Melanoma, BRAF-mutated

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Elizabeth Buchbinder, MD
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Note: these are biomarker-specific regimens, please see the main melanoma page for other regimens.

8 regimens on this page
8 variants on this page


Adjuvant therapy

Dabrafenib & Trametinib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Long et al. 2017 (COMBI-AD) Phase III (E) Placebo Seems to have superior OS

Note: per the authors, "the between-group difference (P=0.0006) did not reach the prespecified threshold of P=0.000019 to claim statistical significance in the first interim analysis of overall survival."

Preceding treatment

  • Completion lymphadenectomy within 12 weeks

Chemotherapy

Up to 12-month course

References

  1. COMBI-AD: Long GV, Hauschild A, Santinami M, Atkinson V, Mandalà M, Chiarion-Sileni V, Larkin J, Nyakas M, Dutriaux C, Haydon A, Robert C, Mortier L, Schachter J, Schadendorf D, Lesimple T, Plummer R, Ji R, Zhang P, Mookerjee B, Legos J, Kefford R, Dummer R, Kirkwood JM. Adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in stage III BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 9;377(19):1813-1823. Epub 2017 Sep 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Long et al. 2017 (COMBI-AD) Phase III (C) Dabrafenib & Trametinib Seems to have inferior OS
Maio et al. 2018 (BRIM8) Phase III (C) Vemurafenib Might have inferior DFS

Note: per Long et al. 2017, "the between-group difference (P=0.0006) did not reach the prespecified threshold of P=0.000019 to claim statistical significance in the first interim analysis of overall survival."

Preceding treatment

  • COMBI-AD: Completion lymphadenectomy within 12 weeks
  • BRIM8: not specified in abstract

Treatment

  • Placebo

12-month course

References

  1. COMBI-AD: Long GV, Hauschild A, Santinami M, Atkinson V, Mandalà M, Chiarion-Sileni V, Larkin J, Nyakas M, Dutriaux C, Haydon A, Robert C, Mortier L, Schachter J, Schadendorf D, Lesimple T, Plummer R, Ji R, Zhang P, Mookerjee B, Legos J, Kefford R, Dummer R, Kirkwood JM. Adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in stage III BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 9;377(19):1813-1823. Epub 2017 Sep 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. BRIM8: Maio M, Lewis K, Demidov L, Mandalà M, Bondarenko I, Ascierto PA, Herbert C, Mackiewicz A, Rutkowski P, Guminski A, Goodman GR, Simmons B, Ye C, Yan Y, Schadendorf D; BRIM8 Investigators. Adjuvant vemurafenib in resected, BRAF(V600) mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM8): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Apr;19(4):510-520. Epub 2018 Feb 21. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2018 Apr;19(4):e184. link to original article PubMed

Advanced or metastatic disease, BRAF inhibitor-naive

Binimetinib & Encorafenib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Dummer et al. 2018 (COLUMBUS) Phase III (E) Encorafenib Not reported
Vemurafenib Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. COLUMBUS: Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, Chiarion-Sileni V, Dutriaux C, de Groot JWB, Yamazaki N, Loquai C, Moutouh-de Parseval LA, Pickard MD, Sandor V, Robert C, Flaherty KT. Encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 May;19(5):603-615. Epub 2018 Mar 21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Cobimetinib & Vemurafenib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Larkin et al. 2014 (coBRIM) Phase III (E) Vemurafenib Superior OS (*)

Efficacy reported for coBRIM is based on the interim update.

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. coBRIM: Larkin J, Ascierto PA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Maio M, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Sovak MA, Chang I, Choong N, Hack SP, McArthur GA, Ribas A. Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1867-76. Epub 2014 Sep 29.link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ascierto PA, McArthur GA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Di Giacomo AM, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Yan Y, Wongchenko M, Chang I, Hsu JJ, Koralek DO, Rooney I, Ribas A, Larkin J. Cobimetinib combined with vemurafenib in advanced BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma (coBRIM): updated efficacy results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Sep;17(9):1248-60. Epub 2016 Jul 30. link to original article PubMed

Dabrafenib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Hauschild et al. 2012 (BREAK-3) Phase III (E) Dacarbazine Superior PFS
Flaherty et al. 2012 Randomized Phase II (C) Dabrafenib & Trametinib Inferior PFS
Long et al. 2014 (COMBI-d) Randomized Phase II (C) Dabrafenib & Trametinib Seems to have inferior OS

Chemotherapy

Given until progression of disease

References

  1. BREAK-3: Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Demidov LV, Jouary T, Gutzmer R, Millward M, Rutkowski P, Blank CU, Miller WH Jr, Kaempgen E, Martín-Algarra S, Karaszewska B, Mauch C, Chiarion-Sileni V, Martin AM, Swann S, Haney P, Mirakhur B, Guckert ME, Goodman V, Chapman PB. Dabrafenib in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Jul 28;380(9839):358-65. Epub 2012 Jun 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Flaherty KT, Infante JR, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Kefford RF, Sosman J, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Ibrahim N, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook G, Algazi A, Lewis K, Long GV, Puzanov I, Lebowitz P, Singh A, Little S, Sun P, Allred A, Ouellet D, Kim KB, Patel K, Weber J. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov;367(18):1694-703. Epub 2012 Sep 29. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Long GV, Weber JS, Infante JR, Kim KB, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Sosman JA, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Kefford RF, Lawrence D, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook GS, Algazi A, Lewis K, Puzanov I, Ibrahim N, Sun P, Cunningham E, Kline AS, Del Buono H, McDowell DO, Patel K, Flaherty KT. Overall survival and durable responses in patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma receiving dabrafenib combined with trametinib. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 10;34(8):871-8. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article PubMed
  3. COMBI-d: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Casey M, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Le N, Patel K, Flaherty K. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1877-88. Epub 2014 Sep 29. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Swann S, Legos JJ, Jin F, Mookerjee B, Flaherty K. Dabrafenib and trametinib versus dabrafenib and placebo for Val600 BRAF-mutant melanoma: a multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):444-51. Epub 2015 May 31. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Long GV, Flaherty KT, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JBAG, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, Davies MA, Lane SR, Legos JJ, Mookerjee B, Grob JJ. Dabrafenib plus trametinib versus dabrafenib monotherapy in patients with metastatic BRAF V600E/K-mutant melanoma: long-term survival and safety analysis of a phase 3 study. Ann Oncol. 2017 Jul 1;28(7):1631-1639. link to original article PubMed

Dabrafenib & Trametinib

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Flaherty et al. 2012 Randomized Phase II (E) Dabrafenib Superior PFS
Long et al. 2014 (COMBI-d) Phase III (E) Dabrafenib Seems to have superior OS
Robert et al. 2014 (COMBI-v) Phase III (E) Vemurafenib Superior OS

Chemotherapy

Continued until progression

References

  1. Flaherty KT, Infante JR, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Kefford RF, Sosman J, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Ibrahim N, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook G, Algazi A, Lewis K, Long GV, Puzanov I, Lebowitz P, Singh A, Little S, Sun P, Allred A, Ouellet D, Kim KB, Patel K, Weber J. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov;367(18):1694-703. Epub 2012 Sep 29. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Long GV, Weber JS, Infante JR, Kim KB, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Sosman JA, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Kefford RF, Lawrence D, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA 3rd, Falchook GS, Algazi A, Lewis K, Puzanov I, Ibrahim N, Sun P, Cunningham E, Kline AS, Del Buono H, McDowell DO, Patel K, Flaherty KT. Overall survival and durable responses in patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma receiving dabrafenib combined with trametinib. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 10;34(8):871-8. Epub 2016 Jan 25. link to original article PubMed
  2. COMBI-d: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Casey M, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Le N, Patel K, Flaherty K. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1877-88. Epub 2014 Sep 29. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JB, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Kovalenko N, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, DeMarini DJ, Irani JG, Swann S, Legos JJ, Jin F, Mookerjee B, Flaherty K. Dabrafenib and trametinib versus dabrafenib and placebo for Val600 BRAF-mutant melanoma: a multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):444-51. Epub 2015 May 31. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Long GV, Flaherty KT, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, Levchenko E, de Braud F, Larkin J, Garbe C, Jouary T, Hauschild A, Chiarion-Sileni V, Lebbe C, Mandalà M, Millward M, Arance A, Bondarenko I, Haanen JBAG, Hansson J, Utikal J, Ferraresi V, Mohr P, Probachai V, Schadendorf D, Nathan P, Robert C, Ribas A, Davies MA, Lane SR, Legos JJ, Mookerjee B, Grob JJ. Dabrafenib plus trametinib versus dabrafenib monotherapy in patients with metastatic BRAF V600E/K-mutant melanoma: long-term survival and safety analysis of a phase 3 study. Ann Oncol. 2017 Jul 1;28(7):1631-1639. link to original article PubMed
  3. Robert C, Karaszewska B, Schachter J, Rutkowski P, Mackiewicz A, Stroiakovski D, Lichinitser M, Dummer R, Grange F, Mortier L, Chiarion-Sileni V, Drucis K, Krajsova I, Hauschild A, Lorigan P, Wolter P, Long GV, Flaherty K, Nathan P, Ribas A, Martin AM, Sun P, Crist W, Legos J, Rubin SD, Little SM, Schadendorf D. Improved overall survival in melanoma with combined dabrafenib and trametinib. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 1;372(1):30-9. Epub 2014 Nov 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Trametinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Flaherty et al. 2012 (METRIC) Phase III (E) Dacarbazine
Paclitaxel
Seems to have superior OS
Falchook et al. 2012 (MEK111054) Phase 1, >20 pts in this dosing cohort
Kim et al. 2012 Phase II ORR: 25%

Chemotherapy

References

  1. METRIC: Flaherty KT, Robert C, Hersey P, Nathan P, Garbe C, Milhem M, Demidov LV, Hassel JC, Rutkowski P, Mohr P, Dummer R, Trefzer U, Larkin JM, Utikal J, Dreno B, Nyakas M, Middleton MR, Becker JC, Casey M, Sherman LJ, Wu FS, Ouellet D, Martin AM, Patel K, Schadendorf D; METRIC Study Group. Improved survival with MEK inhibition in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 12;367(2):107-14. Epub 2012 Jun 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Phase 1: Falchook GS, Lewis KD, Infante JR, Gordon MS, Vogelzang NJ, DeMarini DJ, Sun P, Moy C, Szabo SA, Roadcap LT, Peddareddigari VG, Lebowitz PF, Le NT, Burris HA 3rd, Messersmith WA, O'Dwyer PJ, Kim KB, Flaherty K, Bendell JC, Gonzalez R, Kurzrock R, Fecher LA. Activity of the oral MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with advanced melanoma: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Aug;13(8):782-9. Epub 2012 Jul 16. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. Kim KB, Kefford R, Pavlick AC, Infante JR, Ribas A, Sosman JA, Fecher LA, Millward M, McArthur GA, Hwu P, Gonzalez R, Ott PA, Long GV, Gardner OS, Ouellet D, Xu Y, DeMarini DJ, Le NT, Patel K, Lewis KD. Phase II study of the MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant cutaneous melanoma previously treated with or without a BRAF inhibitor. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 1;31(4):482-9. Epub 2012 Dec 17. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Vemurafenib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Flaherty et al. 2010 Phase I/II
Chapman et al. 2011 (BRIM-3) Phase III (E) Dacarbazine Superior OS
Sosman et al. 2012 (BRIM2) Phase II ORR: 53% (95% CI: 44-62)
Larkin et al. 2014 (coBRIM) Phase III (C) Cobimetinib & Vemurafenib Inferior OS (*)
Robert et al. 2014 (COMBI-v) Phase III (C) Dabrafenib & Trametinib Inferior OS
Dummer et al. 2018 (COLUMBUS) Phase III (C) Binimetinib & Encorafenib Inferior PFS
Encorafenib Not reported

Efficacy reported for coBRIM is based on the interim update.

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. Flaherty KT, Puzanov I, Kim KB, Ribas A, McArthur GA, Sosman JA, O'Dwyer PJ, Lee RJ, Grippo JF, Nolop K, Chapman PB. Inhibition of mutated, activated BRAF in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 26;363(9):809-19. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed
  2. BRIM-3: Chapman PB, Hauschild A, Robert C, Haanen JB, Ascierto P, Larkin J, Dummer R, Garbe C, Testori A, Maio M, Hogg D, Lorigan P, Lebbe C, Jouary T, Schadendorf D, Ribas A, O'Day SJ, Sosman JA, Kirkwood JM, Eggermont AM, Dreno B, Nolop K, Li J, Nelson B, Hou J, Lee RJ, Flaherty KT, McArthur GA; BRIM-3 Study Group. Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30;364(26):2507-16. Epub 2011 Jun 5. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: McArthur GA, Chapman PB, Robert C, Larkin J, Haanen JB, Dummer R, Ribas A, Hogg D, Hamid O, Ascierto PA, Garbe C, Testori A, Maio M, Lorigan P, Lebbé C, Jouary T, Schadendorf D, O'Day SJ, Kirkwood JM, Eggermont AM, Dréno B, Sosman JA, Flaherty KT, Yin M, Caro I, Cheng S, Trunzer K, Hauschild A. Safety and efficacy of vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM-3): extended follow-up of a phase 3, randomised, open-label study. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Mar;15(3):323-32. Epub 2014 Feb 7. link to PMC article PubMed
  3. BRIM2: Sosman JA, Kim KB, Schuchter L, Gonzalez R, Pavlick AC, Weber JS, McArthur GA, Hutson TE, Moschos SJ, Flaherty KT, Hersey P, Kefford R, Lawrence D, Puzanov I, Lewis KD, Amaravadi RK, Chmielowski B, Lawrence HJ, Shyr Y, Ye F, Li J, Nolop KB, Lee RJ, Joe AK, Ribas A. Survival in BRAF V600-mutant advanced melanoma treated with vemurafenib. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 23;366(8):707-14. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. coBRIM: Larkin J, Ascierto PA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Maio M, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Sovak MA, Chang I, Choong N, Hack SP, McArthur GA, Ribas A. Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1867-76. Epub 2014 Sep 29.link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Ascierto PA, McArthur GA, Dréno B, Atkinson V, Liszkay G, Di Giacomo AM, Mandalà M, Demidov L, Stroyakovskiy D, Thomas L, de la Cruz-Merino L, Dutriaux C, Garbe C, Yan Y, Wongchenko M, Chang I, Hsu JJ, Koralek DO, Rooney I, Ribas A, Larkin J. Cobimetinib combined with vemurafenib in advanced BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma (coBRIM): updated efficacy results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Sep;17(9):1248-60. Epub 2016 Jul 30. link to original article PubMed
  5. COMBI-v: Robert C, Karaszewska B, Schachter J, Rutkowski P, Mackiewicz A, Stroiakovski D, Lichinitser M, Dummer R, Grange F, Mortier L, Chiarion-Sileni V, Drucis K, Krajsova I, Hauschild A, Lorigan P, Wolter P, Long GV, Flaherty K, Nathan P, Ribas A, Martin AM, Sun P, Crist W, Legos J, Rubin SD, Little SM, Schadendorf D. Improved overall survival in melanoma with combined dabrafenib and trametinib. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 1;372(1):30-9. Epub 2014 Nov 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. COLUMBUS: Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, Garbe C, Schadendorf D, Krajsova I, Gutzmer R, Chiarion-Sileni V, Dutriaux C, de Groot JWB, Yamazaki N, Loquai C, Moutouh-de Parseval LA, Pickard MD, Sandor V, Robert C, Flaherty KT. Encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 May;19(5):603-615. Epub 2018 Mar 21. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Advanced or metastatic disease, BRAF inhibitor-exposed

Trametinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Kim et al. 2012 Phase II ORR: 0%

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Kim KB, Kefford R, Pavlick AC, Infante JR, Ribas A, Sosman JA, Fecher LA, Millward M, McArthur GA, Hwu P, Gonzalez R, Ott PA, Long GV, Gardner OS, Ouellet D, Xu Y, DeMarini DJ, Le NT, Patel K, Lewis KD. Phase II study of the MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant cutaneous melanoma previously treated with or without a BRAF inhibitor. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 1;31(4):482-9. Epub 2012 Dec 17. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed