Anal cancer

From HemOnc.org - A Hematology Oncology Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Use of this site is subject to you reading and agreeing with the terms set forth in the disclaimer.

Is there a regimen missing from this list? Would you like to share a different dosage/schedule or an additional reference for a regimen? Have you noticed an error? Do you have an idea that will help the site grow to better meet your needs and the needs of many others? You are invited to contribute to the site.

4 regimens on this page
6 variants on this page


Guidelines

ESMO

NCCN

Chemotherapy & radiation therapy

Fluorouracil, cisplatin, radiation therapy

Source: Fluorouracil, cisplatin, radiation therapy for anal cancer

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ajani et al. 2008 (RTOG 98-11) Phase III Fluorouracil, Mitomycin, radiation Seems not superior
James et al. 2013 (ACT II) Phase III Fluorouracil, Mitomycin, radiation Seems not superior

Included for reference purposes only.

References

  1. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett C. Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. James RD, Glynne-Jones R, Meadows HM, Cunningham D, Myint AS, Saunders MP, Maughan T, McDonald A, Essapen S, Leslie M, Falk S, Wilson C, Gollins S, Begum R, Ledermann J, Kadalayil L, Sebag-Montefiore D. Mitomycin or cisplatin chemoradiation with or without maintenance chemotherapy for treatment of squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II): a randomised, phase 3, open-label, 2×2 factorial trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):516-24. Epub 2013 Apr 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed


Fluorouracil, mitomycin, radiation therapy

Source: Fluorouracil, mitomycin, radiation therapy for anal cancer

back to top

Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
James et al. 2013 (ACT II) Phase III Fluorouracil, Cisplatin, radiation Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) 1000 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion on days 1 to 4, 29 to 32
  • Mitomycin (Mutamycin) 12 mg/m2 (maximum dose per cycle: 20 mg) IV bolus once on day 1
  • Concurrent radiation therapy: 1.8 Gy per day x 28 fractions (total dose: 50.4 Gy), given over 5.5 weeks; see paper for details

5.5-week course

Patients were then randomized to maintenance cisplatin & fluorouracil vs. observation.

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial Working Party 1996 (ACT I) Phase III Radiation Superior local failure rate

Because there were a few different schedules used in UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial Working Party 1996 and the update (Northover et al. 2010), there is some variability in potential schedules.

Chemotherapy

  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) 1000 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion over 4 days (total dose for the week's treatment: 4000 mg/m2) during the first and last weeks of radiation therapy, started at least 2 hours before the first radiation fraction
    • Alternate dosing & schedule (per physician discretion): Fluorouracil (5-FU) 750 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion over 5 days (total dose for the week's treatment: 3750 mg/m2) during the first and last weeks of radiation therapy
  • Mitomycin (Mutamycin) 12 mg/m2 (maximum dose per cycle: 20 mg) IV bolus once on day 1
  • Concurrent radiation therapy: 1.8 or 2.25 Gy fractions x 20 or 25 fractions (total dose: 45 Gy), given over 4 to 5 weeks; see Northover et al. 2010 for details, including information about boost radiation therapy

4 or 5-week course

Regimen #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ajani et al. 2008 (RTOG 98-11) Phase III Fluorouracil, Cisplatin, radiation Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) 1000 mg/m2/day IV continuous infusion on days 1 to 4, 29 to 32
  • Mitomycin (Mutamycin) 10 mg/m2 (maximum dose per cycle: 20 mg) IV bolus once per day on days 1 & 29
  • Concurrent radiation therapy; at a minimum: 1.8 Gy per day x 25 fractions (total dose: 45 Gy), given over 5 weeks; see article for additional details

5-week course

References

  1. UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial Working Party. UK Co-ordinating Committee on Cancer Research. Lancet. Epidermoid anal cancer: results from the UKCCCR randomised trial of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin. Lancet. 1996 Oct 19;348(9034):1049-54. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Northover J, Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, James R, Meadows H, Wan S, Jitlal M, Ledermann J. Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I). Br J Cancer. 2010 Mar 30;102(7):1123-8. Epub 2010 Mar 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
  2. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett C. Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. James RD, Glynne-Jones R, Meadows HM, Cunningham D, Myint AS, Saunders MP, Maughan T, McDonald A, Essapen S, Leslie M, Falk S, Wilson C, Gollins S, Begum R, Ledermann J, Kadalayil L, Sebag-Montefiore D. Mitomycin or cisplatin chemoradiation with or without maintenance chemotherapy for treatment of squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II): a randomised, phase 3, open-label, 2×2 factorial trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):516-24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed


Radiation therapy

Source: Radiation therapy for anal cancer

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial Working Party 1996 (ACT I) Phase III Fluorouracil, Mitomycin, radiation Inferior local failure rate

Inferior to combined modality therapy; included for reference purposes only.

References

  1. UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial Working Party. UK Co-ordinating Committee on Cancer Research. Lancet. Epidermoid anal cancer: results from the UKCCCR randomised trial of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin. 1996 Oct 19;348(9034):1049-54. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Northover J, Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, James R, Meadows H, Wan S, Jitlal M, Ledermann J. Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I). Br J Cancer. 2010 Mar 30;102(7):1123-8. Epub 2010 Mar 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed


Chemotherapy

Fluorouracil & Cisplatin

Source: Fluorouracil & cisplatin for anal cancer

back to top

Regimen

Study Evidence
Faivre et al. 1999 Pilot, <20 patients reported

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Faivre C, Rougier P, Ducreux M, Mitry E, Lusinchi A, Lasser P, Elias D, Eschwege F. [5-fluorouracile and cisplatinum combination chemotherapy for metastatic squamous-cell anal cancer]. [Article in French] Bull Cancer. 1999 Oct;86(10):861-5. link to original article & English summary contains protocol PubMed