Testicular cancer - historical

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to regimens that are obsolete, outdated, or of historical interest only. As a general rule, this includes the inferior arm(s) of a randomized study, unless said regimens continue to be recommended by trustworthy sources such as the NCCN Guidelines. Is there a regimen missing from this list? See the main testicular cancer page for current regimens.

6 regimens on this page
6 variants on this page


Adjuvant therapy for resectable disease

BVP

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BVP: Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Platinol (Cisplatin)
PVB: Platinol (Cisplatin), Vinblastine, Bleomycin

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Williams et al. 1987 Phase III (E-esc) Observation Superior RFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 2 cycles

References

  1. Williams SD, Stablein DM, Einhorn LH, Muggia FM, Weiss RB, Donohue JP, Paulson DF, Brunner KW, Jacobs EM, Spaulding JT, DeWys WD, Crawford ED. Immediate adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation with treatment at relapse in pathological stage II testicular cancer. N Engl J Med. 1987 Dec 3;317(23):1433-8. link to original article PubMed

Upfront therapy for disseminated disease

Bleomycin & Vinblastine

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Peckham et al. 1979 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Peckham MJ, McElwain TJ, Barrett A, Hendry WF. Combined management of malignant teratoma of the testis. Lancet. 1979 Aug 11;2(8137):267-70. lnk to original article PubMed

BVP

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BVP: Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Platinol (Cisplatin)
PVB: Platinol (Cisplatin), Vinblastine, Bleomycin

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Einhorn & Donohue 1977 Non-randomized
Stoter et al. 1979 Non-randomized
Einhorn et al. 1981 Phase III (C) ABVP Did not meet efficacy endpoints
Garnick et al. 1983 Non-randomized
Stoter et al. 1986 Phase III (C) Dose de-escalated PVB Did not meet efficacy endpoints
Williams et al. 1987a Phase III (C) BEP Did not meet primary endpoint of OS (*)
Wozniak et al. 1991 Phase III (C) VPV Did not meet primary endpoints of CR rate/OS

Note: in Williams et al. 1987a, there seemed to be a survival disadvantage in the high tumor volume subgroup, but no difference was seen in the overall group.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Einhorn et al. 1981: Vinblastine maintenance versus no further treatment
  • Garnick et al. 1983: Tumor-reductive surgery, then Cyclophosphamide & Doxorubicin

References

  1. Einhorn LH, Donohue J. Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, vinblastine, and bleomycin combination chemotherapy in disseminated testicular cancer. Ann Intern Med. 1977 Sep;87(3):293-8. link to original article PubMed
  2. Stoter G, Sleijfer DT, Vendrik CP, Schraffordt Koops H, Struyvenberg A, Van Oosterom AT, Brouwers TM, Pinedo HM. Combination chemotherapy with cis-diammine-dichloro-platinum, vinblastine, and bleomycin in advanced testicular non-seminoma. Lancet. 1979 May 5;1(8123):941-5. link to original article PubMed
  3. Einhorn LH, Williams SD, Troner M, Birch R, Greco FA. The role of maintenance therapy in disseminated testicular cancer. N Engl J Med. 1981 Sep 24;305(13):727-31. link to original article PubMed
  4. Garnick MB, Canellos GP, Richie JP. Treatment and surgical staging of testicular and primary extragonadal germ cell cancer. JAMA. 1983 Oct 7;250(13):1733-41. link to original article PubMed
  5. Stoter G, Sleyfer DT, ten Bokkel Huinink WW, Kaye SB, Jones WG, van Oosterom AT, Vendrik CP, Spaander P, de Pauw M, Sylvester R. High-dose versus low-dose vinblastine in cisplatin-vinblastine-bleomycin combination chemotherapy of non-seminomatous testicular cancer: a randomized study of the EORTC Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Aug;4(8):1199-206. link to original article PubMed
  6. Williams SD, Birch R, Einhorn LH, Irwin L, Greco FA, Loehrer PJ. Treatment of disseminated germ-cell tumors with cisplatin, bleomycin, and either vinblastine or etoposide. N Engl J Med. 1987 Jun 4;316(23):1435-40. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. Wozniak AJ, Samson MK, Shah NT, Crawford ED, Ford CD, Altman SJ, Stephens RL, Natale RB, Bouroncle BA, Blumenstein BA, Cummings GD. A randomized trial of cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin versus vinblastine, cisplatin, and etoposide in the treatment of advanced germ cell tumors of the testis: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1991 Jan;9(1):70-6. link to original article PubMed

Chlorambucil, Dactinomycin, Methotrexate

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Li et al. 1960 Non-randomized

Note: this is likely the first trial of combination chemotherapy in solid tumors.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Li MC, Whitmore WF Jr, Golbey R, Grabstald H. Effects of combined drug therapy on metastatic cancer of the testis. JAMA. 1960 Nov 5;174:1291-9. link to original article PubMed

CISCA/VB

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CISCA/VB: CISplatin, Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) alternating with Vinblastine & Bleomycin

Protocol

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fizazi et al. 2002 Phase III (C) Dose de-escalated CISCA/VB Did not meet primary endpoint of CR rate at 18 mo
Culine et al. 2008 (T93MP) Phase III (E-esc) BEP Did not meet primary endpoint of FRR

Chemotherapy, CISCA portion

Chemotherapy, VB portion

References

  1. Fizazi K, Do KA, Wang X, Finn L, Logothetis CJ, Amato RJ. A 20% dose reduction of the original CISCA/VB regimen allows better tolerance and similar survival rate in disseminated testicular non-seminomatous germ-cell tumors: final results of a phase III randomized trial. Ann Oncol. 2002 Jan;13(1):125-34. link to original article PubMed
  2. T93MP: Culine S, Kramar A, Théodore C, Geoffrois L, Chevreau C, Biron P, Nguyen BB, Héron JF, Kerbrat P, Caty A, Delva R, Fargeot P, Fizazi K, Bouzy J, Droz JP; Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centers Trial T93MP. Randomized trial comparing bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin with alternating cisplatin/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin and vinblastine/bleomycin regimens of chemotherapy for patients with intermediate- and poor-risk metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centers Trial T93MP. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 20;26(3):421-7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

VAB-6

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Vugrin et al. 1981 1978-1979 Non-randomized (RT)
Bosl et al. 1986 1979-1982 Non-randomized (RT)

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Vugrin D, Herr HW, Whitmore WF Jr, Sogani PC, Golbey RB. VAB-6 combination chemotherapy in disseminated cancer of the testis. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Jul;95(1):59-61. link to original article PubMed
  2. Bosl GJ, Gluckman R, Geller NL, Golbey RB, Whitmore WF Jr, Herr H, Sogani P, Morse M, Martini N, Bains M, McCormack P. VAB-6: an effective chemotherapy regimen for patients with germ-cell tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Oct;4(10):1493-9. link to original article PubMed

Subsequent lines of therapy

Plicamycin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Brown & Kennedy 1965 Non-randomized, <20 pts
Ream et al. 1968 Non-randomized

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Brown JH, Kennedy BJ. Mithramycin in the treatment of disseminated testicular neoplasms. N Engl J Med. 1965 Jan 21;272:111-8. link to original article PubMed
  2. Ream NW, Perlia CP, Wolter J, Taylor SG 3rd. Mithramycin therapy in disseminated germinal testicular cancer. JAMA. 1968 Jun 17;204(12):1030-6. link to original article PubMed