Osteosarcoma - historical

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to regimens that are obsolete, outdated, or of historical interest only. As a general rule, this includes the inferior arm(s) of a randomized study, unless said regimens continue to be recommended by trustworthy sources such as the NCCN Guidelines. Is there a regimen missing from this list? See the main osteosarcoma page for current regimens.

8 regimens on this page
8 variants on this page


Neoadjuvant therapy

MA-BCD

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MA-BCD: High-dose Methotrexate, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Dactinomycin

Protocol

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Winkler et al. 1984 (COSS-80) 1979-1982 Phase 3 (C) MAP Did not meet primary endpoint of CDF rate

Note: The exact schedule is unclear based on limited/conflicting information in the reference. For example, Figure 1 appears to depict high-dose methotrexate starting 2 weeks after adriamycin, but the text says that methotrexate begins after a 3-week rest period. Additionally, the diagram in Figure 1 implies that the later therapies are given 4 times (once, then repeated x 3 cycles), but based on the cumulative doses listed, they are only given for a total of 3 cycles. The optional interferon arm is omitted given lack of benefit seen in the study.

Chemotherapy, part 1

21-day course, then

Chemotherapy, part 2

See note above about uncertainty about the exact schedule.

Supportive medications

  • Folinic acid (Leucovorin) 15 mg/m2 PO every 6 hours x 12 hours once per day on days 2 & 9, starting 24 hours after the completion of methotrexate infusion; additional leucovorin used for delayed methotrexate elimination
  • Sodium bicarbonate urine alkalinization prior to high-dose methotrexate
  • NS 4.5 L/m2 on day 1 after methotrexate; NS 3 L/m2 on day 2, with adjustments made to keep urine pH greater than 7.4

35-day course, followed by:

Chemotherapy, part 3

See note above about uncertainty about the exact schedule.

Supportive medications

  • Folinic acid (Leucovorin) 15 mg/m2 PO every 6 hours x 12 hours once per day on days 2, 9, 30, 37, starting 24 hours after the completion of methotrexate infusion; additional leucovorin used for delayed methotrexate elimination
  • Sodium bicarbonate urine alkalinization prior to high-dose methotrexate
  • NS 4.5 L/m2 on day 1 after methotrexate; NS 3 L/m2 on day 2, with adjustments made to keep urine pH greater than 7.4

8-week cycle for 3 cycles, with surgery done during cycle 1 before doxorubicin; surgery is done 9 to 18 weeks after the start of chemotherapy

References

  1. COSS-80: Winkler K, Beron G, Kotz R, Salzer-Kuntschik M, Beck J, Beck W, Brandeis W, Ebell W, Erttmann R, Göbel U, Havers W, Henze G, Hinderfeld L, Höcker P, Jobke A, Jürgens H, Kabisch H, Preusser P, Prindull G, Ramach W, Ritter J, Sekera J, Treuner J, Wist G, Landbeck G. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for osteogenic sarcoma: results of a Cooperative German/Austrian study. J Clin Oncol. 1984 Jun;2(6):617-24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

M-BCD

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M-BCD: High-dose Methotrexate, Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Dactinomycin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Winkler et al. 1988 (COSS-82) 1982-1984 Phase 3 (C) MAP Inferior ORR

Note: The exact schedule is unclear based on limited information in the reference, as schedule of doses is primarily extrapolated from Figure 1, which does not contain clear delineations in time.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Folinic acid (Leucovorin) 15 mg/m2 PO every 6 hours x 12 hours once per day on days 16 & 23, starting 24 hours after the completion of methotrexate infusion; additional leucovorin used for delayed methotrexate elimination
  • Sodium bicarbonate urine alkalinization prior to high-dose Methotrexate (MTX)
  • NS 4.5 L/m2 on day 1 after Methotrexate (MTX); NS 3 L/m2 on day 2, with adjustments made to keep urine pH greater than 7.4

35-day cycle for 2 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. COSS-82: Winkler K, Beron G, Delling G, Heise U, Kabisch H, Purfürst C, Berger J, Ritter J, Jürgens H, Gerein V, Graf N, Russe W, Gruemayer ER, Ertelt W, Kotz R, Preuzzer P, Prindull G, Brandeis W, Landbeck G. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of osteosarcoma: results of a randomized cooperative trial (COSS-82) with salvage chemotherapy based on histological tumor response. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Feb;6(2):329-37. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Adjuvant therapy

Doxorubicin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Cortes et al. 1974 Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

4- to 6-week cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. Cortes EP, Holland JF, Wang JJ, Sinks LF, Blom J, Senn H, Bank A, Glidewell O. Amputation and adriamycin in primary osteosarcoma. N Engl J Med. 1974 Nov 7;291(19):998-1000. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

IP-BCD

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IP-BCD: Ifosfamide, Platinol (Cisplatin), Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Dactinomycin

Regimen

Study Evidence
Winkler et al. 1988 (COSS-82) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Mesna (Mesnex) 2000 mg/m2 IV over 23.5 hours once per day on days 1 to 5, given second, with Ifosfamide (Ifex), then 2000 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion over 48 hours, started on day 6 (total dose: 14,000 mg/m2)
  • Mannitol given with Cisplatin (Platinol); no further details provided

35-day cycle for 3 cycles

References

  1. COSS-82: Winkler K, Beron G, Delling G, Heise U, Kabisch H, Purfürst C, Berger J, Ritter J, Jürgens H, Gerein V, Graf N, Russe W, Gruemayer ER, Ertelt W, Kotz R, Preuzzer P, Prindull G, Brandeis W, Landbeck G. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of osteosarcoma: results of a randomized cooperative trial (COSS-82) with salvage chemotherapy based on histological tumor response. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Feb;6(2):329-37. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

MA-BCD/AP

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MA-BCD/AP: High-dose Methotrexate, Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Dactinomycin alternating with Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) & Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Link et al. 1986 1982-1984 Phase 3 (E-esc) No further treatment Superior RFS

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Link MP, Goorin AM, Miser AW, Green AA, Pratt CB, Belasco JB, Pritchard J, Malpas JS, Baker AR, Kirkpatrick JA, Ayala AG, Shuster JJ, Abelson HT, Simone JV, Vietti TJ. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival in patients with osteosarcoma of the extremity. N Engl J Med. 1986 Jun 19;314(25):1600-6. link to original article PubMed

M-BCD

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M-BCD: High-dose Methotrexate, Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Dactinomycin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Eilber et al. 1987 1981-1984 Randomized (E-esc) Observation Seems to have superior OS
Winkler et al. 1988 (COSS-82) 1982-1984 Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: The exact schedule is unclear based on limited information in the references; schedule of doses is primarily extrapolated from Figure 1 of Winkler et al. 1988, which does not contain clear delineations in time.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Folinic acid (Leucovorin) 15 mg/m2 PO every 6 hours x 12 hours once per day on days 16 & 23, starting 24 hours after the completion of methotrexate infusion; additional leucovorin used for delayed methotrexate elimination
  • Sodium bicarbonate urine alkalinization prior to high-dose methotrexate
  • NS 4.5 L/m2 on day 1 after methotrexate; NS 3 L/m2 on day 2, with adjustments made to keep urine pH greater than 7.4

35-day cycle for 2 cycles

References

  1. Eilber F, Giuliano A, Eckardt J, Patterson K, Moseley S, Goodnight J. Adjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma: a randomized prospective trial. J Clin Oncol. 1987 Jan;5(1):21-6. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Bernthal NM, Federman N, Eilber FR, Nelson SD, Eckardt JJ, Eilber FC, Tap WD. Long-term results (>25 years) of a randomized, prospective clinical trial evaluating chemotherapy in patients with high-grade, operable osteosarcoma. Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;118(23):5888-93. Epub 2012 May 30. link to original article PubMed
  2. COSS-82: Winkler K, Beron G, Delling G, Heise U, Kabisch H, Purfürst C, Berger J, Ritter J, Jürgens H, Gerein V, Graf N, Russe W, Gruemayer ER, Ertelt W, Kotz R, Preuzzer P, Prindull G, Brandeis W, Landbeck G. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of osteosarcoma: results of a randomized cooperative trial (COSS-82) with salvage chemotherapy based on histological tumor response. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Feb;6(2):329-37. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Methotrexate & Vincristine

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Jaffe et al. 1974 Non-randomized

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for up to 35 cycles (2 years)

References

  1. Jaffe N, Frei E 3rd, Traggis D, Bishop Y. Adjuvant methotrexate and citrovorum-factor treatment of osteogenic sarcoma. N Engl J Med. 1974 Nov 7;291(19):994-7. link to original article PubMed

Relapsed, refractory, or metastatic

Doxorubicin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Cores et al. 1972 Non-randomized, <20 pts

Of historic interest.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Cores EP, Holland JF, Wang JJ, Sinks LF. Doxorubicin in disseminated osteosarcoma. JAMA. 1972 Sep 4;221(10):1132-8. link to original article PubMed

COG AOST0331 MAPifn Group

Induction

Received by all patients and consists of 2 cycles of MAP.

Chemotherapy

10 Week Course

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

MAPifn Cycles 3-4

Good Responders

Chemotherapy

10 Week Course

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

MAPifn Cycles 5-6

Good Responders

Chemotherapy

10 Week Course

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

MAPifn Weeks 30-104

Good Responders

Chemotherapy

75 Week Course

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

COG AOST0331 MAPIE Group

Induction

Received by all patients and consists of 2 cycles of MAP.

Chemotherapy

10 Week Course

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

MAPIE Cycles 3 and 7

Poor Responders

Chemotherapy

5-Week Courses

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

MAP Cycles 4, 6, and 8

Poor Responders

Chemotherapy

  • Ifosfamide (Ifex) 2.8 g/m2/dose IV over 4 hours once per day on days 1 through 5 of weeks 16, 24, and 32.
  • Etoposide (Vepesid) 100 mg/m2/dose IV over 60 minutes once per day on days 1 through 5 of weeks 16, 24, and 32.
  • Mesna (Mesnex) 2.8 g/m2/24 hours IV continuous infusion over 24 hours on days 1 through 5 of weeks 16, 24, and 32.
  • Methotrexate (MTX) 12 g/m2 (MAX DOSE = 20 grams) IV over 4 hours once on day 1 of weeks 19, 27, and 35.
  • Folinic acid (Leucovorin) 15 mg/m2 PO or IV every 6 hours beginning 24 hours after the beginning of the Methotrexate (MTX) infusion and continuing until the serum Methotrexate (MTX) level is less than 0.1 μM.

5-Week Courses

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

MAP Cycle 5

Poor Responders

Chemotherapy

5-Week Courses

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030

MAP Cycle 9

Poor Responders

Chemotherapy

5-Week Courses

References

  1. COG AOST0331: Marina NM, Smeland S, Bielack SS, Bernstein M, Jovic G, Krailo MD, Hook JM, Arndt C, Berg H, Brennan B, Brichard B, Brown KLB, Butterfass-Bahloul T, Calaminus G, Daldrup-Link HE, Eriksson M, Gebhardt MC, Gelderblom H, Gerss J, Goldsby R, Goorin A, Gorlick R, Grier H, Hale JP, Hall KS, Hardes J, Hawkins DS, Helmke K, Hogendoorn PCW, Isakoff MS, JAneway KA, Jurgens H, Kager L, Kuhne T, Lau CC, Leavey PJ, Lessnick SL, Mascarenhas L, Meyers PA, Mottl H, Nathrath M, Papai Z, Randall RL, Reichardt P, Renard M, Safwat AA, Schwartz CL, Stevens MCG, Strauss SJ, Teot L, Werner M, Sydes MR, Whelan JS. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 20;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT00134030