Venous thromboembolism (VTE)

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Other information on HemOnc.org regarding management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) include:

3 regimens on this page
3 variants on this page


Guidelines

ASCO

Current

Older

IMWG

Current

Older

Randomized cancer-related trials

  1. Meyer G, Marjanovic Z, Valcke J, Lorcerie B, Gruel Y, Solal-Celigny P, Le Maignan C, Extra JM, Cottu P, Farge D. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin for the secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Aug 12-26;162(15):1729-35. link to original article PubMed
  2. CLOT: Lee AY, Levine MN, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Haley S, Kovacs MJ, Gent M; Randomized Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer (CLOT) Investigators. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 10;349(2):146-53. link to original article PubMed
    1. Posthoc analysis: Lee AY, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Gent M, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Levine MN. Randomized comparison of low molecular weight heparin and coumarin derivatives on the survival of patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2123-9. Epub 2005 Feb 7. link to original article PubMed
  3. LITE: Hull RD, Pineo GF, Brant RF, Mah AF, Burke N, Dear R, Wong T, Cook R, Solymoss S, Poon MC, Raskob G; LITE Trial Investigators. Long-term low-molecular-weight heparin versus usual care in proximal-vein thrombosis patients with cancer. Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1062-72. link to original article PubMed
  4. Larocca A, Cavallo F, Bringhen S, Di Raimondo F, Falanga A, Evangelista A, Cavalli M, Stanevsky A, Corradini P, Pezzatti S, Patriarca F, Cavo M, Peccatori J, Catalano L, Carella AM, Cafro AM, Siniscalchi A, Crippa C, Petrucci MT, Yehuda DB, Beggiato E, Di Toritto TC, Boccadoro M, Nagler A, Palumbo A. Aspirin or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):933-9. Epub 2011 Aug 11. link to original article PubMed

VTE primary prophylaxis

Aspirin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Larocca et al. 2011 Phase III Enoxaparin Seems not superior

Therapy

References

  1. Larocca A, Cavallo F, Bringhen S, Di Raimondo F, Falanga A, Evangelista A, Cavalli M, Stanevsky A, Corradini P, Pezzatti S, Patriarca F, Cavo M, Peccatori J, Catalano L, Carella AM, Cafro AM, Siniscalchi A, Crippa C, Petrucci MT, Yehuda DB, Beggiato E, Di Toritto TC, Boccadoro M, Nagler A, Palumbo A. Aspirin or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):933-9. Epub 2011 Aug 11. link to original article PubMed

Betrixaban monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Cohen et al. 2016 (APEX) Phase III Enoxaparin Might have lower rates of VTE

Therapy

References

  1. APEX: Cohen AT, Harrington RA, Goldhaber SZ, Hull RD, Wiens BL, Gold A, Hernandez AF, Gibson CM; APEX Investigators. Extended thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 11;375(6):534-44. Epub 2016 May 27. link to original article PubMed

Enoxaparin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Larocca et al. 2011 Phase III Aspirin Seems not superior
Cohen et al. 2016 (APEX) Phase III Betrixaban Might have higher rates of VTE

Therapy

References

  1. Larocca A, Cavallo F, Bringhen S, Di Raimondo F, Falanga A, Evangelista A, Cavalli M, Stanevsky A, Corradini P, Pezzatti S, Patriarca F, Cavo M, Peccatori J, Catalano L, Carella AM, Cafro AM, Siniscalchi A, Crippa C, Petrucci MT, Yehuda DB, Beggiato E, Di Toritto TC, Boccadoro M, Nagler A, Palumbo A. Aspirin or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide. Blood. 2012 Jan 26;119(4):933-9. Epub 2011 Aug 11. link to original article PubMed
  2. APEX: Cohen AT, Harrington RA, Goldhaber SZ, Hull RD, Wiens BL, Gold A, Hernandez AF, Gibson CM; APEX Investigators. Extended thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 11;375(6):534-44. Epub 2016 May 27. link to original article PubMed

VTE secondary prevention

This section will be transformed into HemOnc.org standard format soon.

Aspirin

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References

  1. WARFASA: Becattini C, Agnelli G, Schenone A, Eichinger S, Bucherini E, Silingardi M, Bianchi M, Moia M, Ageno W, Vandelli MR, Grandone E, Prandoni P; WARFASA Investigators. Aspirin for preventing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 24;366(21):1959-67. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Oct 18;367(16):1573. link to original article PubMed

Dalteparin (Fragmin)

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References

  1. CLOT: Lee AY, Levine MN, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Haley S, Kovacs MJ, Gent M; Randomized Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer (CLOT) Investigators. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 10;349(2):146-53. link to original article PubMed

Enoxaparin (Lovenox)

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References

  1. Meyer G, Marjanovic Z, Valcke J, Lorcerie B, Gruel Y, Solal-Celigny P, Le Maignan C, Extra JM, Cottu P, Farge D. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin for the secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Aug 12-26;162(15):1729-35. link to original article PubMed

Warfarin (Coumadin)

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References

  1. Meyer G, Marjanovic Z, Valcke J, Lorcerie B, Gruel Y, Solal-Celigny P, Le Maignan C, Extra JM, Cottu P, Farge D. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin for the secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Aug 12-26;162(15):1729-35. link to original article PubMed
  2. PREVENT: Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Danielson E, Rosenberg Y, Eby CS, Deitcher SR, Cushman M, Moll S, Kessler CM, Elliott CG, Paulson R, Wong T, Bauer KA, Schwartz BA, Miletich JP, Bounameaux H, Glynn RJ; PREVENT Investigators. Long-term, low-intensity warfarin therapy for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 10;348(15):1425-34. Epub 2003 Feb 24. link to original article PubMed
  3. CLOT: Lee AY, Levine MN, Baker RI, Bowden C, Kakkar AK, Prins M, Rickles FR, Julian JA, Haley S, Kovacs MJ, Gent M; Randomized Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer (CLOT) Investigators. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 10;349(2):146-53. link to original article PubMed

VTE treatment

This section will be transformed into HemOnc.org standard format soon.

Apixaban (Eliquis)

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References

  1. PLIFY-EXT: Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, Curto M, Gallus AS, Johnson M, Porcari A, Raskob GE, Weitz JI; PLIFY-EXT Investigators. Apixaban for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 21;368(8):699-708. Epub 2012 Dec 8. link to original article PubMed
  2. AMPLIFY: Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, Curto M, Gallus AS, Johnson M, Masiukiewicz U, Pak R, Thompson J, Raskob GE, Weitz JI; AMPLIFY Investigators. Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):799-808. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article PubMed

Argatroban (Acova)

Aspirin

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References

  1. EINSTEIN CHOICE: Weitz JI, Lensing AWA, Prins MH, Bauersachs R, Beyer-Westendorf J, Bounameaux H, Brighton TA, Cohen AT, Davidson BL, Decousus H, Freitas MCS, Holberg G, Kakkar AK, Haskell L, van Bellen B, Pap AF, Berkowitz SD, Verhamme P, Wells PS, Prandoni P; EINSTEIN CHOICE Investigators. Rivaroxaban or aspirin for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 30;376(13):1211-1222. Epub 2017 Mar 18. link to original article PubMed

Bivalirudin (Angiomax)

Dabigatran (Pradaxa)

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References

  1. RE-COVER: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Mismetti P, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Schnee J, Goldhaber SZ; RE-COVER Study Group. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 10;361(24):2342-52. link to original article PubMed
  2. RE-MEDY: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Kvamme AM, Friedman J, Mismetti P, Goldhaber SZ; RE-MEDY Trial Investigators; RE-SONATE Trial Investigators. Extended use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 21;368(8):709-18. link to original article [PubMed
  3. RE-ALIGN: Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Brueckmann M, Granger CB, Kappetein AP, Mack MJ, Blatchford J, Devenny K, Friedman J, Guiver K, Harper R, Khder Y, Lobmeyer MT, Maas H, Voigt JU, Simoons ML, Van de Werf F; RE-ALIGN Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with mechanical heart valves. N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep 26;369(13):1206-14. Epub 2013 Aug 31. link to original article PubMed
  4. RE-COVER II: Schulman S, Kakkar AK, Goldhaber SZ, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Mismetti P, Christiansen AV, Friedman J, Le Maulf F, Peter N, Kearon C; RE-COVER II Trial Investigators. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism with dabigatran or warfarin and pooled analysis. Circulation. 2014 Feb 18;129(7):764-72. Epub 2013 Dec 16. link to original article PubMed

Edoxaban (Savaysa)

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References

  1. HOKUSAI-VTE: Hokusai-VTE Investigators, Büller HR, Décousus H, Grosso MA, Mercuri M, Middeldorp S, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Schellong SM, Schwocho L, Segers A, Shi M, Verhamme P, Wells P. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 10;369(15):1406-15. Epub 2013 Aug 31. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 23;370(4):390. link to original article PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Raskob GE, van Es N, Segers A, Angchaisuksiri P, Oh D, Boda Z, Lyons RM, Meijer K, Gudz I, Weitz JI, Zhang G, Lanz H, Mercuri MF, Büller HR; Hokusai-VTE investigators. Edoxaban for venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: results from a non-inferiority subgroup analysis of the Hokusai-VTE randomised, double-blind, double-dummy trial. Lancet Haematol. 2016 Aug;3(8):e379-87. Epub 2016 Jul 1. link to original article PubMed

Fondaparinux (Arixtra)

Heparin

Lepirudin (Refludan)

Rivaroxaban (Xarelto)

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References

  1. EINSTEIN-DVT: EINSTEIN Investigators, Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, Buller HR, Decousus H, Gallus AS, Lensing AW, Misselwitz F, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Segers A, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Bounameaux H, Cohen A, Davidson BL, Piovella F, Schellong S. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 23;363(26):2499-510. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article PubMed
  2. EINSTEIN-PE: EINSTEIN–PE Investigators, Büller HR, Prins MH, Lensin AW, Decousus H, Jacobson BF, Minar E, Chlumsky J, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Cohen A, Berkowitz SD, Bounameaux H, Davidson BL, Misselwitz F, Gallus AS, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Segers A. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 5;366(14):1287-97. Epub 2012 Mar 26. link to original article PubMed
  3. EINSTEIN CHOICE: Weitz JI, Lensing AWA, Prins MH, Bauersachs R, Beyer-Westendorf J, Bounameaux H, Brighton TA, Cohen AT, Davidson BL, Decousus H, Freitas MCS, Holberg G, Kakkar AK, Haskell L, van Bellen B, Pap AF, Berkowitz SD, Verhamme P, Wells PS, Prandoni P; EINSTEIN CHOICE Investigators. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 30;376(13):1211-1222. Epub 2017 Mar 18. link to original article PubMed

Tinzaparin (Innohep)

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Note: this agent has been withdrawn from the US market.

References

  1. LITE: Hull RD, Pineo GF, Brant RF, Mah AF, Burke N, Dear R, Wong T, Cook R, Solymoss S, Poon MC, Raskob G; LITE Trial Investigators. Long-term low-molecular-weight heparin versus usual care in proximal-vein thrombosis patients with cancer. Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1062-72. link to original article PubMed
  2. CATCH: Lee AY, Kamphuisen PW, Meyer G, Bauersachs R, Janas MS, Jarner MF, Khorana AA; CATCH Investigators. Tinzaparin vs warfarin for treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 18;314(7):677-86. link to original article PubMed

Warfarin (Coumadin)

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References

  1. LITE: Hull RD, Pineo GF, Brant RF, Mah AF, Burke N, Dear R, Wong T, Cook R, Solymoss S, Poon MC, Raskob G; LITE Trial Investigators. Long-term low-molecular-weight heparin versus usual care in proximal-vein thrombosis patients with cancer. Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1062-72. link to original article PubMed
  2. RE-COVER: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Mismetti P, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Schnee J, Goldhaber SZ; RE-COVER Study Group. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 10;361(24):2342-52. link to original article PubMed
  3. EINSTEIN-DVT: EINSTEIN Investigators, Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, Buller HR, Decousus H, Gallus AS, Lensing AW, Misselwitz F, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Segers A, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Bounameaux H, Cohen A, Davidson BL, Piovella F, Schellong S. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 23;363(26):2499-510. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article PubMed
  4. EINSTEIN-PE: EINSTEIN–PE Investigators, Büller HR, Prins MH, Lensin AW, Decousus H, Jacobson BF, Minar E, Chlumsky J, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Cohen A, Berkowitz SD, Bounameaux H, Davidson BL, Misselwitz F, Gallus AS, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Segers A. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 5;366(14):1287-97. Epub 2012 Mar 26. link to original article PubMed
  5. RE-MEDY: Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Kvamme AM, Friedman J, Mismetti P, Goldhaber SZ; RE-MEDY Trial Investigators; RE-SONATE Trial Investigators. Extended use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 21;368(8):709-18. link to original article [PubMed
  6. AMPLIFY: Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, Curto M, Gallus AS, Johnson M, Masiukiewicz U, Pak R, Thompson J, Raskob GE, Weitz JI; AMPLIFY Investigators. Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):799-808. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article PubMed
  7. RE-ALIGN: Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Brueckmann M, Granger CB, Kappetein AP, Mack MJ, Blatchford J, Devenny K, Friedman J, Guiver K, Harper R, Khder Y, Lobmeyer MT, Maas H, Voigt JU, Simoons ML, Van de Werf F; RE-ALIGN Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with mechanical heart valves. N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep 26;369(13):1206-14. Epub 2013 Aug 31. link to original article PubMed
  8. HOKUSAI-VTE: Hokusai-VTE Investigators, Büller HR, Décousus H, Grosso MA, Mercuri M, Middeldorp S, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Schellong SM, Schwocho L, Segers A, Shi M, Verhamme P, Wells P. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 10;369(15):1406-15. Epub 2013 Aug 31. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 23;370(4):390. link to original article PubMed
    1. Subset analysis: Raskob GE, van Es N, Segers A, Angchaisuksiri P, Oh D, Boda Z, Lyons RM, Meijer K, Gudz I, Weitz JI, Zhang G, Lanz H, Mercuri MF, Büller HR; Hokusai-VTE investigators. Edoxaban for venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: results from a non-inferiority subgroup analysis of the Hokusai-VTE randomised, double-blind, double-dummy trial. Lancet Haematol. 2016 Aug;3(8):e379-87. Epub 2016 Jul 1. link to original article PubMed
  9. RE-COVER II: Schulman S, Kakkar AK, Goldhaber SZ, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Mismetti P, Christiansen AV, Friedman J, Le Maulf F, Peter N, Kearon C; RE-COVER II Trial Investigators. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism with dabigatran or warfarin and pooled analysis. Circulation. 2014 Feb 18;129(7):764-72. Epub 2013 Dec 16. link to original article PubMed
  10. CATCH: Lee AY, Kamphuisen PW, Meyer G, Bauersachs R, Janas MS, Jarner MF, Khorana AA; CATCH Investigators. Tinzaparin vs warfarin for treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 18;314(7):677-86. link to original article PubMed

Additional information

  1. Circulation patient page about postthrombotic syndrome (PTS)