Merkel cell carcinoma

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Elizabeth Buchbinder, MD
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Boston, MA

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Guidelines

Alberta Health Services

NCCN

Metastatic or advanced disease, first-line therapy

Pembrolizumab monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Efficacy
Nghiem et al. 2016 (KEYNOTE-017) 2015 Phase 2 (RT) ORR: 58% (95% CI 43-72%)1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2021 update.

Immunotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 35 cycles (2 years) or until CR

References

  1. KEYNOTE-017: Nghiem PT, Bhatia S, Lipson EJ, Kudchadkar RR, Miller NJ, Annamalai L, Berry S, Chartash EK, Daud A, Fling SP, Friedlander PA, Kluger HM, Kohrt HE, Lundgren L, Margolin K, Mitchell A, Olencki T, Pardoll DM, Reddy SA, Shantha EM, Sharfman WH, Sharon E, Shemanski LR, Shinohara MM, Sunshine JC, Taube JM, Thompson JA, Townson SM, Yearley JH, Topalian SL, Cheever MA. PD-1 blockade with pembrolizumab in advanced Merkel-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jun 30;374(26):2542-52. Epub 2016 Apr 19. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02267603
    1. Update: Nghiem P, Bhatia S, Lipson EJ, Sharfman WH, Kudchadkar RR, Brohl AS, Friedlander PA, Daud A, Kluger HM, Reddy SA, Boulmay BC, Riker AI, Burgess MA, Hanks BA, Olencki T, Margolin K, Lundgren LM, Soni A, Ramchurren N, Church C, Park SY, Shinohara MM, Salim B, Taube JM, Bird SR, Ibrahim N, Fling SP, Homet Moreno B, Sharon E, Cheever MA, Topalian SL. Durable Tumor Regression and Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma Receiving Pembrolizumab as First-Line Therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Mar 20;37(9):693-702. Epub 2019 Feb 6. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Nghiem P, Bhatia S, Lipson EJ, Sharfman WH, Kudchadkar RR, Brohl AS, Friedlander PA, Daud A, Kluger HM, Reddy SA, Boulmay BC, Riker A, Burgess MA, Hanks BA, Olencki T, Kendra K, Church C, Akaike T, Ramchurren N, Shinohara MM, Salim B, Taube JM, Jensen E, Kalabis M, Fling SP, Homet Moreno B, Sharon E, Cheever MA, Topalian SL. Three-year survival, correlates and salvage therapies in patients receiving first-line pembrolizumab for advanced Merkel cell carcinoma. J Immunother Cancer. 2021 Apr;9(4):e002478. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Metastatic or advanced disease, subsequent lines of therapy

Avelumab monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Efficacy
Kaufman et al. 2016 (JAVELIN Merkel 200) 2014-2015 Phase 2 (RT) 33% (95% CI: 23–44)1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2020 update.

Prior treatment criteria

  • Failure of at least one previous line of chemotherapy for metastatic disease.

Immunotherapy

Supportive medications

14-day cycles

References

  1. JAVELIN Merkel 200: Kaufman HL, Russell J, Hamid O, Bhatia S, Terheyden P, D'Angelo SP, Shih KC, Lebbé C, Linette GP, Milella M, Brownell I, Lewis KD, Lorch JH, Chin K, Mahnke L, von Heydebreck A, Cuillerot JM, Nghiem P. Avelumab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma: a multicentre, single-group, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Oct;17(10):1374-1385. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed content property of HemOnc.org NCT02155647
    1. Update: Kaufman HL, Russell JS, Hamid O, Bhatia S, Terheyden P, D'Angelo SP, Shih KC, Lebbé C, Milella M, Brownell I, Lewis KD, Lorch JH, von Heydebreck A, Hennessy M, Nghiem P. Updated efficacy of avelumab in patients with previously treated metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma after ≥1 year of follow-up: JAVELIN Merkel 200, a phase 2 clinical trial. J Immunother Cancer. 2018 Jan 19;6(1):7. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: D'Angelo SP, Russell J, Lebbé C, Chmielowski B, Gambichler T, Grob JJ, Kiecker F, Rabinowits G, Terheyden P, Zwiener I, Bajars M, Hennessy M, Kaufman HL. Efficacy and safety of first-line avelumab treatment in patients with stage IV metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma: a preplanned interim analysis of a clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Sep 1;4(9):e180077. Epub 2018 Sep 13. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    3. Update: D'Angelo SP, Bhatia S, Brohl AS, Hamid O, Mehnert JM, Terheyden P, Shih KC, Brownell I, Lebbé C, Lewis KD, Linette GP, Milella M, Georges S, Shah P, Ellers-Lenz B, Bajars M, Güzel G, Nghiem PT. Avelumab in patients with previously treated metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma: long-term data and biomarker analyses from the single-arm phase 2 JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial. J Immunother Cancer. 2020 May;8(1):e000674. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed