T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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8 regimens on this page
10 variants on this page

Contents


Note that many of the regimens used to treat this disease are generic to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; this page contains regimens that are specific to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (a.k.a. T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma when primarily nodal-based).

Guidelines

NCCN

Pre-phase

Prednisone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Lepretre et al. 2015 (GRAALL-LYSA LL03) Phase II

Chemotherapy

CNS treatment

Patients then proceed to cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, L-asparaginase, vincristine, prednisone reinforced induction.

References

  1. Lepretre S, Touzart A, Vermeulin T, Picquenot JM, Tanguy-Schmidt A, Salles G, Lamy T, Béné MC, Raffoux E, Huguet F, Chevallier P, Bologna S, Bouabdallah R, Benichou J, Brière J, Moreau A, Tallon-Simon V, Seris S, Graux C, Asnafi V, Ifrah N, Macintyre E, Dombret H. Pediatric-Like Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Therapy in Adults With Lymphoblastic Lymphoma: The GRAALL-LYSA LL03 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 20;34(6):572-80. Epub 2015 Dec 7. link to original article link to data supplement contains protocol PubMed

Upfront induction therapy

Daunorubicin, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone

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Regimen, modified ABFM

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
See note (COG AALL1231) Phase III Daunorubicin, L-Asparaginase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone, Bortezomib TBD

Note: this regimen is available as a COG protocol but no manuscript has been published yet, to our knowledge. Per the protocol, it is intended only for patients greater than 1 and less than 31 years of age. It is based on the UKALL 2003 backbone, although there are some differences.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

  • Cytarabine (Cytosar) as follows:
    • Ages 1 to 1.99: 30 mg IT once on day 1
    • Ages 2 to 2.99: 50 mg IT once on day 1
    • Age 3 and older: 70 mg IT once on day 1
  • Methotrexate (MTX) as follows:
    • Ages 1 to 1.99: 8 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29
    • Ages 2 to 2.99: 10 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29
    • Ages 3 to 8.99: 12 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29
    • Age 9 and older: 15 mg IT once per day on days 8 & 29

4-week course

Treatment followed by cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, mercaptopurine, pegaspargase, vincristine consolidation. Bone marrow biopsy is required after induction, to determine post-consolidation risk stratification and therapy.

References

  1. Vora A, Goulden N, Wade R, Mitchell C, Hancock J, Hough R, Rowntree C, Richards S. Treatment reduction for children and young adults with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia defined by minimal residual disease (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Mar;14(3):199-209. link to original article PubMed
  2. COG AALL1231: TBD, see note

Daunorubicin, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Prednisone

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Winter et al. 2015 (COG AALL0434) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Chemotherapy

4-week course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Winter SS, Dunsmore KP, Devidas M, Eisenberg N, Asselin BL, Wood BL, Leonard Rn MS, Murphy J, Gastier-Foster JM, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Loh ML, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP. Safe integration of nelarabine into intensive chemotherapy in newly diagnosed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Children's Oncology Group Study AALL0434. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015 Jul;62(7):1176-83. Epub 2015 Mar 8. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cyclophosphamide, Daunorubicin, L-Asparaginase, Vincristine, Prednisone

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Asparaginase (Elspar) was discontinued by the manufacturer in December 2012, and is now essentially out of stock. Alternatives include Pegaspargase (Oncaspar) or Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi (Erwinaze).

Regimen, "Pediatric-like GRAALL reinforced induction"

Study Evidence
Lepretre et al. 2015 (GRAALL-LYSA LL03) Phase II

Note: This regimen was meant for patients less than 60 years old (up to age 59). Regimen is as per the GRAALL-2003 Study with some minor differences. High-risk patients with an HLA sibling-matched donor or a fully matched (10/10) unrelated donor who achieved CR1 were offered allogeneic stem cell transplant.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

CNS prophylaxis

One course

See paper for details beyond induction.

References

  1. Lepretre S, Touzart A, Vermeulin T, Picquenot JM, Tanguy-Schmidt A, Salles G, Lamy T, Béné MC, Raffoux E, Huguet F, Chevallier P, Bologna S, Bouabdallah R, Benichou J, Brière J, Moreau A, Tallon-Simon V, Seris S, Graux C, Asnafi V, Ifrah N, Macintyre E, Dombret H. Pediatric-Like Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Therapy in Adults With Lymphoblastic Lymphoma: The GRAALL-LYSA LL03 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 20;34(6):572-80. Epub 2015 Dec 7. link to original article link to data supplement contains protocol PubMed

Consolidation after upfront therapy

Allogeneic HSCT

To be completed

References

  1. Schrauder A, Reiter A, Gadner H, Niethammer D, Klingebiel T, Kremens B, Peters C, Ebell W, Zimmermann M, Niggli F, Ludwig WD, Riehm H, Welte K, Schrappe M. Superiority of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation compared with chemotherapy alone in high-risk childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from ALL-BFM 90 and 95. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5742-9. link to original article PubMed

Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine, Mercaptopurine, Nelarabine, Pegaspargase, Vincristine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Winter et al. 2015 (COG AALL0434) Phase III Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine, Mercaptopurine, Pegaspargase, Vincristine Not reported Similar toxicity

Note: although the induction doses of vincristine are capped at 2 mg, capping is not mentioned in the subsequent phases of treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) (dose not specified) IT on days 15, 22, 57, 64
  • Cranial irradiation in some arms (see paper for details)

One course

Subsequent treatment

  • Interim maintenance; see paper for details

References

  1. Winter SS, Dunsmore KP, Devidas M, Eisenberg N, Asselin BL, Wood BL, Leonard Rn MS, Murphy J, Gastier-Foster JM, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Loh ML, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP. Safe integration of nelarabine into intensive chemotherapy in newly diagnosed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Children's Oncology Group Study AALL0434. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015 Jul;62(7):1176-83. Epub 2015 Mar 8. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine, Mercaptopurine, Pegaspargase, Vincristine

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Winter et al. 2015 (COG AALL0434) Phase III Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine, Mercaptopurine, Nelarabine, Pegaspargase, Vincristine Not reported Similar toxicity

Note: although the induction doses of vincristine are capped at 2 mg, capping is not mentioned in the subsequent phases of treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) (dose not specified) IT on days 15, 22, 57, 64
  • Cranial irradiation in some arms (see paper for details)

One course

Subsequent treatment

  • Interim maintenance; see paper for details

Regimen #2

Study Evidence
See note (COG AALL1231) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Note: this regimen is available as a COG protocol but no manuscript has been published yet, to our knowledge. Per the protocol, it is intended only for patients greater than 1 and less than 31 years of age.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Mesna (Mesnex) "is not required for this dose of cyclophosphamide, but may be administered at institutional discretion."

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) as follows, for CNS3:
    • Ages 1 to 1.99: 8 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Ages 2 to 2.99: 10 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Ages 3 to 8.99: 12 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Age 9 and older: 15 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8

One course

See protocol for details of treatment beyond consolidation, which is guided by MRD status obtained at the end of induction.

References

  1. Winter SS, Dunsmore KP, Devidas M, Eisenberg N, Asselin BL, Wood BL, Leonard Rn MS, Murphy J, Gastier-Foster JM, Carroll AJ, Heerema NA, Loh ML, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP. Safe integration of nelarabine into intensive chemotherapy in newly diagnosed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Children's Oncology Group Study AALL0434. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015 Jul;62(7):1176-83. Epub 2015 Mar 8. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. COG AALL1231: TBD, see note

Consolidation after salvage therapy

Allogeneic HSCT

To be completed

Relapsed or refractory

Mitoxantrone, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Parker et al. 2010 (UK ALL R3) Phase III, <20 pts in this subgroup Idarubicin, Pegaspargase, Vincristine, Dexamethasone Seems not superior

Note: per the protocol, this regimen is intended only for patients 18 and younger. This is the same regimen used in relapsed B-ALL, but this subgroup did not have a statistically significant difference between the regimens.

Chemotherapy

CNS prophylaxis

  • Methotrexate (MTX) as follows:
    • Age less than 2: 8 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Age 2: 10 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8
    • Age older than 2: 12 mg IT once per day on days 1 & 8

4-week course

See paper for details of treatment beyond induction.

References

  1. Parker C, Waters R, Leighton C, Hancock J, Sutton R, Moorman AV, Ancliff P, Morgan M, Masurekar A, Goulden N, Green N, Révész T, Darbyshire P, Love S, Saha V. Effect of mitoxantrone on outcome of children with first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL R3): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2010 Dec 11;376(9757):2009-17. Epub 2010 Dec 3. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Nelarabine monotherapy

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Regimen #1, 5-day dosing

Study Evidence Efficacy
Zwaan et al. 2017 Phase IV ORR: 39%

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Regimen #2, intermittent dosing

Study Evidence Efficacy
DeAngelo et al. 2007 (CALGB 19801) Phase II ORR: 41% (95% CI, 15-43)

See paper for details about the schedule.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 3 to 4 cycles (or delayed for count recovery)

References

  1. DeAngelo DJ, Yu D, Johnson JL, Coutre SE, Stone RM, Stopeck AT, Gockerman JP, Mitchell BS, Appelbaum FR, Larson RA. Nelarabine induces complete remissions in adults with relapsed or refractory T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19801. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5136-42. Epub 2007 Mar 7. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Zwaan CM, Kowalczyk J, Schmitt C, Bielorai B, Russo MW, Woessner M, Ranganathan S, Leverger G. Safety and efficacy of nelarabine in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or T-lineage lymphoblastic lymphoma: results of a phase 4 study. Br J Haematol. 2017 Oct;179(2):284-293. Epub 2017 Aug 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed