Upper tract urothelial carcinoma

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Risa L. Wong, MD
University of Washington
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Seattle, WA

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Ali Raza Khaki, MD
University of Washington
Seattle, WA

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3 regimens on this page
5 variants on this page

Note: the page has regimens specific to upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Please see the bladder cancer page for regimens intended more generically for urothelial cancer.


Guidelines

NCCN

Adjuvant therapy

Carboplatin & Gemcitabine

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GCb: Gemcitabine & Carboplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Birtle et al. 2020 (POUT) 2012-2017 Phase III (E-esc) Observation Superior DFS

Note: carboplatin was administered if GFR was less than 50 mL/min.

Preceding Treatment

  • Nephroureterectomy with pathologic stage pT2–T4 pN0–N3 M0 or pTany N1–3 M0 performed within preceding 90 days

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. POUT: Birtle A, Johnson M, Chester J, Jones R, Dolling D, Bryan RT, Harris C, Winterbottom A, Blacker A, Catto JWF, Chakraborti P, Donovan JL, Elliott PA, French A, Jagdev S, Jenkins B, Keeley FX Jr, Kockelbergh R, Powles T, Wagstaff J, Wilson C, Todd R, Lewis R, Hall E. Adjuvant chemotherapy in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (the POUT trial): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2020 Apr 18;395(10232):1268-1277. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01993979

Cisplatin & Gemcitabine

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GC: Gemcitabine & Cisplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Birtle et al. 2020 (POUT) 2012-2017 Phase III (E-esc) Observation Superior DFS

Preceding Treatment

  • Nephroureterectomy with pathologic stage pT2–T4 pN0–N3 M0 or pTany N1–3 M0 performed within preceding 90 days

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

References

  1. POUT: Birtle A, Johnson M, Chester J, Jones R, Dolling D, Bryan RT, Harris C, Winterbottom A, Blacker A, Catto JWF, Chakraborti P, Donovan JL, Elliott PA, French A, Jagdev S, Jenkins B, Keeley FX Jr, Kockelbergh R, Powles T, Wagstaff J, Wilson C, Todd R, Lewis R, Hall E. Adjuvant chemotherapy in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (the POUT trial): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2020 Apr 18;395(10232):1268-1277. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01993979

Pirarubicin monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Ito et al. 2013 (THP Monotherapy Study Group Trial) 2005-2008 Randomized Phase II (E-esc) Observation Seems to have superior RFS

Pirarubicin was given within 48 hours after nephroureterectomy.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Pirarubicin (THP) 30 mg in 30 mL normal saline intravesicularly, delivered through a catheter into the bladder, and retained for 30 minutes

1 dose

References

  1. THP Monotherapy Study Group Trial: Ito A, Shintaku I, Satoh M, Ioritani N, Aizawa M, Tochigi T, Kawamura S, Aoki H, Numata I, Takeda A, Namiki S, Namima T, Ikeda Y, Kambe K, Kyan A, Ueno S, Orikasa K, Katoh S, Adachi H, Tokuyama S, Ishidoya S, Yamaguchi T, Arai Y. Prospective randomized phase II trial of a single early intravesical instillation of pirarubicin (THP) in the prevention of bladder recurrence after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: the THP Monotherapy Study Group Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Apr 10;31(11):1422-7. Epub 2013 Mar 4. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Definitive therapy

UGN-101 (mitomycin-containing reverse thermal gel) monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Efficacy Toxicity
Kleinmann et al. 2000 (OLYMPUS) 2017-2018 Single-Arm Phase III (E) Primary endpoint CR 59% (95% CI 47-71)
ORR 70%
Serious AE: 27% (e.g. ureteric stenosis, hydronephrosis, flank pain, urosepsis)

Chemotherapy

UGN-101: sterile RTGel reverse thermogelation hydrogel (UroGen Pharma, Ra'anana, Israel) + mitomycin 4 mg/mL gel to renal pelvis and calyces via retrograde ureteral catheter

  • Instilled volume for each patient determined by averaging three fluoroscopically guided volumetric measurements of patient's renal pelvis and calyces
  • Reverse thermal properties of UGN-101 allows for local administration as a liquid with subsequent conversion to semi-solid gel depot following instillation into upper tract; normal urine flow dissolves gel depot, allowing tissue exposure to mitomycin over 4-6 hrs

7-day cycle for 6 cycles

References

  1. OLYMPUS: Kleinmann N, Matin SF, Pierorazio PM, Gore JL, Shabsigh A, Hu B, Chamie K, Godoy G, Hubosky S, Rivera M, O'Donnell M, Quek M, Raman JD, Knoedler JJ, Scherr D, Stern J, Weight C, Weizer A, Woods M, Kaimakliotis H, Smith AB, Linehan J, Coleman J, Humphreys MR, Pak R, Lifshitz D, Verni M, Adibi M, Amin MB, Seltzer E, Klein I, Konorty M, Strauss-Ayali D, Hakim G, Schoenberg M, Lerner SP. Primary chemoablation of low-grade upper tract urothelial carcinoma using UGN-101, a mitomycin-containing reverse thermal gel (OLYMPUS): an open-label, single-arm, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Jun;21(6):776-785. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT02793128

Urine assays

These are assays intended/being investigated as adjuncts to urine cytology and cystoscopy.

  • Cxbladder (uRNA-2), a "urine based bladder cancer test (uRNA-2) which detects RNA markers in urine."
  • ImmunoCyt™/uCyt+™, a cell-based detection assay which "uses fluorescent-labeled antibodies to 3 markers that are commonly found on malignant exfoliated urothelial cells."[1]
  • UroVysion (Abbott Molecular) "designed to detect aneuploidy for chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and loss of the 9p21 locus via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in urine specimens from persons with hematuria suspected of having bladder cancer."
  • Greene KL, Berry A, Konety BR. Diagnostic Utility of the ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ Test in Bladder Cancer. Rev Urol. 2006 Fall;8(4):190-7. link to PMC article PubMed