: updated results. Blood. 2013 Aug 22;122(8):1376-83. Epub 2013 Jun 17. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. CALGB 100104: McCarthy PL, Owzar K, Hofmeister CC, Hurd DD, Hassoun H, Richardson PG, Giralt S, Stadtmauer EA, Weisdorf DJ, Vij R, Moreb JS, Callander NS, Van Besien K, Gentile T, Isola L, Maziarz RT, Gabriel DA, Bashey A, Landau H, Martin T, Qazilbash MH, Levitan D, McClune B, Schlossman R, Hars V, Postiglione J, Jiang C, Bennett E, Barry S, Bressler L, Kelly M, Seiler M, Rosenbaum C, Hari P, Pasquini MC, Horowitz MM, Shea TC, Devine SM, Anderson KC, Linker C. Lenalidomide after stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1770-81. link to original article link to supplementary appendix contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Holstein SA, Jung SH, Richardson PG, Hofmeister CC, Hurd DD, Hassoun H, Giralt S, Stadtmauer EA, Weisdorf DJ, Vij R, Moreb JS, Callander NS, van Besien K, Gentile TG, Isola L, Maziarz RT, Bashey A, Landau H, Martin T, Qazilbash MH, Rodriguez C, McClune B, Schlossman RL, Smith SE, Hars V, Owzar K, Jiang C, Boyd M, Schultz C, Wilson M, Hari P, Pasquini MC, Horowitz MM, Shea TC, Devine SM, Linker C, Anderson KC, McCarthy PL. Updated analysis of CALGB (Alliance) 100104 assessing lenalidomide versus placebo maintenance after single autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Haematol. 2017 Sep;4(9):e431-e442. Epub 2017 Aug 17. link to original article PubMed
  4. IFM2005-02: Attal M, Lauwers-Cances V, Marit G, Caillot D, Moreau P, Facon T, Stoppa AM, Hulin C, Benboubker L, Garderet L, Decaux O, Leyvraz S, Vekemans MC, Voillat L, Michallet M, Pegourie B, Dumontet C, Roussel M, Leleu X, Mathiot C, Payen C, Avet-Loiseau H, Harousseau JL; IFM Investigators. Lenalidomide maintenance after stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1782-91. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Abstract: Michel Attal, MD, Valerie Cances Lauwers, Gerald Marit, Denis Caillot, Thierry Facon, MD, Cyrille Hulin, Philippe Moreau, MD, Claire Mathiot, Murielle Roussel, Catherine Payen, H. Avet-Loiseau and Jean Luc Harousseau. Maintenance Treatment with Lenalidomide After Transplantation for MYELOMA : Final Analysis of the IFM 2005-02. ASH 2010 Abstract 310. link to abstract
  5. UMCC 2009.056: Jakubowiak AJ, Dytfeld D, Griffith KA, Lebovic D, Vesole DH, Jagannath S, Al-Zoubi A, Anderson T, Nordgren B, Detweiler-Short K, Stockerl-Goldstein K, Ahmed A, Jobkar T, Durecki DE, McDonnell K, Mietzel M, Couriel D, Kaminski M, Vij R. A phase 1/2 study of carfilzomib in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone as a frontline treatment for multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 Aug 30;120(9):1801-9. Epub 2012 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  6. MM-015: Palumbo A, Hajek R, Delforge M, Kropff M, Petrucci MT, Catalano J, Gisslinger H, Wiktor-Jedrzejczak W, Zodelava M, Weisel K, Cascavilla N, Iosava G, Cavo M, Kloczko J, Bladé J, Beksac M, Spicka I, Plesner T, Radke J, Langer C, Ben Yehuda D, Corso A, Herbein L, Yu Z, Mei J, Jacques C, Dimopoulos MA; MM-015 Investigators. Continuous lenalidomide treatment for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1759-69. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 19;367(3):285. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Roussel M, Lauwers-Cances V, Robillard N, Hulin C, Leleu X, Benboubker L, Marit G, Moreau P, Pegourie B, Caillot D, Fruchart C, Stoppa AM, Gentil C, Wuilleme S, Huynh A, Hebraud B, Corre J, Chretien ML, Facon T, Avet-Loiseau H, Attal M. Front-line transplantation program with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination as induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 1;32(25):2712-7. Epub 2014 Jul 14. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. MPRvsMEL200: Palumbo A, Cavallo F, Gay F, Di Raimondo F, Ben Yehuda D, Petrucci MT, Pezzatti S, Caravita T, Cerrato C, Ribakovsky E, Genuardi M, Cafro A, Marcatti M, Catalano L, Offidani M, Carella AM, Zamagni E, Patriarca F, Musto P, Evangelista A, Ciccone G, Omedé P, Crippa C, Corradini P, Nagler A, Boccadoro M, Cavo M. Autologous transplantation and maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Sep 4;371(10):895-905. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. GMMG-MM5: Mai EK, Bertsch U, Dürig J, Kunz C, Haenel M, Blau IW, Munder M, Jauch A, Schurich B, Hielscher T, Merz M, Huegle-Doerr B, Seckinger A, Hose D, Hillengass J, Raab MS, Neben K, Lindemann HW, Zeis M, Gerecke C, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Weisel K, Scheid C, Salwender H, Goldschmidt H. Phase III trial of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) versus bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (PAd) in newly diagnosed myeloma. Leukemia. 2015 Aug;29(8):1721-9. Epub 2015 Mar 19. link to original article PubMed
  10. ECOG E1A06: Stewart AK, Jacobus S, Fonseca R, Weiss M, Callander NS, Chanan-Khan AA, Rajkumar SV. Melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide vs melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide (ECOG E1A06) in untreated multiple myeloma. Blood. 2015 Sep 10;126(11):1294-301. Epub 2015 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  11. EMN-441: Gay F, Oliva S, Petrucci MT, Conticello C, Catalano L, Corradini P, Siniscalchi A, Magarotto V, Pour L, Carella A, Malfitano A, Petrò D, Evangelista A, Spada S, Pescosta N, Omedè P, Campbell P, Liberati AM, Offidani M, Ria R, Pulini S, Patriarca F, Hajek R, Spencer A, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Chemotherapy plus lenalidomide versus autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide plus prednisone versus lenalidomide maintenance, in patients with multiple myeloma: a randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1617-29. Epub 2015 Nov 17. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  12. EMN01: Magarotto V, Bringhen S, Offidani M, Benevolo G, Patriarca F, Mina R, Falcone AP, De Paoli L, Pietrantuono G, Gentili S, Musolino C, Giuliani N, Bernardini A, Conticello C, Pulini S, Ciccone G, Maisnar V, Ruggeri M, Zambello R, Guglielmelli T, Ledda A, Liberati AM, Montefusco V, Hajek R, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Triplet vs doublet lenalidomide-containing regimens for the treatment of elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2016 Mar 3;127(9):1102-8. Epub 2016 Jan 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  13. HOVON87/NMSG18: Zweegman S, van der Holt B, Mellqvist UH, Salomo M, Bos GM, Levin MD, Visser-Wisselaar H, Hansson M, van der Velden AW, Deenik W, Gruber A, Coenen JL, Plesner T, Klein SK, Tanis BC, Szatkowski DL, Brouwer RE, Westerman M, Leys MR, Sinnige HA, Haukås E, van der Hem KG, Durian MF, Mattijssen EV, van de Donk NW, Stevens-Kroef MJ, Sonneveld P, Waage A. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide versus melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in untreated multiple myeloma. Blood. 2016 Mar 3;127(9):1109-16. Epub 2016 Jan 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  14. Abstract: Meta-analysis: Michel Attal, Antonio Palumbo, Sarah A. Holstein, Valerie Lauwers-Cances, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Paul G. Richardson, Cyrille Hulin, Patrizia Tosi, Kenneth Carl Anderson, Denis Caillot, Valeria Magarotto, Philippe Moreau, Gerald Marit, Zhinuan Yu, Philip L. McCarthy. Lenalidomide (LEN) maintenance (MNTC) after high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM): A meta-analysis (MA) of overall survival (OS). J Clin Oncol 34, 2016 (suppl; abstr 8001) link to abstract
  15. NCI 11-C-0221; NCI 12-C-0107: Korde N, Roschewski M, Zingone A, Kwok M, Manasanch EE, Bhutani M, Tageja N, Kazandjian D, Mailankody S, Wu P, Morrison C, Costello R, Zhang Y, Burton D, Mulquin M, Zuchlinski D, Lamping L, Carpenter A, Wall Y, Carter G, Cunningham SC, Gounden V, Sissung TM, Peer C, Maric I, Calvo KR, Braylan R, Yuan C, Stetler-Stevenson M, Arthur DC, Kong KA, Weng L, Faham M, Lindenberg L, Kurdziel K, Choyke P, Steinberg SM, Figg W, Landgren O. Treatment With carfilzomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone with lenalidomide extension in patients with smoldering or newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. JAMA Oncol. 2015 Sep;1(6):746-54. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  16. IFM 2009: Attal M, Lauwers-Cances V, Hulin C, Leleu X, Caillot D, Escoffre M, Arnulf B, Macro M, Belhadj K, Garderet L, Roussel M, Payen C, Mathiot C, Fermand JP, Meuleman N, Rollet S, Maglio ME, Zeytoonjian AA, Weller EA, Munshi N, Anderson KC, Richardson PG, Facon T, Avet-Loiseau H, Harousseau JL, Moreau P; IFM 2009 Study. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone with transplantation for myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 6;376(14):1311-1320. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  17. UK NCRI Myeloma XI: Jackson GH, Davies FE, Pawlyn C, Cairns DA, Striha A, Collett C, Hockaday A, Jones JR, Kishore B, Garg M, Williams CD, Karunanithi K, Lindsay J, Jenner MW, Cook G, Russell NH, Kaiser MF, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Gregory WM, Morgan GJ; UK NCRI Haemato-oncology Clinical Studies Group. Lenalidomide maintenance versus observation for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Myeloma XI): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2019 Jan;20(1):57-73. Epub 2018 Dec 14. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Rd

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Rd: Revlimid (Lenalidomide) & low-dose dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence
Durie et al. 2016 (SWOG S0777) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. SWOG S0777: Durie BG, Hoering A, Abidi MH, Rajkumar SV, Epstein J, Kahanic SP, Thakuri M, Reu F, Reynolds CM, Sexton R, Orlowski RZ, Barlogie B, Dispenzieri A. Bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma without intent for immediate autologous stem-cell transplant (SWOG S0777): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2017 Feb 4;389(10068):519-527. Epub 2016 Dec 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

RP

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RP: Revlimid (Lenalidomide) & Prednisone

Variant #1, prednisone 25 mg every other day

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Magarotto et al. 2016 (EMN01) Phase III (E) Lenalidomide Not reported

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

28-day cycles

Variant #2, prednisone 25 mg TIW

Study Evidence
Falco et al. 2012 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Thromboprophylaxis: Aspirin 100 mg PO once per day, taken during Lenalidomide (Revlimid) treatment (unclear from protocol if this also means off weeks)
  • Antiviral prophylaxis if history of VZV.

28-day cycles

Variant #3, prednisone 50 mg every other day

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Gay et al. 2015 (EMN-441) Phase III (E) Lenalidomide Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Falco P, Cavallo F, Larocca A, Rossi D, Guglielmelli T, Rocci A, Grasso M, Siez ML, De Paoli L, Oliva S, Molica S, Mina R, Gay F, Benevolo G, Musto P, Omedè P, Freilone R, Bringhen S, Carella AM, Gaidano G, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Lenalidomide-prednisone induction followed by lenalidomide-melphalan-prednisone consolidation and lenalidomide-prednisone maintenance in newly diagnosed elderly unfit myeloma patients. Leukemia. 2013 Mar;27(3):695-701. Epub 2012 Sep 21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. EMN-441: Gay F, Oliva S, Petrucci MT, Conticello C, Catalano L, Corradini P, Siniscalchi A, Magarotto V, Pour L, Carella A, Malfitano A, Petrò D, Evangelista A, Spada S, Pescosta N, Omedè P, Campbell P, Liberati AM, Offidani M, Ria R, Pulini S, Patriarca F, Hajek R, Spencer A, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Chemotherapy plus lenalidomide versus autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide plus prednisone versus lenalidomide maintenance, in patients with multiple myeloma: a randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1617-29. Epub 2015 Nov 17. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. EMN01: Magarotto V, Bringhen S, Offidani M, Benevolo G, Patriarca F, Mina R, Falcone AP, De Paoli L, Pietrantuono G, Gentili S, Musolino C, Giuliani N, Bernardini A, Conticello C, Pulini S, Ciccone G, Maisnar V, Ruggeri M, Zambello R, Guglielmelli T, Ledda A, Liberati AM, Montefusco V, Hajek R, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Triplet vs doublet lenalidomide-containing regimens for the treatment of elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2016 Mar 3;127(9):1102-8. Epub 2016 Jan 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

RVD

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RVD: Revlimid (Lenalidomide), Velcade (Bortezomib), Dexamethasone
VDR: Velcade (Bortezomib), Dexamethasone, Revlimid (Lenalidomide)
VRD: Velcade (Bortezomib), Revlimid (Lenalidomide), Dexamethasone
VRd: Velcade (Bortezomib), Revlimid (Lenalidomide), low-dose dexamethasone

Variant #1, 3-year course

Study Evidence
Nair et al. 2010 (2006-66) Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

  • VTD-PACE consolidation (per Total Therapy 3 protocol)

Chemotherapy

3-year course

Variant #2, Indefinite

Study Evidence
Richardson et al. 2010 Phase II

Preceding treatment

  • RVD x 4 to 8 cycles

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycles

References

  1. 2006-66: Nair B, van Rhee F, Shaughnessy JD Jr, Anaissie E, Szymonifka J, Hoering A, Alsayed Y, Waheed S, Crowley J, Barlogie B. Superior results of Total Therapy 3 (2003-33) in gene expression profiling-defined low-risk multiple myeloma confirmed in subsequent trial 2006-66 with VRD maintenance. Blood. 2010 May 27;115(21):4168-73. Epub 2010 Feb 2. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Richardson PG, Weller E, Lonial S, Jakubowiak AJ, Jagannath S, Raje NS, Avigan DE, Xie W, Ghobrial IM, Schlossman RL, Mazumder A, Munshi NC, Vesole DH, Joyce R, Kaufman JL, Doss D, Warren DL, Lunde LE, Kaster S, Delaney C, Hideshima T, Mitsiades CS, Knight R, Esseltine DL, Anderson KC. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2010 Aug 5;116(5):679-86. Epub 2010 Apr 12. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Retrospective: Nooka AK, Kaufman JL, Muppidi S, Langston A, Heffner LT, Gleason C, Casbourne D, Saxe D, Boise LH, Lonial S. Consolidation and maintenance therapy with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD) in high-risk myeloma patients. Leukemia. 2014 Mar;28(3):690-3. Epub 2013 Nov 13. link to original article PubMed

Thalidomide monotherapy

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Variant #1, 50 mg/day x 2 years

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Sonneveld et al. 2012 (HOVON-65) Phase III (C) Bortezomib Inferior PFS (*)
Sonneveld et al. 2012 (GMMG-HD4) Phase III (C) Bortezomib Inferior PFS (*)

Note that in the initial publication, this arm seemed to have an overall survival disadvantage; this was no longer present in the updated report of 2017; PFS was the primary endpoint. Observed efficacy is for induction PAD, then transplant, then maintenance bortezomib compared with induction VAD, then transplant, then maintenance thalidomide. Treatment starts 4 weeks after the final autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

2-year course

Variant #2, 50 mg/d, indefinite

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Wijermans et al. 2010 (HOVON 49) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Lokhorst et al. 2009 (HOVON-50) Phase III (E) See link See link

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

Continued indefinitely

Variant #3, 50 -> 100 mg/d, indefinite

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Morgan et al. 2010 (MRC Myeloma IX) Phase III (E) Observation Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

Variant #4, 100 mg/day x 3 years

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Rosiñol et al. 2012 (GEM05/MENOS65) Phase III (E) 1. Interferon alfa-2b Not reported
2. TV Seems to have inferior PFS (*)

Note: Reported efficacy for GEM05/MENOS65 is based on the 2017 update.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

3-year course

Variant #5, 100 mg/d, indefinite

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Palumbo et al. 2006 Non-randomized portion of RCT
Stewart et al. 2015 (ECOG E1A06) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Zweegman et al. 2016 (HOVON87/NMSG18) Phase III (C) Lenalidomide Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS

Preceding treatment

  • Palumbo et al. 2006: MPT x 6
  • ECOG E1A06: MPT x 12
  • HOVON87/NMSG18: MPT x 9

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Per ECOG E1A06, Aspirin was required (dose not specified)
    • Per ECOG E1A06, full anticoagulation was used for patients at "higher risk" for DVT
  • Per ECOG E1A06, Pamidronate (Aredia) 90 mg IV once per month recommended for patients with "active bone disease"

Continued indefinitely

Variant #6, 400 mg/day x 18 months

Study Evidence
Sahebi et al. 2006 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Thalidomide (Thalomid) 50 mg PO once per day, escalated by 50 mg every week to a target dose of 400 mg PO once per day

Supportive medications

18 months of treatment or 6 months past CR, whichever comes first

Variant #7, 400 mg/d, indefinite

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Attal et al. 2006 (IFM 99-02) Phase III (E) Observation Superior OS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Thalidomide (Thalomid) 400 mg PO once per day
    • Dose reductions to a minimum of 50 mg PO once per day were allowed

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Caravita T, Merla E, Capparella V, Callea V, Cangialosi C, Grasso M, Rossini F, Galli M, Catalano L, Zamagni E, Petrucci MT, De Stefano V, Ceccarelli M, Ambrosini MT, Avonto I, Falco P, Ciccone G, Liberati AM, Musto P, Boccadoro M; Italian Multiple Myeloma Network (GIMEMA). Oral melphalan and prednisone chemotherapy plus thalidomide compared with melphalan and prednisone alone in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Mar 11;367(9513):825-31. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Liberati AM, Caravita T, Falcone A, Callea V, Montanaro M, Ria R, Capaldi A, Zambello R, Benevolo G, Derudas D, Dore F, Cavallo F, Gay F, Falco P, Ciccone G, Musto P, Cavo M, Boccadoro M. Oral melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: updated results of a randomized controlled trial. Blood. 2008 Oct 15;112(8):3107-14. Epub 2008 May 27. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. Sahebi F, Spielberger R, Kogut NM, Fung H, Falk PM, Parker P, Krishnan A, Rodriguez R, Nakamura R, Nademanee A, Popplewell L, Frankel P, Ruel C, Tin R, Ilieva P, Forman SJ, Somlo G. Maintenance thalidomide following single cycle autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in patients with multiple myeloma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006 May;37(9):825-9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. IFM 99-02: Attal M, Harousseau JL, Leyvraz S, Doyen C, Hulin C, Benboubker L, Yakoub Agha I, Bourhis JH, Garderet L, Pegourie B, Dumontet C, Renaud M, Voillat L, Berthou C, Marit G, Monconduit M, Caillot D, Grobois B, Avet-Loiseau H, Moreau P, Facon T; Inter-Groupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM). Maintenance therapy with thalidomide improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2006 Nov 15;108(10):3289-94. Epub 2006 Jul 27. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Barlogie B, Attal M, Crowley J, van Rhee F, Szymonifka J, Moreau P, Durie BG, Harousseau JL. Long-term follow-up of autotransplantation trials for multiple myeloma: update of protocols conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome, Southwest Oncology Group, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1209-14. Epub 2010 Jan 19. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 20;28(21):3543. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. **RETRACTED** Abdelkefi A, Ladeb S, Torjman L, Othman TB, Lakhal A, Romdhane NB, Omri HE, Elloumi M, Belaaj H, Jeddi R, Aissaouï L, Ksouri H, Hassen AB, Msadek F, Saad A, Hsaïri M, Boukef K, Amouri A, Louzir H, Dellagi K, Abdeladhim AB; Tunisian Multiple Myeloma Study Group. Single autologous stem-cell transplantation followed by maintenance therapy with thalidomide is superior to double autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma: results of a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Blood. 2008 Feb 15;111(4):1805-10. Epub 2007 Sep 17. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed **RETRACTED**
  5. HOVON-50: Lokhorst HM, van der Holt B, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, van Oers MH, von dem Borne P, Wijermans P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Wittebol S, Delforge M, Berenschot H, Bos GM, Jie KS, Sinnige H, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Joosten P, Minnema MC, van Ammerlaan R, Sonneveld P; Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Group (HOVON). A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2010 Feb 11;115(6):1113-20. Epub 2009 Oct 30. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: van de Donk NW, van der Holt B, Minnema MC, Vellenga E, Croockewit S, Kersten MJ, von dem Borne PA, Ypma P, Schaafsma R, de Weerdt O, Klein SK, Delforge M, Levin MD, Bos GM, Jie KG, Sinnige H, Coenen JL, de Waal EG, Zweegman S, Sonneveld P, Lokhorst HM. Thalidomide before and after autologous stem cell transplantation in recently diagnosed multiple myeloma (HOVON-50): long-term results from the phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Haematol. 2018 Oct;5(10):e479-e492. link to original article PubMed
  6. HOVON 49: Wijermans P, Schaafsma M, Termorshuizen F, Ammerlaan R, Wittebol S, Sinnige H, Zweegman S, van Marwijk Kooy M, van der Griend R, Lokhorst H, Sonneveld P; Dutch-Belgium Cooperative Group HOVON. Phase III study of the value of thalidomide added to melphalan plus prednisone in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: the HOVON 49 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 1;28(19):3160-6. Epub 2010 Jun 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. MRC Myeloma IX: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Cocks K, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro-Coy N, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Feyler S, Ashcroft AJ, Ross F, Byrne J, Roddie H, Rudin C, Cook G, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Study Group. First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 Dec 11;376(9757):1989-99. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Russell NH, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro Coy N, Cook G, Feyler S, Byrne JL, Roddie H, Rudin C, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson GH, Child JA; NCRI Haematological Oncology Study Group. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD) as initial therapy for patients with multiple myeloma unsuitable for autologous transplantation. Blood. 2011 Aug 4;118(5):1231-8. Epub 2011 Jun 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Morgan GJ, Gregory WM, Davies FE, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Brown JM, Coy NN, Cook G, Russell NH, Rudin C, Roddie H, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. The role of maintenance thalidomide therapy in multiple myeloma: MRC Myeloma IX results and meta-analysis. Blood. 2012 Jan 5;119(1):7-15. Epub 2011 Oct 20. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    3. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro Coy N, Cook G, Feyler S, Johnson PR, Rudin C, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Russell NH, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients destined for autologous stem-cell transplantation: MRC Myeloma IX randomized trial results. Haematologica. 2012 Mar;97(3):442-50. Epub 2011 Nov 4. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    4. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Cook G, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson G, Child JA. Long-term follow-up of MRC Myeloma IX trial: Survival outcomes with bisphosphonate and thalidomide treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 1;19(21):6030-8. Epub 2013 Aug 30. link to original article PubMed
  8. GEM05/MENOS65: Rosiñol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI, Hernández D, López-Jiménez J, de la Rubia J, Granell M, Besalduch J, Palomera L, González Y, Etxebeste MA, Díaz-Mediavilla J, Hernández MT, de Arriba F, Gutiérrez NC, Martín-Ramos ML, Cibeira MT, Mateos MV, Martínez J, Alegre A, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel J, Bladé J; Programa para el Estudio y la Terapéutica de las Hemopatías Malignas/Grupo Español de Mieloma (PETHEMA/GEM) group. Superiority of bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) as induction pretransplantation therapy in multiple myeloma: a randomized phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM study. Blood. 2012 Aug 3;120(8):1589-96. Epub 2012 Jul 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Rosiñol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI, de la Guía AL, Blanchard M, de la Rubia J, Granell M, Sampol M, Palomera L, González Y, Etxebeste M, Martínez-Martínez R, Hernández MT, de Arriba F, Alegre A, Cibeira M, Mateos M, Martínez-López J, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel J, Bladé J. Bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance after stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a PETHEMA/GEM trial. Leukemia. 2017 Sep;31(9):1922-1927. Epub 2017 Jan 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4: Sonneveld P, Schmidt-Wolf IG, van der Holt B, El Jarari L, Bertsch U, Salwender H, Zweegman S, Vellenga E, Broyl A, Blau IW, Weisel KC, Wittebol S, Bos GM, Stevens-Kroef M, Scheid C, Pfreundschuh M, Hose D, Jauch A, van der Velde H, Raymakers R, Schaafsma MR, Kersten MJ, van Marwijk-Kooy M, Duehrsen U, Lindemann W, Wijermans PW, Lokhorst HM, Goldschmidt HM. Bortezomib induction and maintenance treatment in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the randomized phase III HOVON-65/ GMMG-HD4 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Aug 20;30(24):2946-55. Epub 2012 Jul 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Neben K, Lokhorst HM, Jauch A, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, van der Holt B, Salwender H, Blau IW, Weisel K, Pfreundschuh M, Scheid C, Dührsen U, Lindemann W, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Peter N, Teschendorf C, Martin H, Haenel M, Derigs HG, Raab MS, Ho AD, van de Velde H, Hose D, Sonneveld P, Goldschmidt H. Administration of bortezomib before and after autologous stem cell transplantation improves outcome in multiple myeloma patients with deletion 17p. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):940-8. Epub 2011 Dec 8. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Goldschmidt H, Lokhorst HM, Mai EK, van der Holt B, Blau IW, Zweegman S, Weisel KC, Vellenga E, Pfreundschuh M, Kersten MJ, Scheid C, Croockewit S, Raymakers R, Hose D, Potamianou A, Jauch A, Hillengass J, Stevens-Kroef M, Raab MS, Broijl A, Lindemann HW, Bos GMJ, Brossart P, van Marwijk Kooy M, Ypma P, Duehrsen U, Schaafsma RM, Bertsch U, Hielscher T, Jarari L, Salwender HJ, Sonneveld P. Bortezomib before and after high-dose therapy in myeloma: long-term results from the phase III HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Leukemia. 2018 Feb;32(2):383-390. Epub 2017 Jul 4. link to original article PubMed
  10. Stewart AK, Jacobus S, Fonseca R, Weiss M, Callander NS, Chanan-Khan AA, Rajkumar SV. Melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide vs melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide (ECOG E1A06) in untreated multiple myeloma. Blood. 2015 Sep 10;126(11):1294-301. Epub 2015 Jul 8. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  11. Zweegman S, van der Holt B, Mellqvist UH, Salomo M, Bos GM, Levin MD, Visser-Wisselaar H, Hansson M, van der Velden AW, Deenik W, Gruber A, Coenen JL, Plesner T, Klein SK, Tanis BC, Szatkowski DL, Brouwer RE, Westerman M, Leys MR, Sinnige HA, Haukås E, van der Hem KG, Durian MF, Mattijssen EV, van de Donk NW, Stevens-Kroef MJ, Sonneveld P, Waage A. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide versus melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in untreated multiple myeloma. Blood. 2016 Mar 3;127(9):1109-16. Epub 2016 Jan 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

TD

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TD: Thalidomide, Dexamethasone
Thal-Dex: Thalidomide, Dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Maiolino et al. 2012 Phase III (E) Dexamethasone Superior PFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 12 months or until disease progression

References

  1. Krishnan A, Pasquini MC, Logan B, Stadtmauer EA, Vesole DH, Alyea E 3rd, Antin JH, Comenzo R, Goodman S, Hari P, Laport G, Qazilbash MH, Rowley S, Sahebi F, Somlo G, Vogl DT, Weisdorf D, Ewell M, Wu J, Geller NL, Horowitz MM, Giralt S, Maloney DG; Blood Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN). Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Dec;12(13):1195-203. Epub 2011 Sep 29. link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Maiolino A, Hungria VT, Garnica M, Oliveira-Duarte G, Oliveira LC, Mercante DR, Miranda EC, Quero AA, Peres AL, Barros JC, Tanaka P, Magalhães RP, Rego EM, Lorand-Metze I, Lima CS, Renault IZ, Braggio E, Chiattone C, Nucci M, de Souza CA; Brazilian Multiple Myeloma Study Group (BMMSG/GEMOH). Thalidomide plus dexamethasone as a maintenance therapy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation improves progression-free survival in multiple myeloma. Am J Hematol. 2012 Oct;87(10):948-52. Epub 2012 Jun 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Thalidomide & Prednisolone

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Spencer et al. 2009 (ALLG MM6) Phase III (E) Prednisolone Superior OS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Thalidomide stopped after 12 months; prednisolone continued indefinitely

References

  1. ALLG MM6: Spencer A, Prince HM, Roberts AW, Prosser IW, Bradstock KF, Coyle L, Gill DS, Horvath N, Reynolds J, Kennedy N. Consolidation therapy with low-dose thalidomide and prednisolone prolongs the survival of multiple myeloma patients undergoing a single autologous stem-cell transplantation procedure. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Apr 10;27(11):1788-93. Epub 2009 Mar 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Ho PJ, Brown RD, Spencer A, Jeffels M, Daniher D, Gibson J, Joshua DE. Thalidomide consolidation improves progression-free survival in myeloma with normal but not up-regulated expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3: analysis from the Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group MM6 clinical trial. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012 Sep;53(9):1728-34. Epub 2012 Mar 13. link to original article PubMed

Thalidomide & Prednisone

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy Comparative Toxicity
Stewart et al. 2013 (NCIC CTG Myeloma 10) Phase III (E) Observation Improved PFS Decreased QOL

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • "Bisphosphonates, histamine-2 blockers, and laxatives were recommended"
  • "Anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications were not mandated"

Four years or until disease progression

References

  1. Stewart AK, Trudel S, Bahlis NJ, White D, Sabry W, Belch A, Reiman T, Roy J, Shustik C, Kovacs MJ, Rubinger M, Cantin G, Song K, Tompkins KA, Marcellus DC, Lacy MQ, Sussman J, Reece D, Brundage M, Harnett EL, Shepherd L, Chapman JA, Meyer RM. A randomized phase 3 trial of thalidomide and prednisone as maintenance therapy after ASCT in patients with MM with a quality-of-life assessment: the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinicals Trials Group Myeloma 10 Trial. Blood. 2013 Feb 28;121(9):1517-23. Epub 2013 Jan 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

VD

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VD: Velcade (Bortezomib) & Dexamethasone

Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Berdeja et al. 2017 (SCRI MM 23) Phase II ORR: 91%

Note: this is the modified treatment schema.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 52 cycles (2 years)

References

  1. SCRI MM 23: Berdeja JG, Bauer T, Arrowsmith E, Essell J, Murphy P, Reeves JA Jr, Boccia RV, Donnellan W, Flinn I. Phase II study of bendamustine, bortezomib and dexamethasone (BBD) in the first-line treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who are not candidates for high dose chemotherapy. Br J Haematol. 2017 Apr;177(2):254-262. Epub 2017 Feb 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

VP

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VP: Velcade (Bortezomib) & Prednisone

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Mateos et al. 2010 (GEM2005) Phase III (C) VT Did not meet primary endpoint of ORR

Note: to our knowledge, this regimen was not tested as an experimental arm in an RCT prior to becoming a standard comparator arm.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

3-month cycle for up to 12 cycles (3 years)

References

  1. GEM2005: Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Gutiérrez N, Teruel AI, de Paz R, García-Laraña J, Bengoechea E, Martín A, Mediavilla JD, Palomera L, de Arriba F, González Y, Hernández JM, Sureda A, Bello JL, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Ribera JM, Martín-Mateos ML, García-Sanz R, Cibeira MT, Ramos ML, Vidriales MB, Paiva B, Montalbán MA, Lahuerta JJ, Bladé J, Miguel JF. Bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone versus bortezomib, thalidomide, and prednisone as induction therapy followed by maintenance treatment with bortezomib and thalidomide versus bortezomib and prednisone in elderly patients with untreated multiple myeloma: a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Oct;11(10):934-41. Epub 2010 Aug 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Mateos MV, Gutiérrez NC, Martín-Ramos ML, Paiva B, Montalbán MA, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Teruel AI, Bengoechea E, Martín A, Díaz-Mediavilla J, de Arriba F, Palomera L, Hernández JM, Sureda A, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Ribera JM, Martín-Mateos ML, Fernández M, García-Sanz R, Vidriales MB, Bladé J, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel JF. Outcome according to cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA ploidy in myeloma patients receiving short induction with weekly bortezomib followed by maintenance. Blood. 2011 Oct 27;118(17):4547-53. Epub 2011 Sep 6. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Gutiérrez N, Teruel AI, López de la Guía A, López J, Bengoechea E, Pérez M, Polo M, Palomera L, de Arriba F, González Y, Hernández JM, Granell M, Bello JL, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Ribera JM, Martín-Mateos ML, García-Sanz R, Lahuerta JJ, Bladé J, San-Miguel JF. Maintenance therapy with bortezomib plus thalidomide or bortezomib plus prednisone in elderly multiple myeloma patients included in the GEM2005MAS65 trial. Blood. 2012 Sep 27;120(13):2581-8. Epub 2012 Aug 13. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Teruel AI, López de la Guía A, López J, Bengoechea E, Pérez M, Martínez R, Palomera L, de Arriba F, González Y, Hernández JM, Granell M, Bello JL, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Martín-Mateos ML, Paiva B, Montalbán MA, Bladé J, Lahuerta JJ, San-Miguel JF. Update of the GEM2005 trial comparing VMP/VTP as induction in elderly multiple myeloma patients: do we still need alkylators?. Blood. 2014 Sep 18;124(12):1887-93. Epub 2014 Aug 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

VT

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VT: Velcade (Bortezomib) & Thalidomide
TV: Thalidomide & Velcade (Bortezomib)

Variant #1, 1.3/50 x 2 y

Study Evidence
Palumbo et al. 2010 (GIMEMA MM-03-05) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for up to 2 years or until disease progression or relapse

Variant #2, 1.3/50 x 3 y

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Mateos et al. 2010 (GEM2005) Phase III (E) VP Did not meet primary endpoint of ORR

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

3-month cycle for up to 12 cycles (3 years)

Variant #3, 1.3/100

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Rosiñol et al. 2012 (GEM05/MENOS65) Phase III (E) 1. Interferon alfa-2b
2. Thalidomide
Seems to have superior PFS (*)

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Reported efficacy is based on the 2017 update.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

3-month cycle for up to 12 cycles (3 years)

References

  1. GEM2005: Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Gutiérrez N, Teruel AI, de Paz R, García-Laraña J, Bengoechea E, Martín A, Mediavilla JD, Palomera L, de Arriba F, González Y, Hernández JM, Sureda A, Bello JL, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Ribera JM, Martín-Mateos ML, García-Sanz R, Cibeira MT, Ramos ML, Vidriales MB, Paiva B, Montalbán MA, Lahuerta JJ, Bladé J, Miguel JF. Bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone versus bortezomib, thalidomide, and prednisone as induction therapy followed by maintenance treatment with bortezomib and thalidomide versus bortezomib and prednisone in elderly patients with untreated multiple myeloma: a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Oct;11(10):934-41. Epub 2010 Aug 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Mateos MV, Gutiérrez NC, Martín-Ramos ML, Paiva B, Montalbán MA, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Teruel AI, Bengoechea E, Martín A, Díaz-Mediavilla J, de Arriba F, Palomera L, Hernández JM, Sureda A, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Ribera JM, Martín-Mateos ML, Fernández M, García-Sanz R, Vidriales MB, Bladé J, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel JF. Outcome according to cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA ploidy in myeloma patients receiving short induction with weekly bortezomib followed by maintenance. Blood. 2011 Oct 27;118(17):4547-53. Epub 2011 Sep 6. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Gutiérrez N, Teruel AI, López de la Guía A, López J, Bengoechea E, Pérez M, Polo M, Palomera L, de Arriba F, González Y, Hernández JM, Granell M, Bello JL, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Ribera JM, Martín-Mateos ML, García-Sanz R, Lahuerta JJ, Bladé J, San-Miguel JF. Maintenance therapy with bortezomib plus thalidomide or bortezomib plus prednisone in elderly multiple myeloma patients included in the GEM2005MAS65 trial. Blood. 2012 Sep 27;120(13):2581-8. Epub 2012 Aug 13. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, Teruel AI, López de la Guía A, López J, Bengoechea E, Pérez M, Martínez R, Palomera L, de Arriba F, González Y, Hernández JM, Granell M, Bello JL, Bargay J, Peñalver FJ, Martín-Mateos ML, Paiva B, Montalbán MA, Bladé J, Lahuerta JJ, San-Miguel JF. Update of the GEM2005 trial comparing VMP/VTP as induction in elderly multiple myeloma patients: do we still need alkylators?. Blood. 2014 Sep 18;124(12):1887-93. Epub 2014 Aug 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. GIMEMA MM-03-05: Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Rossi D, Cavalli M, Larocca A, Ria R, Offidani M, Patriarca F, Nozzoli C, Guglielmelli T, Benevolo G, Callea V, Baldini L, Morabito F, Grasso M, Leonardi G, Rizzo M, Falcone AP, Gottardi D, Montefusco V, Musto P, Petrucci MT, Ciccone G, Boccadoro M. Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide followed by maintenance with bortezomib-thalidomide compared with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone for initial treatment of multiple myeloma: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Dec 1;28(34):5101-9. Epub 2010 Oct 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Post-hoc analysis: Bringhen S, Larocca A, Rossi D, Cavalli M, Genuardi M, Ria R, Gentili S, Patriarca F, Nozzoli C, Levi A, Guglielmelli T, Benevolo G, Callea V, Rizzo V, Cangialosi C, Musto P, De Rosa L, Liberati AM, Grasso M, Falcone AP, Evangelista A, Cavo M, Gaidano G, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Efficacy and safety of once-weekly bortezomib in multiple myeloma patients. Blood. 2010 Dec 2;116(23):4745-53. Epub 2010 Aug 31. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    2. Subgroup analysis: Morabito F, Gentile M, Mazzone C, Rossi D, Di Raimondo F, Bringhen S, Ria R, Offidani M, Patriarca F, Nozzoli C, Petrucci MT, Benevolo G, Vincelli I, Guglielmelli T, Grasso M, Marasca R, Baldini L, Montefusco V, Musto P, Cascavilla N, Majolino I, Musolino C, Cavo M, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A. Safety and efficacy of bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide followed by bortezomib-thalidomide maintenance (VMPT-VT) versus bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) in untreated multiple myeloma patients with renal impairment. Blood. 2011 Nov 24;118(22):5759-66. Epub 2011 Sep 27. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Larocca A, Rossi D, Di Raimondo F, Magarotto V, Patriarca F, Levi A, Benevolo G, Vincelli ID, Grasso M, Franceschini L, Gottardi D, Zambello R, Montefusco V, Falcone AP, Omedé P, Marasca R, Morabito F, Mina R, Guglielmelli T, Nozzoli C, Passera R, Gaidano G, Offidani M, Ria R, Petrucci MT, Musto P, Boccadoro M, Cavo M. Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide followed by maintenance with bortezomib-thalidomide compared with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone for initial treatment of multiple myeloma: updated follow-up and improved survival. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Mar 1;32(7):634-40. Epub 2014 Jan 21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. GEM05/MENOS65: Rosiñol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI, Hernández D, López-Jiménez J, de la Rubia J, Granell M, Besalduch J, Palomera L, González Y, Etxebeste MA, Díaz-Mediavilla J, Hernández MT, de Arriba F, Gutiérrez NC, Martín-Ramos ML, Cibeira MT, Mateos MV, Martínez J, Alegre A, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel J, Bladé J; Programa para el Estudio y la Terapéutica de las Hemopatías Malignas/Grupo Español de Mieloma (PETHEMA/GEM) group. Superiority of bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) as induction pretransplantation therapy in multiple myeloma: a randomized phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM study. Blood. 2012 Aug 3;120(8):1589-96. Epub 2012 Jul 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Rosiñol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI, de la Guía AL, Blanchard M, de la Rubia J, Granell M, Sampol M, Palomera L, González Y, Etxebeste M, Martínez-Martínez R, Hernández MT, de Arriba F, Alegre A, Cibeira M, Mateos M, Martínez-López J, Lahuerta JJ, San Miguel J, Bladé J. Bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance after stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a PETHEMA/GEM trial. Leukemia. 2017 Sep;31(9):1922-1927. Epub 2017 Jan 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Investigational agents

These are drugs under study with at least some promising results for this disease.

Response criteria

Prognosis

Durie-Salmon Staging System - 1975

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Composed of four factors with a modifier based on renal function

  • Serum levels of monoclonal protein (only defined for IgM, IgA, and Bence-Jones)
  • Number of lytic bone lesions
  • Hemoglobin
  • Serum calcium level

Risk stratification

  • Stage I: (must meet ALL criteria)
    • Hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dL
    • Calcium normal or less than or equal to 12 mg/dL
    • Skeletal survey with normal bone structure (scale 0) or solitary bone plasmacytoma only
    • Monoclonal protein relatively small (IgG M-spike value less than 5 g/dL OR IgA M-spike value less than 3 g/dL OR urine light chain protein less than 4 g/24 hr)
  • Stage II: not stage I or stage III
  • Stage III: (if meets ANY of the criteria)
    • Hemoglobin less than 8.5 g/dL
    • Calcium greater than 12 mg/dL
    • Skeletal survey with extensive skeletal destruction and major fractures
    • Monoclonal protein relatively large (IgG M-spike value greater than 7 g/dL OR IgA M-spike value greater than 5 g/dL OR urine light chain protein greater than 12 g/24 hr)

Modifier

  • A: relatively normal creatinine (less than 2 mg/dL)
  • B: creatinine greater than or equal to 2 mg/dL

References

  1. Durie BG, Salmon SE. A clinical staging system for multiple myeloma. Correlation of measured myeloma cell mass with presenting clinical features, response to treatment, and survival. Cancer. 1975 Sep;36(3):842-54. link to original article PubMed

International Staging System (ISS) - 2005

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Composed of two factors

  • Serum albumin level
  • Serum beta-2 microglobulin level

Risk stratification

  • Stage I: Median survival of 62 months
    • Beta-2 microglobulin less than 3.5 mg/l
    • Albumin greater than or equal to 3.5 g/dl
  • Stage II: Median survival of 44 months
    • Not meeting stage I or stage III criteria
  • Stage III: Median survival of 29 months
    • Beta-2 microglobulin greater than or equal to 5.5 mg/l

References

  1. Greipp PR, San Miguel J, Durie BG, Crowley JJ, Barlogie B, Bladé J, Boccadoro M, Child JA, Avet-Loiseau H, Kyle RA, Lahuerta JJ, Ludwig H, Morgan G, Powles R, Shimizu K, Shustik C, Sonneveld P, Tosi P, Turesson I, Westin J. International staging system for multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 May 20;23(15):3412-20. Epub 2005 Apr 4. link to original article PubMed
  2. Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Criteria for diagnosis, staging, risk stratification and response assessment of multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2009 Jan;23(1):3-9. Epub 2008 Oct 30. link to PMC article PubMed

IMWG consensus on risk stratification - 2013

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Composed of four factors

  • Serum albumin level
  • Serum beta-2 microglobulin level
  • Age
  • Chromosomal abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

Risk stratification

  • Low risk: (must meet all criteria) Median survival of greater than 10 years
    • ISS Stage I or II
    • Age less than 55 years
    • Absence of the following: del(17p13), t(4;14), +1q21
  • Standard risk: Median survival of 7 years
    • Not meeting low risk or high risk criteria
  • High risk: (if meets both criteria) Median survival of 2 years
    • ISS Stage II or III
    • Either of the following: del(17p13) or t(4;14)

References

  1. Chng WJ, Dispenzieri A, Chim CS, Fonseca R, Goldschmidt H, Lentzsch S, Munshi N, Palumbo A, San Miguel J, Sonneveld P, Cavo M, Usmani S, Durie BG, Avet-Loiseau H; International Myeloma Working Group. IMWG consensus on risk stratification in multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2014 Feb;28(2):269-77. Epub 2013 Aug 26. link to original article PubMed

Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) - 2015

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Composed of four factors

  • Serum albumin level
  • Serum beta-2 microglobulin level
  • Serum LDH
  • Chromosomal abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

Risk stratification

  • Low risk: 5-year overall survival = 82%
    • Beta-2 microglobulin less than 3.5 mg/l
    • Albumin less than or equal to 3.5 g/dl
    • LDH less than the upper limit of normal range
    • Absence of the following: del(17p), t(4;14), t(14;16)
  • Intermediate risk: 5-year overall survival = 62%
    • Not meeting low risk or high risk criteria
  • High risk: (if meets ANY of the criteria) 5-year overall survival = 40%
    • Beta-2 microglobulin greater than or equal to 5.5 mg/l
    • LDH greater than the upper limit of normal range
    • Any of the following: del(17p), t(4;14), t(14;16)

References

  1. Palumbo A, Avet-Loiseau H, Oliva S, Lokhorst HM, Goldschmidt H, Rosinol L, Richardson P, Caltagirone S, Lahuerta JJ, Facon T, Bringhen S, Gay F, Attal M, Passera R, Spencer A, Offidani M, Kumar S, Musto P, Lonial S, Petrucci MT, Orlowski RZ, Zamagni E, Morgan G, Dimopoulos MA, Durie BG, Anderson KC, Sonneveld P, San Miguel J, Cavo M, Rajkumar SV, Moreau P. Revised International Staging System for multiple myeloma: a report from International Myeloma Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Sep 10;33(26):2863-9. Epub 2015 Aug 3. link to original article link to PMC article

Miscellaneous

  1. Avet-Loiseau H, Attal M, Moreau P, Charbonnel C, Garban F, Hulin C, Leyvraz S, Michallet M, Yakoub-Agha I, Garderet L, Marit G, Michaux L, Voillat L, Renaud M, Grosbois B, Guillerm G, Benboubker L, Monconduit M, Thieblemont C, Casassus P, Caillot D, Stoppa AM, Sotto JJ, Wetterwald M, Dumontet C, Fuzibet JG, Azais I, Dorvaux V, Zandecki M, Bataille R, Minvielle S, Harousseau JL, Facon T, Mathiot C. Genetic abnormalities and survival in multiple myeloma: the experience of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3489-95. Epub 2007 Jan 5. link to original article PubMed
  2. Avet-Loiseau H, Hulin C, Campion L, Rodon P, Marit G, Attal M, Royer B, Dib M, Voillat L, Bouscary D, Caillot D, Wetterwald M, Pegourie B, Lepeu G, Corront B, Karlin L, Stoppa AM, Fuzibet JG, Delbrel X, Guilhot F, Kolb B, Decaux O, Lamy T, Garderet L, Allangba O, Lifermann F, Anglaret B, Moreau P, Harousseau JL, Facon T. Chromosomal abnormalities are major prognostic factors in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome experience. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 1;31(22):2806-9. Epub 2013 Jun 24. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

External links

References