Colorectal cancer, MSI-H or dMMR

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Note: this page has regimens specific to MSI-H/dMMR colon cancer.

9 regimens on this page
10 variants on this page


Advanced or metastatic disease, first-line

Atezolizumab monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Awaiting publication (COMMIT) 2017-ongoing Phase 3 (C) 1. mFOLFOX6-B
2. mFOLFOX6, Atezolizumab, Bevacizumab
In progress

Note: to our knowledge, this regimen was not tested as an experimental arm in an RCT in this context, prior to becoming a standard comparator arm. The mFOLFOX6-B arm was closed early.

Immunotherapy

References

  1. COMMIT: NCT02997228

FOLFIRI

FOLFIRI: FOLinic acid, Fluorouracil, IRInotecan

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
André et al. 2020 (KEYNOTE-177) 2016-2018 Phase 3 (C) Pembrolizumab Might have inferior OS1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2022 update.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • MSI-H/dMMR mCRC as determined locally

Chemotherapy

  • Folinic acid (Leucovorin) 400 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours once on day 1, given first, with irinotecan
  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) 400 mg/m2 IV bolus once on day 1, then 2400 mg/m2 IV continuous infusion over 46 to 48 hours, given second (total dose per cycle: 2800 mg/m2)
  • Irinotecan (Camptosar) 180 mg/m2 IV over 30 to 90 minutes once on day 1, given first, with leucovorin

14-day cycles

References

  1. KEYNOTE-177: André T, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Bendell J, Le DT, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui MZH, Marinello P, Diaz LA Jr; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab in Microsatellite-Instability-High Advanced Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2207-2218. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02563002
    1. HRQoL analysis: Andre T, Amonkar M, Norquist JM, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt CJA, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Sevilla I, De La Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Diaz LA Jr, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui M, Le DT. Health-related quality of life in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy (KEYNOTE-177): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):665-677. Epub 2021 Apr 1. link to orginal article PubMed
    2. Update: Diaz LA Jr, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fourchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Le DT, Yoshino T, Zhong WY, Fogelman D, Marinello P, Andre T; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer (KEYNOTE-177): final analysis of a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2022 May 1;23(5):659-670. Epub 2022 Apr 12. link to original article PubMed
  2. CheckMate 8HW: NCT04008030

FOLFIRI & Bevacizumab

FOLFIRI & Bevacizumab: FOLinic acid, Fluorouracil, IRInotecan, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
André et al. 2020 (KEYNOTE-177) 2016-2018 Phase 3 (C) Pembrolizumab Might have inferior OS1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2022 update.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • MSI-H/dMMR mCRC as determined locally

Chemotherapy

  • Folinic acid (Leucovorin) 400 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours once on day 1, given first, with irinotecan
  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) 400 mg/m2 IV bolus once on day 1, then 2400 mg/m2 IV continuous infusion over 46 to 48 hours, given third (total dose per cycle: 2800 mg/m2)
  • Irinotecan (Camptosar) 180 mg/m2 IV over 30 to 90 minutes once on day 1, given first, with leucovorin

Targeted therapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. KEYNOTE-177: André T, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Bendell J, Le DT, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui MZH, Marinello P, Diaz LA Jr; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab in Microsatellite-Instability-High Advanced Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2207-2218. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02563002
    1. HRQoL analysis: Andre T, Amonkar M, Norquist JM, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt CJA, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Sevilla I, De La Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Diaz LA Jr, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui M, Le DT. Health-related quality of life in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy (KEYNOTE-177): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):665-677. Epub 2021 Apr 1. link to orginal article PubMed
    2. Update: Diaz LA Jr, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fourchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Le DT, Yoshino T, Zhong WY, Fogelman D, Marinello P, Andre T; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer (KEYNOTE-177): final analysis of a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2022 May 1;23(5):659-670. Epub 2022 Apr 12. link to original article PubMed

mFOLFOX6

mFOLFOX6: modified FOLinic acid, Fluorouracil, OXaliplatin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
André et al. 2020 (KEYNOTE-177) 2016-2018 Phase 3 (C) Pembrolizumab Might have inferior OS1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2022 update.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • MSI-H/dMMR mCRC as determined locally

Chemotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. KEYNOTE-177: André T, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Bendell J, Le DT, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui MZH, Marinello P, Diaz LA Jr; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab in Microsatellite-Instability-High Advanced Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2207-2218. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02563002
    1. HRQoL analysis: Andre T, Amonkar M, Norquist JM, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt CJA, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Sevilla I, De La Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Diaz LA Jr, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui M, Le DT. Health-related quality of life in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy (KEYNOTE-177): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):665-677. Epub 2021 Apr 1. link to orginal article PubMed
    2. Update: Diaz LA Jr, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fourchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Le DT, Yoshino T, Zhong WY, Fogelman D, Marinello P, Andre T; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer (KEYNOTE-177): final analysis of a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2022 May 1;23(5):659-670. Epub 2022 Apr 12. link to original article PubMed
  2. ATOMIC: NCT02912559

mFOLFOX6-B

mFOLFOX6-B: modified FOLinic acid, Fluorouracil, OXaliplatin, Bevacizumab

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
André et al. 2020 (KEYNOTE-177) 2016-2018 Phase 3 (C) Pembrolizumab Might have inferior OS1

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2022 update.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • MSI-H/dMMR mCRC as determined locally

Chemotherapy

Targeted therapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. KEYNOTE-177: André T, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Bendell J, Le DT, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui MZH, Marinello P, Diaz LA Jr; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab in Microsatellite-Instability-High Advanced Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2207-2218. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02563002
    1. HRQoL analysis: Andre T, Amonkar M, Norquist JM, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt CJA, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Sevilla I, De La Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Diaz LA Jr, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui M, Le DT. Health-related quality of life in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy (KEYNOTE-177): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):665-677. Epub 2021 Apr 1. link to orginal article PubMed
    2. Update: Diaz LA Jr, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fourchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Le DT, Yoshino T, Zhong WY, Fogelman D, Marinello P, Andre T; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer (KEYNOTE-177): final analysis of a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2022 May 1;23(5):659-670. Epub 2022 Apr 12. link to original article PubMed

Pembrolizumab monotherapy

Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
André et al. 2020 (KEYNOTE-177) 2016-2018 Phase 3 (E-RT-switch-ooc) Investigator's choice of:
1a. mFOLFOX6
1b. mFOLFOX6-B
1c. mFOLFOX6 & Cetuximab
1d. FOLFIRI
1e. FOLFIRI & Bevacizumab
1f. FOLFIRI & Cetuximab
Might have superior OS1
Median OS: NYR vs 36.7 mo
(HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.53-1.03)

1Reported efficacy is based on the 2022 update.
Inclusion criteria: ECOG PS 0 or 1

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • MSI-H/dMMR mCRC as determined locally

Immunotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 2 years

References

  1. KEYNOTE-177: André T, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Bendell J, Le DT, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui MZH, Marinello P, Diaz LA Jr; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab in Microsatellite-Instability-High Advanced Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2207-2218. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02563002
    1. HRQoL analysis: Andre T, Amonkar M, Norquist JM, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt CJA, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Sevilla I, De La Fouchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Diaz LA Jr, Yoshino T, Van Cutsem E, Yang P, Farooqui M, Le DT. Health-related quality of life in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy (KEYNOTE-177): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):665-677. Epub 2021 Apr 1. link to orginal article PubMed
    2. Update: Diaz LA Jr, Shiu KK, Kim TW, Jensen BV, Jensen LH, Punt C, Smith D, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavides M, Gibbs P, de la Fourchardiere C, Rivera F, Elez E, Le DT, Yoshino T, Zhong WY, Fogelman D, Marinello P, Andre T; KEYNOTE-177 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer (KEYNOTE-177): final analysis of a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2022 May 1;23(5):659-670. Epub 2022 Apr 12. link to original article PubMed

Advanced or metastatic disease, subsequent lines of therapy

Ipilimumab & Nivolumab

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Overman et al. 2017 (CheckMate 142) 2014-2016 Phase 2 (RT)

Immunotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles, then 14-day cycles

References

  1. CheckMate 142: Overman MJ, McDermott R, Leach JL, Lonardi S, Lenz HJ, Morse MA, Desai J, Hill A, Axelson M, Moss RA, Goldberg MV, Cao ZA, Ledeine JM, Maglinte GA, Kopetz S, André T. Nivolumab in patients with metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient or microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancer (CheckMate 142): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Sep;18(9):1182-1191. Epub 2017 Jul 19. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2017 Sep;18(9):e510. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT02060188
    1. Update: Overman MJ, Lonardi S, Wong KYM, Lenz HJ, Gelsomino F, Aglietta M, Morse MA, Van Cutsem E, McDermott R, Hill A, Sawyer MB, Hendlisz A, Neyns B, Svrcek M, Moss RA, Ledeine JM, Cao ZA, Kamble S, Kopetz S, André T. Durable Clinical Benefit With Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in DNA Mismatch Repair-Deficient/Microsatellite Instability-High Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Mar 10;36(8):773-779. Epub 2018 Jan 20. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed
    2. Update: André T, Lonardi S, Wong KYM, Lenz HJ, Gelsomino F, Aglietta M, Morse MA, Van Cutsem E, McDermott R, Hill A, Sawyer MB, Hendlisz A, Neyns B, Abdullaev S, Memaj A, Lei M, Dixon M, Kopetz S, Overman MJ. Nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab in previously treated patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer: 4-year follow-up from CheckMate 142. Ann Oncol. 2022 Jun 25:S0923-7534(22)01737-9. Epub ahead of print. link to original article PubMed

Nivolumab monotherapy

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Overman et al. 2017 (CheckMate 142) 2014-2016 Phase 2 (RT)

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • dMMR or MSI-H colorectal cancer.

Immunotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. CheckMate 142: Overman MJ, McDermott R, Leach JL, Lonardi S, Lenz HJ, Morse MA, Desai J, Hill A, Axelson M, Moss RA, Goldberg MV, Cao ZA, Ledeine JM, Maglinte GA, Kopetz S, André T. Nivolumab in patients with metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient or microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancer (CheckMate 142): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Sep;18(9):1182-1191. Epub 2017 Jul 19. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2017 Sep;18(9):e510. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed NCT02060188
    1. Update: Overman MJ, Lonardi S, Wong KYM, Lenz HJ, Gelsomino F, Aglietta M, Morse MA, Van Cutsem E, McDermott R, Hill A, Sawyer MB, Hendlisz A, Neyns B, Svrcek M, Moss RA, Ledeine JM, Cao ZA, Kamble S, Kopetz S, André T. Durable Clinical Benefit With Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in DNA Mismatch Repair-Deficient/Microsatellite Instability-High Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Mar 10;36(8):773-779. Epub 2018 Jan 20. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed
    2. Update: André T, Lonardi S, Wong KYM, Lenz HJ, Gelsomino F, Aglietta M, Morse MA, Van Cutsem E, McDermott R, Hill A, Sawyer MB, Hendlisz A, Neyns B, Abdullaev S, Memaj A, Lei M, Dixon M, Kopetz S, Overman MJ. Nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab in previously treated patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer: 4-year follow-up from CheckMate 142. Ann Oncol. 2022 Jun 25:S0923-7534(22)01737-9. Epub ahead of print. link to original article PubMed

Pembrolizumab monotherapy

Regimen variant #1, flat dose

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Le et al. 2019 (KEYNOTE-164) 2015-2017 Phase 2

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • dMMR or MSI-H tumors

Immunotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 35 cycles (2 years)

Regimen variant #2, weight-based

Study Years of enrollment Evidence
Le et al. 2015 (KEYNOTE-016) 2013-2015 Phase 2

Note: this study only demonstrated a clear benefit for mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers. Please be aware that the FDA-approved, recommended pembrolizumab dose in the package insert is 200 mg for adults, 2 mg/kg (maximum dose 200 mg) for children, given every 3 weeks.

Biomarker eligibility criteria

  • dMMR or MSI-H tumors

Immunotherapy

14-day cycles

References

  1. KEYNOTE-016: Le DT, Uram JN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Kemberling H, Eyring AD, Skora AD, Luber BS, Azad NS, Laheru D, Biedrzycki B, Donehower RC, Zaheer A, Fisher GA, Crocenzi TS, Lee JJ, Duffy SM, Goldberg RM, de la Chapelle A, Koshiji M, Bhaijee F, Huebner T, Hruban RH, Wood LD, Cuka N, Pardoll DM, Papadopoulos N, Kinzler KW, Zhou S, Cornish TC, Taube JM, Anders RA, Eshleman JR, Vogelstein B, Diaz LA Jr. PD-1 blockade in tumors with mismatch-repair deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 25;372(26):2509-20. Epub 2015 May 30. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract link to PMC article PubMed NCT01876511
    1. Update: Le DT, Durham JN, Smith KN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Aulakh LK, Lu S, Kemberling H, Wilt C, Luber BS, Wong F, Azad NS, Rucki AA, Laheru D, Donehower R, Zaheer A, Fisher GA, Crocenzi TS, Lee JJ, Greten TF, Duffy AG, Ciombor KK, Eyring AD, Lam BH, Joe A, Kang SP, Holdhoff M, Danilova L, Cope L, Meyer C, Zhou S, Goldberg RM, Armstrong DK, Bever KM, Fader AN, Taube J, Housseau F, Spetzler D, Xiao N, Pardoll DM, Papadopoulos N, Kinzler KW, Eshleman JR, Vogelstein B, Anders RA, Diaz LA Jr. Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade. Science. 2017 Jul 28;357(6349):409-413. Epub 2017 Jun 8. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in supplement PubMed
  2. KEYNOTE-164: Le DT, Kim TW, Van Cutsem E, Geva R, Jäger D, Hara H, Burge M, O'Neil B, Kavan P, Yoshino T, Guimbaud R, Taniguchi H, Elez E, Al-Batran SE, Boland PM, Crocenzi T, Atreya CE, Cui Y, Dai T, Marinello P, Diaz LA Jr, André T. Phase II Open-Label Study of Pembrolizumab in Treatment-Refractory, Microsatellite Instability-High/Mismatch Repair-Deficient Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: KEYNOTE-164. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Jan 1;38(1):11-19. Epub 2019 Nov 14. link to original article link to PMC article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT02460198