Multiple myeloma - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main multiple myeloma page for current regimens.


Consolidation after first-line therapy

No consolidation

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Cavo et al. 2020 (EMN02/HOVON-95) 2011-2014 Phase 3 (C) RVD x 2 Seems to have inferior PFS1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2021 update.
No additional consolidation; patients proceeded directly to lenalidomide maintenance.

Preceding treatment

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. EMN02/HOVON-95: Cavo M, Gay F, Beksac M, Pantani L, Petrucci MT, Dimopoulos MA, Dozza L, van der Holt B, Zweegman S, Oliva S, van der Velden VHJ, Zamagni E, Palumbo GA, Patriarca F, Montefusco V, Galli M, Maisnar V, Gamberi B, Hansson M, Belotti A, Pour L, Ypma P, Grasso M, Croockewit A, Ballanti S, Offidani M, Vincelli ID, Zambello R, Liberati AM, Andersen NF, Broijl A, Troia R, Pascarella A, Benevolo G, Levin MD, Bos G, Ludwig H, Aquino S, Morelli AM, Wu KL, Boersma R, Hajek R, Durian M, von dem Borne PA, Caravita di Toritto T, Zander T, Driessen C, Specchia G, Waage A, Gimsing P, Mellqvist UH, van Marwijk Kooy M, Minnema M, Mandigers C, Cafro AM, Palmas A, Carvalho S, Spencer A, Boccadoro M, Sonneveld P. Autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation versus bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone, with or without bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone consolidation therapy, and lenalidomide maintenance for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (EMN02/HO95): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet Haematol. 2020 Jun;7(6):e456-e468. Epub 2020 Apr 30. Erratum in: Lancet Haematol. 2020 Jun;7(6):e443. Erratum in: Lancet Haematol. 2020 Nov;7(11):e785. link to original article PubMed NCT01208766
    1. Update: Sonneveld P, Dimopoulos MA, Beksac M, van der Holt B, Aquino S, Ludwig H, Zweegman S, Zander T, Zamagni E, Wester R, Hajek R, Pantani L, Dozza L, Gay F, Cafro A, De Rosa L, Morelli A, Gregersen H, Gulbrandsen N, Cornelisse P, Troia R, Oliva S, van de Velden V, Wu K, Ypma PF, Bos G, Levin MD, Pour L, Driessen C, Broijl A, Croockewit A, Minnema MC, Waage A, Hveding C, van de Donk NWCJ, Offidani M, Palumbo GA, Spencer A, Boccadoro M, Cavo M. Consolidation and Maintenance in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2021 Nov 10;39(32):3613-3622. Epub 2021 Sep 14. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

Maintenance after first-line therapy

Observation

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Alexanian et al. 1975 1965-1972 Phase 3 (C) 1. MP
2. Carmustine & Prednisone
Did not meet efficacy endpoints
Belch et al. 1988 1977-1984 Phase 3 (C) MP Inferior FFS
Salmon et al. 1994 (SWOG S8624) 1985-1990 Phase 3 (C) IFN alfa Seems not superior
Attal et al. 2006 (IFM 99-02) 2000-2003 Phase 3 (C) Thalidomide Inferior OS
Stewart et al. 2013 (NCIC-CTG MY.10) 2002-2009 Phase 3 (C) Thalidomide & Prednisone Inferior PFS
Morgan et al. 2010 (MRC Myeloma IX) 2003-2007 Phase 3 (C) Thalidomide Inferior PFS
Mellqvist et al. 2013 (NMSG 15/05) 2005-2009 Phase 3 (C) Bortezomib Might have inferior PFS
Palumbo et al. 2014 (MPRvsMEL200) 2007-2009 Phase 3 (C) Lenalidomide Inferior PFS
Jackson et al. 2018 (UK NCRI Myeloma XI) 2011-2017 Phase 3 (C) Lenalidomide Inferior PFS

No further treatment; used as a comparator arm.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. Alexanian R, Balcerzak SP, Haut A, Hewlett J, Gehan E. Remission maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma. Arch Intern Med. 1975 Jan;135(1):147-52. link to original article PubMed
  2. Belch A, Shelley W, Bergsagel D, Wilson K, Klimo P, White D, Willan A. A randomized trial of maintenance versus no maintenance melphalan and prednisone in responding multiple myeloma patients. Br J Cancer. 1988 Jan;57(1):94-9. link to original article link to original article PubMed
  3. SWOG S8624: Salmon SE, Crowley JJ, Grogan TM, Finley P, Pugh RP, Barlogie B. Combination chemotherapy, glucocorticoids, and interferon alfa in the treatment of multiple myeloma: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1994 Nov;12(11):2405-14. link to original article PubMed
  4. IFM 99-02: Attal M, Harousseau JL, Leyvraz S, Doyen C, Hulin C, Benboubker L, Yakoub Agha I, Bourhis JH, Garderet L, Pegourie B, Dumontet C, Renaud M, Voillat L, Berthou C, Marit G, Monconduit M, Caillot D, Grobois B, Avet-Loiseau H, Moreau P, Facon T; IFM. Maintenance therapy with thalidomide improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2006 Nov 15;108(10):3289-94. Epub 2006 Jul 27. link to original article PubMed NCT00222053
    1. Pooled update: Barlogie B, Attal M, Crowley J, van Rhee F, Szymonifka J, Moreau P, Durie BG, Harousseau JL. Long-term follow-up of autotransplantation trials for multiple myeloma: update of protocols conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome, Southwest Oncology Group, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1209-14. Epub 2010 Jan 19. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jul 20;28(21):3543. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  5. MRC Myeloma IX: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Cocks K, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro-Coy N, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Feyler S, Ashcroft AJ, Ross F, Byrne J, Roddie H, Rudin C, Cook G, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Study Group. First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 Dec 11;376(9757):1989-99. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed ISRCTN68454111
    1. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Russell NH, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro Coy N, Cook G, Feyler S, Byrne JL, Roddie H, Rudin C, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson GH, Child JA; NCRI Haematological Oncology Study Group. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD) as initial therapy for patients with multiple myeloma unsuitable for autologous transplantation. Blood. 2011 Aug 4;118(5):1231-8. Epub 2011 Jun 7. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Morgan GJ, Gregory WM, Davies FE, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Brown JM, Coy NN, Cook G, Russell NH, Rudin C, Roddie H, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. The role of maintenance thalidomide therapy in multiple myeloma: MRC Myeloma IX results and meta-analysis. Blood. 2012 Jan 5;119(1):7-15. Epub 2011 Oct 20. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
    3. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro Coy N, Cook G, Feyler S, Johnson PR, Rudin C, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Russell NH, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients destined for autologous stem-cell transplantation: MRC Myeloma IX randomized trial results. Haematologica. 2012 Mar;97(3):442-50. Epub 2011 Nov 4. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed
    4. Update: Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Cook G, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson G, Child JA. Long-term follow-up of MRC Myeloma IX trial: Survival outcomes with bisphosphonate and thalidomide treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 1;19(21):6030-8. Epub 2013 Aug 30. link to original article PubMed
  6. BMT CTN 0102: Krishnan A, Pasquini MC, Logan B, Stadtmauer EA, Vesole DH, Alyea E 3rd, Antin JH, Comenzo R, Goodman S, Hari P, Laport G, Qazilbash MH, Rowley S, Sahebi F, Somlo G, Vogl DT, Weisdorf D, Ewell M, Wu J, Geller NL, Horowitz MM, Giralt S, Maloney DG; BMT CTN. Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Dec;12(13):1195-203. Epub 2011 Sep 29. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00075829
  7. NCIC-CTG MY.10: Stewart AK, Trudel S, Bahlis NJ, White D, Sabry W, Belch A, Reiman T, Roy J, Shustik C, Kovacs MJ, Rubinger M, Cantin G, Song K, Tompkins KA, Marcellus DC, Lacy MQ, Sussman J, Reece D, Brundage M, Harnett EL, Shepherd L, Chapman JA, Meyer RM. A randomized phase 3 trial of thalidomide and prednisone as maintenance therapy after ASCT in patients with MM with a quality-of-life assessment: the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinicals Trials Group Myeloma 10 Trial. Blood. 2013 Feb 28;121(9):1517-23. Epub 2013 Jan 7. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00049673
  8. NMSG 15/05: Mellqvist UH, Gimsing P, Hjertner O, Lenhoff S, Laane E, Remes K, Steingrimsdottir H, Abildgaard N, Ahlberg L, Blimark C, Dahl IM, Forsberg K, Gedde-Dahl T, Gregersen H, Gruber A, Guldbrandsen N, Haukås E, Carlson K, Kvam AK, Nahi H, Lindås R, Andersen NF, Turesson I, Waage A, Westin J; Nordic Myeloma Study Group. Bortezomib consolidation after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: a Nordic Myeloma Study Group randomized phase 3 trial. Blood. 2013 Jun 6;121(23):4647-54. Epub 2013 Apr 24. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00417911
  9. MPRvsMEL200: Palumbo A, Cavallo F, Gay F, Di Raimondo F, Ben Yehuda D, Petrucci MT, Pezzatti S, Caravita T, Cerrato C, Ribakovsky E, Genuardi M, Cafro A, Marcatti M, Catalano L, Offidani M, Carella AM, Zamagni E, Patriarca F, Musto P, Evangelista A, Ciccone G, Omedé P, Crippa C, Corradini P, Nagler A, Boccadoro M, Cavo M. Autologous transplantation and maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Sep 4;371(10):895-905. link to original article PubMed NCT00551928
  10. UK NCRI Myeloma XI: Jackson GH, Davies FE, Pawlyn C, Cairns DA, Striha A, Collett C, Hockaday A, Jones JR, Kishore B, Garg M, Williams CD, Karunanithi K, Lindsay J, Jenner MW, Cook G, Russell NH, Kaiser MF, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Gregory WM, Morgan GJ; UK NCRI Haemato-oncology Clinical Studies Group. Lenalidomide maintenance versus observation for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Myeloma XI): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2019 Jan;20(1):57-73. Epub 2018 Dec 14. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed ISRCTN49407852
    1. Update: Jackson GH, Davies FE, Pawlyn C, Cairns DA, Striha A, Collett C, Waterhouse A, Jones JR, Kishore B, Garg M, Williams CD, Karunanithi K, Lindsay J, Allotey D, Shafeek S, Jenner MW, Cook G, Russell NH, Kaiser MF, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Gregory WM, Morgan GJ, Clinical Studies Group UNHO. Lenalidomide before and after autologous stem cell transplantation for transplant-eligible patients of all ages in the randomized, phase III, Myeloma XI trial. Haematologica. 2021 Jul 1;106(7):1957-1967. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  11. CASSIOPEIA: Moreau P, Attal M, Hulin C, Arnulf B, Belhadj K, Benboubker L, Béné MC, Broijl A, Caillon H, Caillot D, Corre J, Delforge M, Dejoie T, Doyen C, Facon T, Sonntag C, Fontan J, Garderet L, Jie KS, Karlin L, Kuhnowski F, Lambert J, Leleu X, Lenain P, Macro M, Mathiot C, Orsini-Piocelle F, Perrot A, Stoppa AM, van de Donk NW, Wuilleme S, Zweegman S, Kolb B, Touzeau C, Roussel M, Tiab M, Marolleau JP, Meuleman N, Vekemans MC, Westerman M, Klein SK, Levin MD, Fermand JP, Escoffre-Barbe M, Eveillard JR, Garidi R, Ahmadi T, Zhuang S, Chiu C, Pei L, de Boer C, Smith E, Deraedt W, Kampfenkel T, Schecter J, Vermeulen J, Avet-Loiseau H, Sonneveld P. Bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone with or without daratumumab before and after autologous stem-cell transplantation for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (CASSIOPEIA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2019 Jul 6;394(10192):29-38. Epub 2019 Jun 3. Erratum in: Lancet. 2019 Jun 14. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02541383
    1. Update: Moreau P, Hulin C, Perrot A, Arnulf B, Belhadj K, Benboubker L, Béné MC, Zweegman S, Caillon H, Caillot D, Corre J, Delforge M, Dejoie T, Doyen C, Facon T, Sonntag C, Fontan J, Mohty M, Jie KS, Karlin L, Kuhnowski F, Lambert J, Leleu X, Macro M, Orsini-Piocelle F, Roussel M, Stoppa AM, van de Donk NWCJ, Wuillème S, Broijl A, Touzeau C, Tiab M, Marolleau JP, Meuleman N, Vekemans MC, Westerman M, Klein SK, Levin MD, Offner F, Escoffre-Barbe M, Eveillard JR, Garidi R, Ahmadi T, Krevvata M, Zhang K, de Boer C, Vara S, Kampfenkel T, Vanquickelberghe V, Vermeulen J, Avet-Loiseau H, Sonneveld P. Maintenance with daratumumab or observation following treatment with bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone with or without daratumumab and autologous stem-cell transplant in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (CASSIOPEIA): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 Oct;22(10):1378-1390. Epub 2021 Sep 13. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

Placebo

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
McCarthy et al. 2012 (CALGB 100104) 2005-2009 Phase 3 (C) Lenalidomide Inferior OS
Attal et al. 2012 (IFM 2005-02) 2006-2008 Phase 3 (C) Lenalidomide Inferior PFS
Palumbo et al. 2012 (MM-015) 2007-2008 Phase 3 (E-de-esc) Lenalidomide Inferior PFS
Dimopoulos et al. 2018 (TOURMALINE-MM3) 2014-2016 Phase 3 (C) Ixazomib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment.

References

  1. IFM 2005-02: Attal M, Lauwers-Cances V, Marit G, Caillot D, Moreau P, Facon T, Stoppa AM, Hulin C, Benboubker L, Garderet L, Decaux O, Leyvraz S, Vekemans MC, Voillat L, Michallet M, Pegourie B, Dumontet C, Roussel M, Leleu X, Mathiot C, Payen C, Avet-Loiseau H, Harousseau JL; IFM. Lenalidomide maintenance after stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1782-91. link to original article PubMed NCT00430365
    1. Update: Abstract: Michel Attal, MD, Valerie Cances Lauwers, Gerald Marit, Denis Caillot, Thierry Facon, MD, Cyrille Hulin, Philippe Moreau, MD, Claire Mathiot, Murielle Roussel, Catherine Payen, H. Avet-Loiseau and Jean Luc Harousseau. Maintenance Treatment with Lenalidomide After Transplantation for MYELOMA : Final Analysis of the IFM 2005-02. ASH 2010 Abstract 310. link to abstract
  2. MM-015: Palumbo A, Hajek R, Delforge M, Kropff M, Petrucci MT, Catalano J, Gisslinger H, Wiktor-Jedrzejczak W, Zodelava M, Weisel K, Cascavilla N, Iosava G, Cavo M, Kloczko J, Bladé J, Beksac M, Spicka I, Plesner T, Radke J, Langer C, Ben Yehuda D, Corso A, Herbein L, Yu Z, Mei J, Jacques C, Dimopoulos MA; MM-015 Investigators. Continuous lenalidomide treatment for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1759-69. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 19;367(3):285. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00405756
  3. CALGB 100104: McCarthy PL, Owzar K, Hofmeister CC, Hurd DD, Hassoun H, Richardson PG, Giralt S, Stadtmauer EA, Weisdorf DJ, Vij R, Moreb JS, Callander NS, Van Besien K, Gentile T, Isola L, Maziarz RT, Gabriel DA, Bashey A, Landau H, Martin T, Qazilbash MH, Levitan D, McClune B, Schlossman R, Hars V, Postiglione J, Jiang C, Bennett E, Barry S, Bressler L, Kelly M, Seiler M, Rosenbaum C, Hari P, Pasquini MC, Horowitz MM, Shea TC, Devine SM, Anderson KC, Linker C. Lenalidomide after stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1770-81. link to original article link to supplementary appendix link to PMC article PubMed NCT00114101
    1. Update: Holstein SA, Jung SH, Richardson PG, Hofmeister CC, Hurd DD, Hassoun H, Giralt S, Stadtmauer EA, Weisdorf DJ, Vij R, Moreb JS, Callander NS, van Besien K, Gentile TG, Isola L, Maziarz RT, Bashey A, Landau H, Martin T, Qazilbash MH, Rodriguez C, McClune B, Schlossman RL, Smith SE, Hars V, Owzar K, Jiang C, Boyd M, Schultz C, Wilson M, Hari P, Pasquini MC, Horowitz MM, Shea TC, Devine SM, Linker C, Anderson KC, McCarthy PL. Updated analysis of CALGB (Alliance) 100104 assessing lenalidomide versus placebo maintenance after single autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Haematol. 2017 Sep;4(9):e431-e442. Epub 2017 Aug 17. link to original article PubMed
  4. TOURMALINE-MM3: Dimopoulos MA, Gay F, Schjesvold F, Beksac M, Hajek R, Weisel KC, Goldschmidt H, Maisnar V, Moreau P, Min CK, Pluta A, Chng WJ, Kaiser M, Zweegman S, Mateos MV, Spencer A, Iida S, Morgan G, Suryanarayan K, Teng Z, Skacel T, Palumbo A, Dash AB, Gupta N, Labotka R, Rajkumar SV; TOURMALINE-MM3 study group. Oral ixazomib maintenance following autologous stem cell transplantation (TOURMALINE-MM3): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2019 Jan 19;393(10168):253-264. Epub 2018 Dec 10. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT02181413

Relapsed or refractory

Placebo

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Holland et al. 1966 1958-1961 Randomized (C) Urethane Seems to have superior OS

No active antineoplastic treatment.

References

  1. Holland JF, Hosley H, Scharlau C, Carbone PP, Frei E 3rd, Brindley CO, Hall TC, Shnider BI, Gold GL, Lasagna L, Owens AH Jr, Miller SP. A controlled trial of urethane treatment in multiple myeloma. Blood. 1966 Mar;27(3):328-42. link to original article PubMed