Melanoma, BRAF-mutated

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Elizabeth Buchbinder, MD
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Boston, MA

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Note: these are regimens tested in biomarker-specific populations, please see the main melanoma page for other regimens.

11 regimens on this page
11 variants on this page


Adjuvant therapy

Dabrafenib & Trametinib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Long et al. 2017 (COMBI-AD) 2013-2014 Phase III (E-RT-esc) Placebo Superior MFS (*)

Note: reported efficacy is based on the 2020 update.

Preceding treatment

Targeted therapy

Up to 12-month course

References

  1. COMBI-AD: Long GV, Hauschild A, Santinami M, Atkinson V, Mandalà M, Chiarion-Sileni V, Larkin J, Nyakas M, Dutriaux C, Haydon A, Robert C, Mortier L, Schachter J, Schadendorf D, Lesimple T, Plummer R, Ji R, Zhang P, Mookerjee B, Legos J, Kefford R, Dummer R, Kirkwood JM. Adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in stage III BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 9;377(19):1813-1823. Epub 2017 Sep 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01682083
    1. Update: Hauschild A, Dummer R, Schadendorf D, Santinami M, Atkinson V, Mandalà M, Chiarion-Sileni V, Larkin J, Nyakas M, Dutriaux C, Haydon A, Robert C, Mortier L, Schachter J, Lesimple T, Plummer R, Dasgupta K, Haas T, Shilkrut M, Gasal E, Kefford R, Kirkwood JM, Long GV. Longer Follow-Up Confirms Relapse-Free Survival Benefit With Adjuvant Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib in Patients With Resected BRAF V600-Mutant Stage III Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Dec 10;36(35):3441-3449. Epub 2018 Oct 22. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Dummer R, Hauschild A, Santinami M, Atkinson V, Mandalà M, Kirkwood JM, Chiarion Sileni V, Larkin J, Nyakas M, Dutriaux C, Haydon A, Robert C, Mortier L, Schachter J, Lesimple T, Plummer R, Dasgupta K, Gasal E, Tan M, Long GV, Schadendorf D. Five-Year Analysis of Adjuvant Dabrafenib plus Trametinib in Stage III Melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 17;383(12):1139-1148. Epub 2020 Sep 2. link to original article PubMed

Advanced or metastatic disease, BRAF inhibitor-naive

Binimetinib & Encorafenib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Dummer et al. 2018 (COLUMBUS) 2013-2015 Phase III (E-RT-esc) 1. Encorafenib Not reported
2. Vemurafenib Superior OS (*)

Note: reported efficacy is based on the 2018 update.

Targeted therapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. COLUMBUS: Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, Chiarion-Sileni V, Dutriaux C, de Groot JWB, Yamazaki N, Loquai C, Moutouh-de Parseval LA, Pickard MD, Sandor V, Robert C, Flaherty KT. Encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 May;19(5):603-615. Epub 2018 Mar 21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT01909453
    1. Update: Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, Chiarion Sileni V, Dutriaux C, de Groot JWB, Yamazaki N, Loquai C, Moutouh-de Parseval LA, Pickard MD, Sandor V, Robert C, Flaherty KT. Overall survival in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma receiving encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Oct;19(10):1315-1327. Epub 2018 Sep 12. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2018 Oct;19(10):e509. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Ascierto PA, Dummer R, Gogas HJ, Flaherty KT, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, de Groot JWB, Loquai C, Gollerkeri A, Pickard MD, Robert C. Update on tolerability and overall survival in COLUMBUS: landmark analysis of a randomised phase 3 trial of encorafenib plus binimetinib vs vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF V600-mutant melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Feb;126:33-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2019.11.016. Epub 2020 Jan 2. link to original article PubMed

Cobimetinib & Vemurafenib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Larkin et al. 2014 (coBRIM) 2013-2014 Phase III (E-RT-esc) Vemurafenib Superior OS (*)
Gutzmer et al. 2020 (IMspire150) 2017-2018 Phase III (C) Cobimetinib, Vemurafenib, Atezolizumab Seems to have inferior PFS

Efficacy reported for coBRIM is based on the 2016 update.

Targeted therapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. coBRIM: Larkin J, Ascierto PA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Maio M, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Sovak MA, Chang I, Choong N, Hack SP, McArthur GA, Ribas A. Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1867-76. Epub 2014 Sep 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ascierto PA, McArthur GA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Di Giacomo AM, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Yan Y, Wongchenko M, Chang I, Hsu JJ, Koralek DO, Rooney I, Ribas A, Larkin J. Cobimetinib combined with vemurafenib in advanced BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma (coBRIM): updated efficacy results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Sep;17(9):1248-60. Epub 2016 Jul 30. link to original article PubMed
  2. IMspire150: Gutzmer R, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Robert C, Lewis K, Protsenko S, Pereira RP, Eigentler T, Rutkowski P, Demidov L, Manikhas GM, Yan Y, Huang KC, Uyei A, McNally V, McArthur GA, Ascierto PA. Atezolizumab, vemurafenib, and cobimetinib as first-line treatment for unresectable advanced BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma (IMspire150): primary analysis of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2020 Jun 13;395(10240):1835-1844. link to original article PubMed NCT02908672

Cobimetinib, Vemurafenib, Atezolizumab

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Gutzmer et al. 2020 (IMspire150) 2017-2018 Phase III (E-RT-esc) Cobimetinib & Vemurafenib Seems to have superior PFS

Note: dosing details are from the FDA recommended dosing and are not available in the abstract.

Targeted therapy

Immunotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. IMspire150: Gutzmer R, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Robert C, Lewis K, Protsenko S, Pereira RP, Eigentler T, Rutkowski P, Demidov L, Manikhas GM, Yan Y, Huang KC, Uyei A, McNally V, McArthur GA, Ascierto PA. Atezolizumab, vemurafenib, and cobimetinib as first-line treatment for unresectable advanced BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma (IMspire150): primary analysis of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2020 Jun 13;395(10240):1835-1844. link to original article PubMed NCT02908672

Dabrafenib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Hauschild et al. 2012 (BREAK-3) 2010-2011 Phase III (E-RT-switch-ooc) Dacarbazine Superior PFS
Flaherty et al. 2012 (Novartis 113220) 2010-2011 Randomized Phase II (C) Dabrafenib & Trametinib Inferior PFS
Long et al. 2014 (COMBI-d) 2012-2013 Phase III (C) Dabrafenib & Trametinib Seems to have inferior OS

Targeted therapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. BREAK-3: Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Demidov LV, Jouary T, Gutzmer R, Millward M, Rutkowski P, Blank CU, Miller WH Jr, Kaempgen E, Martín-Algarra S, Karaszewska B, Mauch C, Chiarion-Sileni V, Martin AM, Swann S, Haney P, Mirakhur B, Guckert ME, Goodman V, Chapman PB. Dabrafenib in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Jul 28;380(9839):358-65. Epub 2012 Jun 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Novartis 113220: Flaherty KT, Infante JR, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Kefford RF, Sosman J, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Ibrahim N, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook G, Algazi A, Lewis K, Long GV, Puzanov I, Lebowitz P, Singh A, Little S, Sun P, Allred A, Ouellet D, Kim KB, Patel K, Weber J. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov;367(18):1694-703. Epub 2012 Sep 29. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Long GV, Weber JS, Infante JR, Kim KB, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Sosman JA, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Kefford RF, Lawrence D, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook GS, Algazi A, Lewis K, Puzanov I, Ibrahim N, Sun P, Cunningham E, Kline AS, Del Buono H, McDowell DO, Patel K, Flaherty KT. Overall survival and durable responses in patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma receiving dabrafenib combined with trametinib. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 10;34(8):871-8. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article PubMed
  3. COMBI-d: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Casey M, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Le N, Patel K, Flaherty K. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1877-88. Epub 2014 Sep 29. link to original article PubMed NCT01584648
    1. Update: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Swann S, Legos JJ, Jin F, Mookerjee B, Flaherty K. Dabrafenib and trametinib versus dabrafenib and placebo for Val600 BRAF-mutant melanoma: a multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):444-51. Epub 2015 May 31. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Long GV, Flaherty KT, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JBAG, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, Davies MA, Lane SR, Legos JJ, Mookerjee B, Grob JJ. Dabrafenib plus trametinib versus dabrafenib monotherapy in patients with metastatic BRAF V600E/K-mutant melanoma: long-term survival and safety analysis of a phase 3 study. Ann Oncol. 2017 Jul 1;28(7):1631-1639. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    3. Pooled update: Robert C, Grob JJ, Stroyakovskiy D, Karaszewska B, Hauschild A, Levchenko E, Chiarion Sileni V, Schachter J, Garbe C, Bondarenko I, Gogas H, Mandalá M, Haanen JBAG, Lebbé C, Mackiewicz A, Rutkowski P, Nathan PD, Ribas A, Davies MA, Flaherty KT, Burgess P, Tan M, Gasal E, Voi M, Schadendorf D, Long GV. Five-year outcomes with dabrafenib plus trametinib in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 15;381(7):626-636. Epub 2019 Jun 4. link to original article PubMed

Dabrafenib & Trametinib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Flaherty et al. 2012 (Novartis 113220) 2010-2011 Randomized Phase II (E-esc) Dabrafenib Superior PFS
Long et al. 2014 (COMBI-d) 2012-2013 Phase III (E-RT-esc) Dabrafenib Seems to have superior OS
Robert et al. 2014 (COMBI-v) 2012-2013 Phase III (E-RT-esc) Vemurafenib Superior OS

Targeted therapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. Novartis 113220: Flaherty KT, Infante JR, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Kefford RF, Sosman J, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Ibrahim N, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook G, Algazi A, Lewis K, Long GV, Puzanov I, Lebowitz P, Singh A, Little S, Sun P, Allred A, Ouellet D, Kim KB, Patel K, Weber J. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov;367(18):1694-703. Epub 2012 Sep 29. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Long GV, Weber JS, Infante JR, Kim KB, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Sosman JA, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Kefford RF, Lawrence D, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook GS, Algazi A, Lewis K, Puzanov I, Ibrahim N, Sun P, Cunningham E, Kline AS, Del Buono H, McDowell DO, Patel K, Flaherty KT. Overall survival and durable responses in patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma receiving dabrafenib combined with trametinib. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 10;34(8):871-8. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article PubMed
  2. COMBI-d: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Casey M, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Le N, Patel K, Flaherty K. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1877-88. Epub 2014 Sep 29. link to original article PubMed NCT01584648
    1. Update: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Swann S, Legos JJ, Jin F, Mookerjee B, Flaherty K. Dabrafenib and trametinib versus dabrafenib and placebo for Val600 BRAF-mutant melanoma: a multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):444-51. Epub 2015 May 31. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Long GV, Flaherty KT, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JBAG, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, Davies MA, Lane SR, Legos JJ, Mookerjee B, Grob JJ. Dabrafenib plus trametinib versus dabrafenib monotherapy in patients with metastatic BRAF V600E/K-mutant melanoma: long-term survival and safety analysis of a phase 3 study. Ann Oncol. 2017 Jul 1;28(7):1631-1639. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    3. Pooled update: Robert C, Grob JJ, Stroyakovskiy D, Karaszewska B, Hauschild A, Levchenko E, Chiarion Sileni V, Schachter J, Garbe C, Bondarenko I, Gogas H, Mandalá M, Haanen JBAG, Lebbé C, Mackiewicz A, Rutkowski P, Nathan PD, Ribas A, Davies MA, Flaherty KT, Burgess P, Tan M, Gasal E, Voi M, Schadendorf D, Long GV. Five-year outcomes with dabrafenib plus trametinib in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 15;381(7):626-636. Epub 2019 Jun 4. link to original article PubMed
  3. COMBI-v: Robert C, Karaszewska B, Schachter J, Rutkowski P, Mackiewicz A, Stroiakovski D, Lichinitser M, Dummer R, Grange F, Mortier L, Chiarion-Sileni V, Drucis K, Krajsova I, Hauschild A, Lorigan P, Wolter P, Long GV, Flaherty K, Nathan P, Ribas A, Martin AM, Sun P, Crist W, Legos J, Rubin SD, Little SM, Schadendorf D. Improved overall survival in melanoma with combined dabrafenib and trametinib. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 1;372(1):30-9. Epub 2014 Nov 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Robert C, Grob JJ, Stroyakovskiy D, Karaszewska B, Hauschild A, Levchenko E, Chiarion Sileni V, Schachter J, Garbe C, Bondarenko I, Gogas H, Mandalá M, Haanen JBAG, Lebbé C, Mackiewicz A, Rutkowski P, Nathan PD, Ribas A, Davies MA, Flaherty KT, Burgess P, Tan M, Gasal E, Voi M, Schadendorf D, Long GV. Five-year outcomes with dabrafenib plus trametinib in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 15;381(7):626-636. Epub 2019 Jun 4. link to original article PubMed

Dacarbazine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Chapman et al. 2011 (BRIM-3) 2010 Phase III (C) Vemurafenib Inferior OS
Hauschild et al. 2012 (BREAK-3) 2010-2011 Phase III (C) Dabrafenib Inferior PFS
Flaherty et al. 2012 (METRIC) 2010-2011 Phase III (C) Trametinib Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. BRIM-3: Chapman PB, Hauschild A, Robert C, Haanen JB, Ascierto P, Larkin J, Dummer R, Garbe C, Testori A, Maio M, Hogg D, Lorigan P, Lebbe C, Jouary T, Schadendorf D, Ribas A, O'Day SJ, Sosman JA, Kirkwood JM, Eggermont AM, Dreno B, Nolop K, Li J, Nelson B, Hou J, Lee RJ, Flaherty KT, McArthur GA; BRIM-3 Study Group. Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30;364(26):2507-16. Epub 2011 Jun 5. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: McArthur GA, Chapman PB, Robert C, Larkin J, Haanen JB, Dummer R, Ribas A, Hogg D, Hamid O, Ascierto PA, Garbe C, Testori A, Maio M, Lorigan P, Lebbé C, Jouary T, Schadendorf D, O'Day SJ, Kirkwood JM, Eggermont AM, Dréno B, Sosman JA, Flaherty KT, Yin M, Caro I, Cheng S, Trunzer K, Hauschild A. Safety and efficacy of vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM-3): extended follow-up of a phase 3, randomised, open-label study. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Mar;15(3):323-32. Epub 2014 Feb 7. link to PMC article PubMed
  2. BREAK-3: Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Demidov LV, Jouary T, Gutzmer R, Millward M, Rutkowski P, Blank CU, Miller WH Jr, Kaempgen E, Martín-Algarra S, Karaszewska B, Mauch C, Chiarion-Sileni V, Martin AM, Swann S, Haney P, Mirakhur B, Guckert ME, Goodman V, Chapman PB. Dabrafenib in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Jul 28;380(9839):358-65. Epub 2012 Jun 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. METRIC: Flaherty KT, Robert C, Hersey P, Nathan P, Garbe C, Milhem M, Demidov LV, Hassel JC, Rutkowski P, Mohr P, Dummer R, Trefzer U, Larkin JM, Utikal J, Dreno B, Nyakas M, Middleton MR, Becker JC, Casey M, Sherman LJ, Wu FS, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Patel K, Schadendorf D; METRIC Study Group. Improved survival with MEK inhibition in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 12;367(2):107-14. Epub 2012 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Paclitaxel monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Flaherty et al. 2012 (METRIC) 2010-2011 Phase III (C) Trametinib Seems to have inferior OS

This was a therapy option for patients in the control arm of METRIC. To our knowledge, this regimen was not tested as an experimental arm in an RCT prior to becoming a standard comparator arm.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. METRIC: Flaherty KT, Robert C, Hersey P, Nathan P, Garbe C, Milhem M, Demidov LV, Hassel JC, Rutkowski P, Mohr P, Dummer R, Trefzer U, Larkin JM, Utikal J, Dreno B, Nyakas M, Middleton MR, Becker JC, Casey M, Sherman LJ, Wu FS, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Patel K, Schadendorf D; METRIC Study Group. Improved survival with MEK inhibition in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 12;367(2):107-14. Epub 2012 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Trametinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Falchook et al. 2012 (MEK111054) 2008-2010 Phase 1, >20 pts in this dosing cohort
Kim et al. 2012 (GSK 113583) 2009-2010 Phase II ORR: 25%
Flaherty et al. 2012 (METRIC) 2010-2011 Phase III (E-RT-switch-ooc) 1. Dacarbazine
2. Paclitaxel
Seems to have superior OS

Targeted therapy

References

  1. METRIC: Flaherty KT, Robert C, Hersey P, Nathan P, Garbe C, Milhem M, Demidov LV, Hassel JC, Rutkowski P, Mohr P, Dummer R, Trefzer U, Larkin JM, Utikal J, Dreno B, Nyakas M, Middleton MR, Becker JC, Casey M, Sherman LJ, Wu FS, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Patel K, Schadendorf D; METRIC Study Group. Improved survival with MEK inhibition in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 12;367(2):107-14. Epub 2012 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Robert C, Flaherty K, Nathan P, Hersey P, Garbe C, Milhem M, Demidov L, Mohr P, Hassel JC, Rutkowski P, Dummer R, Utikal J, Kiecker F, Larkin J, D'Amelio A Jr, Mookerjee B, Schadendorf D. Five-year outcomes from a phase 3 METRIC study in patients with BRAF V600 E/K-mutant advanced or metastatic melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 2019 Mar;109:61-69. Epub 2019 Jan 25. link to original article PubMed
  2. Phase 1: Falchook GS, Lewis KD, Infante JR, Gordon MS, Vogelzang NJ, DeMarini DJ, Sun P, Moy C, Szabo SA, Roadcap LT, Peddareddigari VG, Lebowitz PF, Le NT, Burris HA 3rd, Messersmith WA, O'Dwyer PJ, Kim KB, Flaherty K, Bendell JC, Gonzalez R, Kurzrock R, Fecher LA. Activity of the oral MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with advanced melanoma: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Aug;13(8):782-9. Epub 2012 Jul 16. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. GSK 113583: Kim KB, Kefford R, Pavlick AC, Infante JR, Ribas A, Sosman JA, Fecher LA, Millward M, McArthur GA, Hwu P, Gonzalez R, Ott PA, Long GV, Gardner OS, Ouellet D, Xu Y, DeMarini DJ, Le NT, Patel K, Lewis KD. Phase II study of the MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant cutaneous melanoma previously treated with or without a BRAF inhibitor. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 1;31(4):482-9. Epub 2012 Dec 17. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Vemurafenib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Flaherty et al. 2010 NR Phase I/II
Sosman et al. 2012 (BRIM2) 2009-2010 Phase II (RT) ORR: 53% (95% CI: 44-62)
Chapman et al. 2011 (BRIM-3) 2010 Phase III (E-RT-switch-ooc) Dacarbazine Superior OS
Robert et al. 2014 (COMBI-v) 2012-2013 Phase III (C) Dabrafenib & Trametinib Inferior OS
Larkin et al. 2014 (coBRIM) 2013-2014 Phase III (C) Cobimetinib & Vemurafenib Inferior OS (*)
Dummer et al. 2018 (COLUMBUS) 2013-2015 Phase III (C) 1. Binimetinib & Encorafenib Inferior OS (*)
2. Encorafenib Not reported

Note: Reported efficacy for coBRIM is based on the 2016 update. Reported efficacy for COLUMBUS is based on the 2018 update.

Targeted therapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. Flaherty KT, Puzanov I, Kim KB, Ribas A, McArthur GA, Sosman JA, O'Dwyer PJ, Lee RJ, Grippo JF, Nolop K, Chapman PB. Inhibition of mutated, activated BRAF in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 26;363(9):809-19. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed
  2. BRIM-3: Chapman PB, Hauschild A, Robert C, Haanen JB, Ascierto P, Larkin J, Dummer R, Garbe C, Testori A, Maio M, Hogg D, Lorigan P, Lebbe C, Jouary T, Schadendorf D, Ribas A, O'Day SJ, Sosman JA, Kirkwood JM, Eggermont AM, Dreno B, Nolop K, Li J, Nelson B, Hou J, Lee RJ, Flaherty KT, McArthur GA; BRIM-3 Study Group. Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30;364(26):2507-16. Epub 2011 Jun 5. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: McArthur GA, Chapman PB, Robert C, Larkin J, Haanen JB, Dummer R, Ribas A, Hogg D, Hamid O, Ascierto PA, Garbe C, Testori A, Maio M, Lorigan P, Lebbé C, Jouary T, Schadendorf D, O'Day SJ, Kirkwood JM, Eggermont AM, Dréno B, Sosman JA, Flaherty KT, Yin M, Caro I, Cheng S, Trunzer K, Hauschild A. Safety and efficacy of vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM-3): extended follow-up of a phase 3, randomised, open-label study. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Mar;15(3):323-32. Epub 2014 Feb 7. link to PMC article PubMed
  3. BRIM2: Sosman JA, Kim KB, Schuchter L, Gonzalez R, Pavlick AC, Weber JS, McArthur GA, Hutson TE, Moschos SJ, Flaherty KT, Hersey P, Kefford R, Lawrence D, Puzanov I, Lewis KD, Amaravadi RK, Chmielowski B, Lawrence HJ, Shyr Y, Ye F, Li J, Nolop KB, Lee RJ, Joe AK, Ribas A. Survival in BRAF V600-mutant advanced melanoma treated with vemurafenib. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 23;366(8):707-14. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. coBRIM: Larkin J, Ascierto PA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Maio M, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Sovak MA, Chang I, Choong N, Hack SP, McArthur GA, Ribas A. Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1867-76. Epub 2014 Sep 29.link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ascierto PA, McArthur GA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Di Giacomo AM, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Yan Y, Wongchenko M, Chang I, Hsu JJ, Koralek DO, Rooney I, Ribas A, Larkin J. Cobimetinib combined with vemurafenib in advanced BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma (coBRIM): updated efficacy results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Sep;17(9):1248-60. Epub 2016 Jul 30. link to original article PubMed
  5. COMBI-v: Robert C, Karaszewska B, Schachter J, Rutkowski P, Mackiewicz A, Stroiakovski D, Lichinitser M, Dummer R, Grange F, Mortier L, Chiarion-Sileni V, Drucis K, Krajsova I, Hauschild A, Lorigan P, Wolter P, Long GV, Flaherty K, Nathan P, Ribas A, Martin AM, Sun P, Crist W, Legos J, Rubin SD, Little SM, Schadendorf D. Improved overall survival in melanoma with combined dabrafenib and trametinib. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 1;372(1):30-9. Epub 2014 Nov 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Robert C, Grob JJ, Stroyakovskiy D, Karaszewska B, Hauschild A, Levchenko E, Chiarion Sileni V, Schachter J, Garbe C, Bondarenko I, Gogas H, Mandalá M, Haanen JBAG, Lebbé C, Mackiewicz A, Rutkowski P, Nathan PD, Ribas A, Davies MA, Flaherty KT, Burgess P, Tan M, Gasal E, Voi M, Schadendorf D, Long GV. Five-year outcomes with dabrafenib plus trametinib in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 15;381(7):626-636. Epub 2019 Jun 4. link to original article PubMed
  6. COLUMBUS: Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, Chiarion-Sileni V, Dutriaux C, de Groot JWB, Yamazaki N, Loquai C, Moutouh-de Parseval LA, Pickard MD, Sandor V, Robert C, Flaherty KT. Encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 May;19(5):603-615. Epub 2018 Mar 21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT01909453
    1. Update: Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, Chiarion Sileni V, Dutriaux C, de Groot JWB, Yamazaki N, Loquai C, Moutouh-de Parseval LA, Pickard MD, Sandor V, Robert C, Flaherty KT. Overall survival in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma receiving encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Oct;19(10):1315-1327. Epub 2018 Sep 12. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2018 Oct;19(10):e509. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Ascierto PA, Dummer R, Gogas HJ, Flaherty KT, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, de Groot JWB, Loquai C, Gollerkeri A, Pickard MD, Robert C. Update on tolerability and overall survival in COLUMBUS: landmark analysis of a randomised phase 3 trial of encorafenib plus binimetinib vs vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF V600-mutant melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Feb;126:33-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2019.11.016. Epub 2020 Jan 2. link to original article PubMed

Advanced or metastatic disease, BRAF inhibitor-exposed

Trametinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Kim et al. 2012 (GSK 113583) Phase II ORR: 0%

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • Gene: BRAF
  • Alteration: V600E, V600K, or V600D

Targeted therapy

References

  1. GSK 113583: Kim KB, Kefford R, Pavlick AC, Infante JR, Ribas A, Sosman JA, Fecher LA, Millward M, McArthur GA, Hwu P, Gonzalez R, Ott PA, Long GV, Gardner OS, Ouellet D, Xu Y, DeMarini DJ, Le NT, Patel K, Lewis KD. Phase II study of the MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant cutaneous melanoma previously treated with or without a BRAF inhibitor. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 1;31(4):482-9. Epub 2012 Dec 17. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed