Venous thromboembolism (VTE)

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Section editors
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Shruti Chaturvedi, MBBS, MSCI
Baltimore, MD

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Benjamin Tillman, MD
Nashville, TN

Other pages on HemOnc.org regarding management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) include:

23 regimens on this page
27 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ACCP

ASCO

Current

Older

ESMO

IMWG

Current

Older

ITAC-CME

VTE primary prophylaxis

Apixaban monotherapy

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Variant #1, 10-14 days

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Lassen et al. 2009 (ADVANCE-1)] Phase III (E) Enoxaparin Seems not superior Seems to have lower bleeding rate
Lassen et al. 2010 (ADVANCE-2) Phase III (E) Enoxaparin Superior composite endpoint Might have lower bleeding rate

Preceding treatment

  • Total knee replacement

Therapy

10- to 14-day course

Variant #2, 35 days

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Lassen et al. 2010 (ADVANCE-3) Phase III (E) Enoxaparin Superior composite endpoint Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Total hip replacement

Therapy

35-day course

References

  1. ADVANCE-1: Lassen MR, Raskob GE, Gallus A, Pineo G, Chen D, Portman RJ. Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement. N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 6;361(6):594-604. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 29;361(18):1814. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. ADVANCE-2: Lassen MR, Raskob GE, Gallus A, Pineo G, Chen D, Hornick P; ADVANCE-2 investigators. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial. Lancet. 2010 Mar 6;375(9717):807-15. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. ADVANCE-3: Lassen MR, Gallus A, Raskob GE, Pineo G, Chen D, Ramirez LM; ADVANCE-3 Investigators. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 23;363(26):2487-98. link to original article PubMed

Aspirin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) trial Collaborative Group 2000 Phase III Placebo Superior VTE rate
Palumbo et al. 2011 Phase III Enoxaparin
Low-dose warfarin
Seems not superior
Larocca et al. 2011 Phase III Enoxaparin Seems not superior
Anderson et al. 2013 (EPCAT) Phase III Dalteparin Non-inferior VTE rate at 90 days
Anderson et al. 2018 (EPCAT II) Phase III Rivaroxaban Non-inferior VTE rate at 90 days

Therapy

  • Aspirin 81 to 160 mg PO once per day

Various durations, see individual trials

References

  1. PEP: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) trial Collaborative Group. Prevention of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis with low dose aspirin: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) trial. Lancet. 2000 Apr 15;355(9212):1295-302. link to original article PubMed
  2. Palumbo A, Cavo M, Bringhen S, Zamagni E, Romano A, Patriarca F, Rossi D, Gentilini F, Crippa C, Galli M, Nozzoli C, Ria R, Marasca R, Montefusco V, Baldini L, Elice F, Callea V, Pulini S, Carella AM, Zambello R, Benevolo G, Magarotto V, Tacchetti P, Pescosta N, Cellini C, Polloni C, Evangelista A, Caravita T, Morabito F, Offidani M, Tosi P, Boccadoro M. Aspirin, warfarin, or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis in patients with multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide: a phase III, open-label, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 10;29(8):986-93. Epub 2011 Jan 31. link to original article PubMed
  3. Larocca A, Cavallo F, Bringhen S, Di Raimondo F, Falanga A, Evangelista A, Cavalli M, Stanevsky A, Corradini P, Pezzatti S, Patriarca F, Cavo M, Peccatori J, Catalano L, Carella AM, Cafro AM, Siniscalchi A, Crippa C, Petrucci MT, Yehuda DB, Beggiato E, Di Toritto TC, Boccadoro M, Nagler A, Palumbo A. Aspirin or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):933-9. Epub 2011 Aug 11. link to original article PubMed
  4. EPCAT: Anderson DR, Dunbar MJ, Bohm ER, Belzile E, Kahn SR, Zukor D, Fisher W, Gofton W, Gross P, Pelet S, Crowther M, MacDonald S, Kim P, Pleasance S, Davis N, Andreou P, Wells P, Kovacs M, Rodger MA, Ramsay T, Carrier M, Vendittoli PA. Aspirin versus low-molecular-weight heparin for extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Jun 4;158(11):800-6. link to original article PubMed
  5. EPCAT II: Anderson DR, Dunbar M, Murnaghan J, Kahn SR, Gross P, Forsythe M, Pelet S, Fisher W, Belzile E, Dolan S, Crowther M, Bohm E, MacDonald SJ, Gofton W, Kim P, Zukor D, Pleasance S, Andreou P, Doucette S, Theriault C, Abianui A, Carrier M, Kovacs MJ, Rodger MA, Coyle D, Wells PS, Vendittoli PA. Aspirin or rivaroxaban for VTE prophylaxis after hip or knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 22;378(8):699-707. link to original article PubMed

Betrixaban monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cohen et al. 2016 (APEX) Phase III Enoxaparin Might have lower rates of VTE

Therapy

References

  1. APEX: Cohen AT, Harrington RA, Goldhaber SZ, Hull RD, Wiens BL, Gold A, Hernandez AF, Gibson CM; APEX Investigators. Extended thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 11;375(6):534-44. Epub 2016 May 27. link to original article PubMed

Enoxaparin monotherapy

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Variant #1, 30 mg q12h

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Lassen et al. 2009 (ADVANCE-1)] Phase III (C) Apixaban Seems not superior Seems to have higher bleeding rate

Preceding treatment

  • Total knee replacement

Therapy

10- to 14-day course

Variant #2, 40 mg daily

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kakkar et al. 2008 (RECORD2) Phase III (C) Rivaroxaban Inferior composite outcome
Erikkson et al. 2008 (RECORD1) Phase III (C) Rivaroxaban Inferior composite outcome
Lassen et al. 2008 (RECORD3) Phase III (C) Rivaroxaban Inferior composite outcome
Turpie et al. 2009 (RECORD4) Phase III (C) Rivaroxaban Seems to have inferior composite outcome
Lassen et al. 2010 (ADVANCE-2) Phase III (C) Apixaban Inferior composite outcome
Lassen et al. 2010 (ADVANCE-3) Phase III (C) Apixaban Inferior composite outcome
Palumbo et al. 2011 Phase III Aspirin
Low-dose warfarin
Seems not superior
Larocca et al. 2011 Phase III Aspirin Seems not superior
Cohen et al. 2013 (MAGELLAN) Phase III Rivaroxaban Non-inferior VTE rate at 10 days
Cohen et al. 2016 (APEX) Phase III (C) Betrixaban Might have higher rates of VTE

Preceding treatment

  • ADVANCE-2: Total knee replacement
  • ADVANCE-3: Total hip replacement

Therapy

Various durations (see papers for details)

References

  1. RECORD2: Kakkar AK, Brenner B, Dahl OE, Eriksson BI, Mouret P, Muntz J, Soglian AG, Pap AF, Misselwitz F, Haas S; RECORD2 Investigators. Extended duration rivaroxaban versus short-term enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008 Jul 5;372(9632):31-9. Epub 2008 Jun 24. link to original article PubMed
  2. RECORD1: Eriksson BI, Borris LC, Friedman RJ, Haas S, Huisman MV, Kakkar AK, Bandel TJ, Beckmann H, Muehlhofer E, Misselwitz F, Geerts W; RECORD1 Study Group. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 26;358(26):2765-75. link to original article PubMed
  3. RECORD3: Lassen MR, Ageno W, Borris LC, Lieberman JR, Rosencher N, Bandel TJ, Misselwitz F, Turpie AG; RECORD3 Investigators. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 26;358(26):2776-86. link to original article PubMed
  4. RECORD4: Turpie AG, Lassen MR, Davidson BL, Bauer KA, Gent M, Kwong LM, Cushner FD, Lotke PA, Berkowitz SD, Bandel TJ, Benson A, Misselwitz F, Fisher WD; RECORD4 Investigators. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (RECORD4): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2009 May 16;373(9676):1673-80. Epub 2009 May 4. link to original article PubMed
  5. ADVANCE-1: Lassen MR, Raskob GE, Gallus A, Pineo G, Chen D, Portman RJ. Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement. N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 6;361(6):594-604. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 29;361(18):1814. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  6. ADVANCE-2: Lassen MR, Raskob GE, Gallus A, Pineo G, Chen D, Hornick P; ADVANCE-2 investigators. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial. Lancet. 2010 Mar 6;375(9717):807-15. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  7. ADVANCE-3: Lassen MR, Gallus A, Raskob GE, Pineo G, Chen D, Ramirez LM; ADVANCE-3 Investigators. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 23;363(26):2487-98. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  8. Palumbo A, Cavo M, Bringhen S, Zamagni E, Romano A, Patriarca F, Rossi D, Gentilini F, Crippa C, Galli M, Nozzoli C, Ria R, Marasca R, Montefusco V, Baldini L, Elice F, Callea V, Pulini S, Carella AM, Zambello R, Benevolo G, Magarotto V, Tacchetti P, Pescosta N, Cellini C, Polloni C, Evangelista A, Caravita T, Morabito F, Offidani M, Tosi P, Boccadoro M. Aspirin, warfarin, or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis in patients with multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide: a phase III, open-label, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 10;29(8):986-93. Epub 2011 Jan 31. link to original article PubMed
  9. Larocca A, Cavallo F, Bringhen S, Di Raimondo F, Falanga A, Evangelista A, Cavalli M, Stanevsky A, Corradini P, Pezzatti S, Patriarca F, Cavo M, Peccatori J, Catalano L, Carella AM, Cafro AM, Siniscalchi A, Crippa C, Petrucci MT, Yehuda DB, Beggiato E, Di Toritto TC, Boccadoro M, Nagler A, Palumbo A. Aspirin or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):933-9. Epub 2011 Aug 11. link to original article PubMed
  10. MAGELLAN: Cohen AT, Spiro TE, Büller HR, Haskell L, Hu D, Hull R, Mebazaa A, Merli G, Schellong S, Spyropoulos AC, Tapson V; MAGELLAN Investigators. Rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 7;368(6):513-23. link to original article PubMed
  11. APEX: Cohen AT, Harrington RA, Goldhaber SZ, Hull RD, Wiens BL, Gold A, Hernandez AF, Gibson CM; APEX Investigators. Extended thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 11;375(6):534-44. Epub 2016 May 27. link to original article PubMed

Rivaroxaban monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Kakkar et al. 2008 (RECORD2) Phase III Enoxaparin Superior composite outcome
Erikkson et al. 2008 (RECORD1) Phase III Enoxaparin Superior composite outcome
Lassen et al. 2008 (RECORD3) Phase III Enoxaparin Superior composite outcome
Turpie et al. 2009 (RECORD4) Phase III Enoxaparin Seems to have superior composite outcome
Cohen et al. 2013 (MAGELLAN) Phase III Enoxaparin Non-inferior VTE rate at 10 days
Anderson et al. 2018 (EPCAT II) Phase III Rivaroxaban Non-inferior VTE rate at 90 days

Therapy

References

  1. RECORD2: Kakkar AK, Brenner B, Dahl OE, Eriksson BI, Mouret P, Muntz J, Soglian AG, Pap AF, Misselwitz F, Haas S; RECORD2 Investigators. Extended duration rivaroxaban versus short-term enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008 Jul 5;372(9632):31-9. Epub 2008 Jun 24. link to original article PubMed
  2. RECORD1: Eriksson BI, Borris LC, Friedman RJ, Haas S, Huisman MV, Kakkar AK, Bandel TJ, Beckmann H, Muehlhofer E, Misselwitz F, Geerts W; RECORD1 Study Group. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 26;358(26):2765-75. link to original article PubMed
  3. RECORD3: Lassen MR, Ageno W, Borris LC, Lieberman JR, Rosencher N, Bandel TJ, Misselwitz F, Turpie AG; RECORD3 Investigators. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 26;358(26):2776-86. link to original article PubMed
  4. RECORD4: Turpie AG, Lassen MR, Davidson BL, Bauer KA, Gent M, Kwong LM, Cushner FD, Lotke PA, Berkowitz SD, Bandel TJ, Benson A, Misselwitz F, Fisher WD; RECORD4 Investigators. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (RECORD4): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2009 May 16;373(9676):1673-80. Epub 2009 May 4. link to original article PubMed
  5. MAGELLAN: Cohen AT, Spiro TE, Büller HR, Haskell L, Hu D, Hull R, Mebazaa A, Merli G, Schellong S, Spyropoulos AC, Tapson V; MAGELLAN Investigators. Rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 7;368(6):513-23. link to original article PubMed
  6. EPCAT II: Anderson DR, Dunbar M, Murnaghan J, Kahn SR, Gross P, Forsythe M, Pelet S, Fisher W, Belzile E, Dolan S, Crowther M, Bohm E, MacDonald SJ, Gofton W, Kim P, Zukor D, Pleasance S, Andreou P, Doucette S, Theriault C, Abianui A, Carrier M, Kovacs MJ, Rodger MA, Coyle D, Wells PS, Vendittoli PA. Aspirin or rivaroxaban for VTE prophylaxis after hip or knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 22;378(8):699-707. link to original article PubMed

VTE secondary prevention

Apixaban monotherapy

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Variant #1, 2.5 mg BID

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Agnelli et al. 2012 (AMPLIFY-EXT) Phase III (E) Apixaban 5 mg BID Seems not superior
Placebo Superior composite endpoint

Preceding treatment

  • Therapeutic anticoagulation x 6-12 mo

Therapy

12-month course

Variant #2, 5 mg BID

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Agnelli et al. 2012 (AMPLIFY-EXT) Phase III (E) Apixaban 2.5 mg BID Seems not superior
Placebo Superior composite endpoint

Preceding treatment

  • Therapeutic anticoagulation x 6-12 mo

Therapy

12-month course

References

  1. AMPLIFY-EXT: Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, Curto M, Gallus AS, Johnson M, Porcari A, Raskob GE, Weitz JI; AMPLIFY-EXT Investigators. Apixaban for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 21;368(8):699-708. Epub 2012 Dec 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Aspirin monotherapy

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Regimen

!Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Becattini et al. 2012 (WARFASA) Phase III (E) Placebo Superior rate of VTE recurrence No difference in bleeding rate
Brighton et al. 2012 (ASPIRE) Phase III (E) Placebo Might have superior rate of VTE recurrence No difference in bleeding rate

Preceding treatment

Therapy

Two or more years

References

  1. WARFASA: Becattini C, Agnelli G, Schenone A, Eichinger S, Bucherini E, Silingardi M, Bianchi M, Moia M, Ageno W, Vandelli MR, Grandone E, Prandoni P; WARFASA Investigators. Aspirin for preventing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 24;366(21):1959-67. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Oct 18;367(16):1573. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  2. ASPIRE: Brighton TA, Eikelboom JW, Mann K, Mister R, Gallus A, Ockelford P, Gibbs H, Hague W, Xavier D, Diaz R, Kirby A, Simes J; ASPIRE Investigators. Low-dose aspirin for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 22;367(21):1979-87. Epub 2012 Nov 4. link to original article PubMed

Dalteparin monotherapy

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Regimen

!Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Lee et al. 2003 (CLOT) Phase III Warfarin Superior rate of VTE at 6 months No difference in bleeding rate

Therapy

  • Dalteparin (Fragmin) as follows:
    • Month 1: 200 IU/kg SC once per day
    • Months 2 to 6: 150 IU/kg SC once per day

6-month course

References

  1. CLOT: Lee AY, Levine MN, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Haley S, Kovacs MJ, Gent M; Randomized Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer (CLOT) Investigators. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 10;349(2):146-53. link to original article PubMed
    1. Posthoc analysis: Lee AY, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Gent M, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Levine MN. Randomized comparison of low molecular weight heparin and coumarin derivatives on the survival of patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2123-9. Epub 2005 Feb 7. link to original article PubMed

Enoxaparin monotherapy

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Regimen

!Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Meyer et al. 2002 Phase III Warfarin Might have superior combined VTE/bleeding outcome

Therapy

3-month course

References

  1. Meyer G, Marjanovic Z, Valcke J, Lorcerie B, Gruel Y, Solal-Celigny P, Le Maignan C, Extra JM, Cottu P, Farge D. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin for the secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Aug 12-26;162(15):1729-35. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Warfarin monotherapy

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Regimen

!Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Meyer et al. 2002 Phase III Enoxaparin Might have inferior combined VTE/bleeding outcome
Lee et al. 2003 (CLOT) Phase III Dalteparin Inferior rate of VTE at 6 months No difference in bleeding rate

Therapy

References

  1. Meyer G, Marjanovic Z, Valcke J, Lorcerie B, Gruel Y, Solal-Celigny P, Le Maignan C, Extra JM, Cottu P, Farge D. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin for the secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Aug 12-26;162(15):1729-35. link to original article PubMed
  2. PREVENT: Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Danielson E, Rosenberg Y, Eby CS, Deitcher SR, Cushman M, Moll S, Kessler CM, Elliott CG, Paulson R, Wong T, Bauer KA, Schwartz BA, Miletich JP, Bounameaux H, Glynn RJ; PREVENT Investigators. Long-term, low-intensity warfarin therapy for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 10;348(15):1425-34. Epub 2003 Feb 24. link to original article PubMed
  3. CLOT: Lee AY, Levine MN, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Haley S, Kovacs MJ, Gent M; Randomized Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer (CLOT) Investigators. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 10;349(2):146-53. link to original article PubMed
    1. Posthoc analysis: Lee AY, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Gent M, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Levine MN. Randomized comparison of low molecular weight heparin and coumarin derivatives on the survival of patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2123-9. Epub 2005 Feb 7. link to original article PubMed

VTE treatment, all lines of therapy

Apixaban monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Agnelli et al. 2013 (AMPLIFY) Phase III (E) Warfarin Non-inferior composite endpoint Lower rates of bleeding

Therapy

6-month course

References

  1. AMPLIFY: Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, Curto M, Gallus AS, Johnson M, Masiukiewicz U, Pak R, Thompson J, Raskob GE, Weitz JI; AMPLIFY Investigators. Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):799-808. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Argatroban monotherapy

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Regimen

Therapy

References

To be completed

Aspirin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Weitz et al. 2017 (EINSTEIN CHOICE) Phase III (C) Rivaroxaban 10 mg Inferior symptomatic recurrent VTE rate Similar major bleeding
Rivaroxaban 20 mg Inferior symptomatic recurrent VTE rate Similar major bleeding

Preceding treatment

Therapy

Up to 12-month course

References

  1. EINSTEIN CHOICE: Weitz JI, Lensing AWA, Prins MH, Bauersachs R, Beyer-Westendorf J, Bounameaux H, Brighton TA, Cohen AT, Davidson BL, Decousus H, Freitas MCS, Holberg G, Kakkar AK, Haskell L, van Bellen B, Pap AF, Berkowitz SD, Verhamme P, Wells PS, Prandoni P; EINSTEIN CHOICE Investigators. Rivaroxaban or aspirin for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 30;376(13):1211-1222. Epub 2017 Mar 18. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Bivalirudin monotherapy

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Regimen

Therapy

References

To be completed

Dabigatran monotherapy

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Regimen

Therapy

References

  1. RE-COVER: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Mismetti P, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Schnee J, Goldhaber SZ; RE-COVER Study Group. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 10;361(24):2342-52. link to original article PubMed
  2. RE-MEDY: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Kvamme AM, Friedman J, Mismetti P, Goldhaber SZ; RE-MEDY Trial Investigators; RE-SONATE Trial Investigators. Extended use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 21;368(8):709-18. link to original article PubMed
  3. RE-ALIGN: Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Brueckmann M, Granger CB, Kappetein AP, Mack MJ, Blatchford J, Devenny K, Friedman J, Guiver K, Harper R, Khder Y, Lobmeyer MT, Maas H, Voigt JU, Simoons ML, Van de Werf F; RE-ALIGN Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with mechanical heart valves. N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep 26;369(13):1206-14. Epub 2013 Aug 31. link to original article PubMed
  4. RE-COVER II: Schulman S, Kakkar AK, Goldhaber SZ, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Mismetti P, Christiansen AV, Friedman J, Le Maulf F, Peter N, Kearon C; RE-COVER II Trial Investigators. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism with dabigatran or warfarin and pooled analysis. Circulation. 2014 Feb 18;129(7):764-72. Epub 2013 Dec 16. link to original article PubMed

Dalteparin monotherapy

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Regimen

!Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Francis et al. 2015 (DALTECAN) Non-randomized
Raskob et al. 2017 (Hokusai VTE Cancer) Phase III Edoxaban Non-inferior composite endpoint of VTE/major bleeding

To be completed

Therapy

  • Dalteparin (Fragmin) as follows:
    • First month: 200 IU/kg once per day
    • Subsequent months: 150 IU/kg once per day

6- to 12-month course

References

  1. DALTECAN: Francis CW, Kessler CM, Goldhaber SZ, Kovacs MJ, Monreal M, Huisman MV, Bergqvist D, Turpie AG, Ortel TL, Spyropoulos AC, Pabinger I, Kakkar AK. Treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients with dalteparin for up to 12 months: the DALTECAN Study. J Thromb Haemost. 2015 Jun;13(6):1028-35. Epub 2015 May 10. link to original article PubMed
  2. Hokusai VTE Cancer: Raskob GE, van Es N, Verhamme P, Carrier M, Di Nisio M, Garcia D, Grosso MA, Kakkar AK, Kovacs MJ, Mercuri MF, Meyer G, Segers A, Shi M, Wang TF, Yeo E, Zhang G, Zwicker JI, Weitz JI, Büller HR; Hokusai VTE Cancer Investigators. Edoxaban for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 15;378(7):615-624. Epub 2017 Dec 12. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Edoxaban monotherapy

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Variant #1, reduced dose

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Raskob et al. 2017 (Hokusai VTE Cancer) Phase III Dalteparin Non-inferior composite endpoint of VTE/major bleeding

Note: this dose was used for patients with CrCl of 30 to 50 mL/min/1.73m2, a body weight of up to 60 kg, or those taking "potent" P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

Therapy

6- to 12-month course

Variant #2, normal dosing

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Raskob et al. 2017 (Hokusai VTE Cancer) Phase III Dalteparin Non-inferior composite endpoint of VTE/major bleeding

Therapy

6- to 12-month course

References

  1. HOKUSAI-VTE: Hokusai-VTE Investigators, Büller HR, Décousus H, Grosso MA, Mercuri M, Middeldorp S, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Schellong SM, Schwocho L, Segers A, Shi M, Verhamme P, Wells P. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 10;369(15):1406-15. Epub 2013 Aug 31. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 23;370(4):390. link to original article PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Raskob GE, van Es N, Segers A, Angchaisuksiri P, Oh D, Boda Z, Lyons RM, Meijer K, Gudz I, Weitz JI, Zhang G, Lanz H, Mercuri MF, Büller HR; Hokusai-VTE investigators. Edoxaban for venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: results from a non-inferiority subgroup analysis of the Hokusai-VTE randomised, double-blind, double-dummy trial. Lancet Haematol. 2016 Aug;3(8):e379-87. Epub 2016 Jul 1. link to original article PubMed
  2. Hokusai VTE Cancer: Raskob GE, van Es N, Verhamme P, Carrier M, Di Nisio M, Garcia D, Grosso MA, Kakkar AK, Kovacs MJ, Mercuri MF, Meyer G, Segers A, Shi M, Wang TF, Yeo E, Zhang G, Zwicker JI, Weitz JI, Büller HR; Hokusai VTE Cancer Investigators. Edoxaban for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 15;378(7):615-624. Epub 2017 Dec 12. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Fondaparinux monotherapy

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Regimen

Therapy

References

To be completed

Heparin monotherapy

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Regimen

Therapy

References

To be completed

Lepirudin monotherapy

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Regimen

Therapy

References

To be completed

Rivaroxaban monotherapy

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Variant #1, 10 mg/d

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Weitz et al. 2017 (EINSTEIN CHOICE) Phase III (E) Aspirin Superior symptomatic recurrent VTE rate Similar major bleeding
Rivaroxaban 20 mg Seems not superior Similar major bleeding

Preceding treatment

Therapy

Up to 12-month course

Variant #1, 10 mg/d

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Weitz et al. 2017 (EINSTEIN CHOICE) Phase III (E) Aspirin Superior symptomatic recurrent VTE rate Similar major bleeding
Rivaroxaban 10 mg Seems not superior Similar major bleeding

Preceding treatment

Therapy

Up to 12-month course

References

  1. EINSTEIN-DVT: EINSTEIN Investigators, Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, Buller HR, Decousus H, Gallus AS, Lensing AW, Misselwitz F, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Segers A, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Bounameaux H, Cohen A, Davidson BL, Piovella F, Schellong S. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 23;363(26):2499-510. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article PubMed
  2. EINSTEIN-PE: EINSTEIN–PE Investigators, Büller HR, Prins MH, Lensin AW, Decousus H, Jacobson BF, Minar E, Chlumsky J, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Cohen A, Berkowitz SD, Bounameaux H, Davidson BL, Misselwitz F, Gallus AS, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Segers A. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 5;366(14):1287-97. Epub 2012 Mar 26. link to original article PubMed
  3. EINSTEIN CHOICE: Weitz JI, Lensing AWA, Prins MH, Bauersachs R, Beyer-Westendorf J, Bounameaux H, Brighton TA, Cohen AT, Davidson BL, Decousus H, Freitas MCS, Holberg G, Kakkar AK, Haskell L, van Bellen B, Pap AF, Berkowitz SD, Verhamme P, Wells PS, Prandoni P; EINSTEIN CHOICE Investigators. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 30;376(13):1211-1222. Epub 2017 Mar 18. link to original article PubMed

Tinzaparin monotherapy

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Regimen

Note: this agent has been withdrawn from the US market.

Therapy

References

  1. LITE: Hull RD, Pineo GF, Brant RF, Mah AF, Burke N, Dear R, Wong T, Cook R, Solymoss S, Poon MC, Raskob G; LITE Trial Investigators. Long-term low-molecular-weight heparin versus usual care in proximal-vein thrombosis patients with cancer. Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1062-72. link to original article PubMed
  2. CATCH: Lee AY, Kamphuisen PW, Meyer G, Bauersachs R, Janas MS, Jarner MF, Khorana AA; CATCH Investigators. Tinzaparin vs warfarin for treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 18;314(7):677-86. link to original article PubMed

Warfarin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Agnelli et al. 2013 (AMPLIFY) Phase III (C) Apixaban Non-inferior composite endpoint Higher rates of bleeding

Therapy

Supportive medications

6-month course

References

  1. LITE: Hull RD, Pineo GF, Brant RF, Mah AF, Burke N, Dear R, Wong T, Cook R, Solymoss S, Poon MC, Raskob G; LITE Trial Investigators. Long-term low-molecular-weight heparin versus usual care in proximal-vein thrombosis patients with cancer. Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1062-72. link to original article PubMed
  2. RE-COVER: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Mismetti P, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Schnee J, Goldhaber SZ; RE-COVER Study Group. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 10;361(24):2342-52. link to original article PubMed
  3. EINSTEIN-DVT: EINSTEIN Investigators, Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, Buller HR, Decousus H, Gallus AS, Lensing AW, Misselwitz F, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Segers A, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Bounameaux H, Cohen A, Davidson BL, Piovella F, Schellong S. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 23;363(26):2499-510. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article PubMed
  4. EINSTEIN-PE: EINSTEIN–PE Investigators, Büller HR, Prins MH, Lensin AW, Decousus H, Jacobson BF, Minar E, Chlumsky J, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Cohen A, Berkowitz SD, Bounameaux H, Davidson BL, Misselwitz F, Gallus AS, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Segers A. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 5;366(14):1287-97. Epub 2012 Mar 26. link to original article PubMed
  5. RE-MEDY: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Kvamme AM, Friedman J, Mismetti P, Goldhaber SZ; RE-MEDY Trial Investigators; RE-SONATE Trial Investigators. Extended use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 21;368(8):709-18. link to original article PubMed
  6. AMPLIFY: Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, Curto M, Gallus AS, Johnson M, Masiukiewicz U, Pak R, Thompson J, Raskob GE, Weitz JI; AMPLIFY Investigators. Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):799-808. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. RE-ALIGN: Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Brueckmann M, Granger CB, Kappetein AP, Mack MJ, Blatchford J, Devenny K, Friedman J, Guiver K, Harper R, Khder Y, Lobmeyer MT, Maas H, Voigt JU, Simoons ML, Van de Werf F; RE-ALIGN Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with mechanical heart valves. N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep 26;369(13):1206-14. Epub 2013 Aug 31. link to original article PubMed
  8. HOKUSAI-VTE: Hokusai-VTE Investigators, Büller HR, Décousus H, Grosso MA, Mercuri M, Middeldorp S, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Schellong SM, Schwocho L, Segers A, Shi M, Verhamme P, Wells P. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 10;369(15):1406-15. Epub 2013 Aug 31. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 23;370(4):390. link to original article PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Raskob GE, van Es N, Segers A, Angchaisuksiri P, Oh D, Boda Z, Lyons RM, Meijer K, Gudz I, Weitz JI, Zhang G, Lanz H, Mercuri MF, Büller HR; Hokusai-VTE investigators. Edoxaban for venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: results from a non-inferiority subgroup analysis of the Hokusai-VTE randomised, double-blind, double-dummy trial. Lancet Haematol. 2016 Aug;3(8):e379-87. Epub 2016 Jul 1. link to original article PubMed
  9. RE-COVER II: Schulman S, Kakkar AK, Goldhaber SZ, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Mismetti P, Christiansen AV, Friedman J, Le Maulf F, Peter N, Kearon C; RE-COVER II Trial Investigators. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism with dabigatran or warfarin and pooled analysis. Circulation. 2014 Feb 18;129(7):764-72. Epub 2013 Dec 16. link to original article PubMed
  10. CATCH: Lee AY, Kamphuisen PW, Meyer G, Bauersachs R, Janas MS, Jarner MF, Khorana AA; CATCH Investigators. Tinzaparin vs warfarin for treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 18;314(7):677-86. link to original article PubMed

Additional information

  1. Circulation patient page about postthrombotic syndrome (PTS)