Aplastic anemia

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8 regimens on this page
10 variants on this page


Initial therapy

ATG (Horse) & Cyclosporine

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Regimen #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Scheinberg et al. 2009 Phase III ATG (Horse), Cyclosporine, Sirolimus Seems not superior
Tichelli et al. 2011 Phase III ATG (Horse), Cyclosporine, G-CSF Seems not superior
Scheinberg et al. 2011 Phase III ATG (Rabbit) & Cyclosporine Superior OS

Immunotherapy

  • Antithymocyte globulin, horse ATG (Atgam) 40 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1 to 4
  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 10 mg/kg in divided doses q12h (15 mg/kg for children younger than 12) on day 1
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 200 to 400 ng/ml
    • Duration: at least 6 months; among responders, CsA was tapered after 6 months with a 25% reduction in dose every 3 months for 18 more months, totaling 2 years of oral CsA (per Scheinberg et al. 2009)

Supportive medications

Regimen #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Teramura et al. 2007 Phase III ATG (Horse), Cyclosporine, G-CSF Seems to have inferior hematologic response rate at 6 months

Immunotherapy

  • Horse ATG (Lymphoglobuline; Merieux, Lyon, France) 15 mg/kg IV over 12 hours once per day on days 1 to 5
  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 6 mg/kg/day, continued for at least 28 weeks
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 150 to 250 ng/ml

Supportive medications

  • Prednisolone (Millipred) to prevent serum sickness, as follows:
    • Days 1 to 9: 1 mg/kg/day PO
    • Days 10 to 15: 0.5 mg/kg/day PO
    • Days 16 to 21: 0.2 mg/kg/day PO

Regimen #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Marsh et al. 1999 Phase III Cyclosporine Seems to have superior ORR

Immunotherapy

  • Horse ATG (Lymphoglobuline; Merieux, Lyon, France) 15 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1 to 5
  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 5 mg/kg/day in two divided doses
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 75 to 200 ng/ml
    • Duration: at least 6 months; if blood cell count continued to increase at 6 months, continued at the therapeutic dose until the blood cell count plateaued, then reduced gradually to help prevent a relapse of the aplasia, per individual clinician discretion

Supportive medications

  • Prednisolone (Millipred) to prevent serum sickness, as follows:
    • Days 5 to 13: 1 mg/kg/day PO
    • Days 14 to 20: reduced to zero over one week (tapering schedule not provided)

References

  1. Marsh J, Schrezenmeier H, Marin P, Ilhan O, Ljungman P, McCann S, Socie G, Tichelli A, Passweg J, Hows J, Raghavachar A, Locasciulli A, Bacigalupo A. Prospective randomized multicenter study comparing cyclosporin alone versus the combination of antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin for treatment of patients with nonsevere aplastic anemia: a report from the European Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Party. Blood. 1999 Apr 1;93(7):2191-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Teramura M, Kimura A, Iwase S, Yonemura Y, Nakao S, Urabe A, Omine M, Mizoguchi H. Treatment of severe aplastic anemia with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A with or without G-CSF in adults: a multicenter randomized study in Japan. Blood. 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1756-61. Epub 2007 May 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. Scheinberg P, Wu CO, Nunez O, Scheinberg P, Boss C, Sloand EM, Young NS. Treatment of severe aplastic anemia with a combination of horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine, with or without sirolimus: a prospective randomized study. Haematologica. 2009 Mar;94(3):348-54. Epub 2009 Jan 30. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  4. Tichelli A, Schrezenmeier H, Socié G, Marsh J, Bacigalupo A, Dührsen U, Franzke A, Hallek M, Thiel E, Wilhelm M, Höchsmann B, Barrois A, Champion K, Passweg JR. A randomized controlled study in patients with newly diagnosed severe aplastic anemia receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG), cyclosporine, with or without G-CSF: a study of the SAA Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Blood. 2011 Apr 28;117(17):4434-41. Epub 2011 Jan 13. link to original article PubMed
  5. Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Weinstein B, Scheinberg P, Biancotto A, Wu CO, Young NS. Horse versus rabbit antithymocyte globulin in acquired aplastic anemia. N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 4;365(5):430-8. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

ATG (Horse), Cyclosporine, Eltrombopag

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Townsley et al. 2015 Phase II

In the abstract, the authors state that all patients received "standard" ATG (horse) and cyclosporine, without further specification. The doses below are from the published papers for ATG (horse) & cyclosporine. There were also 3 cohorts of eltrombopag, none were mentioned as preferred.

Therapy

  • Antithymocyte globulin, horse ATG (Atgam) 40 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1 to 4
  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 10 mg/kg in divided doses q12h (15 mg/kg for children younger than 12)
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 200 to 400 ng/ml
  • Eltrombopag (Promacta) on one of the following 3 schedules:
    • Cohort 1: 150 mg PO once per day starting on day 14 and continuing for 6 months
    • Cohort 2: 150 mg PO once per day starting on day 14 and continuing for 3 months
    • Cohort 3: 150 mg PO once per day starting on day 1 and continuing for 6 months

Supportive medications

References

  1. Abstract: Townsley et al. Eltrombopag Added to Standard Immunosuppression for Aplastic Anemia Accelerates Count Recovery and Increases Response Rates. ASH 2015 Annual Meeting LBA-2 link to abstract

ATG (Horse), Cyclosporine, G-CSF

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Teramura et al. 2007 Phase III ATG (Horse) & Cyclosporine Seems to have superior hematologic response rate at 6 months
Tichelli et al. 2011 Phase III ATG (Horse) & Cyclosporine Seems not superior

Immunotherapy

  • Horse ATG (Lymphoglobuline; Merieux, Lyon, France) 15 mg/kg IV over 12 hours once per day on days 1 to 5
  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 6 mg/kg/day, continued for at least 28 weeks
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 150 to 250 ng/ml
  • ONE of the following:
    • Filgrastim (Neupogen) as follows:
      • Days 1 to 28: 400 mcg/m2 IV once every other day
      • Days 29 to 84: 400 mcg/m2 IV once or twice per week
    • Lenograstim (Granocyte) as follows:
      • Days 1 to 28: 50 mcg/kg IV once every other day
      • Days 29 to 84: 50 mcg/kg IV once or twice per week

Supportive medications

  • Prednisolone (Millipred) to prevent serum sickness, as follows:
    • Days 1 to 9: 1 mg/kg/day PO
    • Days 10 to 15: 0.5 mg/kg/day PO
    • Days 16 to 21: 0.2 mg/kg/day PO

References

  1. Teramura M, Kimura A, Iwase S, Yonemura Y, Nakao S, Urabe A, Omine M, Mizoguchi H. Treatment of severe aplastic anemia with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A with or without G-CSF in adults: a multicenter randomized study in Japan. Blood. 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1756-61. Epub 2007 May 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. Tichelli A, Schrezenmeier H, Socié G, Marsh J, Bacigalupo A, Dührsen U, Franzke A, Hallek M, Thiel E, Wilhelm M, Höchsmann B, Barrois A, Champion K, Passweg JR. A randomized controlled study in patients with newly diagnosed severe aplastic anemia receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG), cyclosporine, with or without G-CSF: a study of the SAA Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Blood. 2011 Apr 28;117(17):4434-41. Epub 2011 Jan 13. link to original article PubMed

ATG (Horse), Cyclosporine, Sirolimus

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Scheinberg et al. 2009 Phase III ATG (Horse) & Cyclosporine Seems not superior

Immunotherapy

  • Antithymocyte globulin, horse ATG (Atgam) 40 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1 to 4
  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 10 mg/kg in divided doses q12h (15 mg/kg for children younger than 12) on day 1
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 200 to 400 ng/ml
    • Duration: 6 months
  • Sirolimus (Rapamune) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 2 mg/day (1 mg/m2/day in children less than 40 kg) on day 1
    • Dose adjusted to keep levels between 5 to 15 ng/ml
    • Duration: 6 months

Supportive medications

References

  1. Scheinberg P, Wu CO, Nunez O, Scheinberg P, Boss C, Sloand EM, Young NS. Treatment of severe aplastic anemia with a combination of horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine, with or without sirolimus: a prospective randomized study. Haematologica. 2009 Mar;94(3):348-54. Epub 2009 Jan 30. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

ATG (Rabbit) & Cyclosporine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Scheinberg et al. 2011 Phase III ATG (Horse) & Cyclosporine Inferior OS

Immunotherapy

  • Antithymocyte globulin, rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) 3.5 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1 to 5
  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 10 mg/kg in divided doses q12h (15 mg/kg for children younger than 12)
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 200 to 400 ng/ml

Supportive medications

References

  1. Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Weinstein B, Scheinberg P, Biancotto A, Wu CO, Young NS. Horse versus rabbit antithymocyte globulin in acquired aplastic anemia. N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 4;365(5):430-8. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Cyclosporine

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Marsh et al. 1999 Phase III ATG (Horse) & Cyclosporine Seems to have inferior ORR

Immunotherapy

  • Cyclosporine A (type not specified) as follows:
    • Starting dose: 5 mg/kg/day in two divided doses
    • Dose adjusted to keep trough blood level of 75 to 200 ng/ml
    • Duration: at least 6 months; if blood cell count continued to increase at 6 months, continued at the therapeutic dose until the blood cell count plateaued, then reduced gradually to help prevent a relapse of the aplasia, per individual clinician discretion

Supportive medications

  • Prednisolone (Millipred) to prevent serum sickness, as follows:
    • Days 5 to 13: 1 mg/kg/day PO
    • Days 14 to 20: reduced to zero over one week (tapering schedule not provided)

References

  1. Marsh J, Schrezenmeier H, Marin P, Ilhan O, Ljungman P, McCann S, Socie G, Tichelli A, Passweg J, Hows J, Raghavachar A, Locasciulli A, Bacigalupo A. Prospective randomized multicenter study comparing cyclosporin alone versus the combination of antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin for treatment of patients with nonsevere aplastic anemia: a report from the European Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Party. Blood. 1999 Apr 1;93(7):2191-5. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Relapsed or refractory

ATG (Rabbit) & Cyclosporine

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Di Bona et al. 1999 Phase II
Scheinberg et al. 2006 Phase II

Immunotherapy

To be completed

References

  1. Di Bona E, Rodeghiero F, Bruno B, Gabbas A, Foa P, Locasciulli A, Rosanelli C, Camba L, Saracco P, Lippi A, Iori AP, Porta F, De Rossi G, Comotti B, Iacopino P, Dufour C, Bacigalupo A. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) plus cyclosporine and granulocyte colony stimulating factor is an effective treatment for aplastic anaemia patients unresponsive to a first course of intensive immunosuppressive therapy. Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Br J Haematol. 1999 Nov;107(2):330-4. Erratum in: Br J Haematol 2000 Feb;108(2):461. De Rossi V [corrected to De Rossi G]. link to original article PubMed
  2. Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Young NS. Retreatment with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin and ciclosporin for patients with relapsed or refractory severe aplastic anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2006 Jun;133(6):622-7. link to original article PubMed

Eltrombopag monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence RR
Olnes et al. 2012 Phase II 44%

Growth factor therapy

  • Eltrombopag (Promacta) 50 mg PO once per day, increased by 25 mg every 2 weeks until platelet count greater than 20 x 109/L or maximum of 150 mg per day

References

  1. Olnes MJ, Scheinberg P, Calvo KR, Desmond R, Tang Y, Dumitriu B, Parikh AR, Soto S, Biancotto A, Feng X, Lozier J, Wu CO, Young NS, Dunbar CE. Eltrombopag and improved hematopoiesis in refractory aplastic anemia. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 5;367(1):11-9. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 19;367(3):284. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Desmond R, Townsley DM, Dumitriu B, Olnes MJ, Scheinberg P, Bevans M, Parikh AR, Broder K, Calvo KR, Wu CO, Young NS, Dunbar CE. Eltrombopag restores trilineage hematopoiesis in refractory severe aplastic anemia that can be sustained on discontinuation of drug. Blood. 2014 Mar 20;123(12):1818-25. Epub 2013 Dec 17. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed