Adrenocortical carcinoma

From HemOnc.org - A Hematology Oncology Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Section editor
Unfilled
If you are interested in this role, please contact us at [email protected].
7 regimens on this page
10 variants on this page

Are you looking for a regimen but can't find it here? For placebo or observational studies in this condition, please visit this page. If you still can't find it, please let us know so we can add it.


Guidelines

ESMO-EURACAN

Older

NCCN

Adjuvant therapy

Mitotane monotherapy

There is limited and controversial clinical trial information about adjuvant mitotane use. See the references for additional case series and expert recommendation articles.

Regimen variant #1, target trough 14-20

Study Evidence
Wängberg et al. 2010 Phase 2

Patients started on adjuvant mitotane within 4 weeks of their surgical resection.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Mitotane (Lysodren) 2000 mg/day PO (frequency not specified, such as whether the total daily dose was divided into a few doses throughout the day); within the first 2 to 3 months, dose was adjusted to achieve a target therapeutic drug level of 14 to 20 mg/L

2- to 3-year course

Regimen variant #2, target trough over 14

Study Evidence
Haak et al. 1994 Phase 2

Haak et al. 1994 concluded that "mitotane treatment in adrenocortical carcinoma is effective only when high serum levels [trough of at least 14 mg/L] can be achieved."

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Mitotane (Lysodren) 1000 to 2000 mg PO four times per day (total dose per day: 4000 to 8000 mg), with target mitotane trough of above 14 mg/L

Supportive medications

2-year course "if resection was judged to be complete or for 1 year after apparent disappearance of the tumour"

Regimen variant #3, no target trough

Study Evidence
Luton et al. 1990 Non-randomized

This is included for historic context.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Luton JP, Cerdas S, Billaud L, Thomas G, Guilhaume B, Bertagna X, Laudat MH, Louvel A, Chapuis Y, Blondeau P, Bonnin A, Bricaire H. Clinical features of adrenocortical carcinoma, prognostic factors, and the effect of mitotane therapy. N Engl J Med. 1990 Apr 26;322(17):1195-201. link to original article PubMed
  2. Retrospective: Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Guinee VF, Klein MJ, Taylor SH, Hess KR, Schultz PN, Samaan NA. Impact of adjuvant mitotane on the clinical course of patients with adrenocortical cancer. Cancer. 1993 May 15;71(10):3119-23. link to original article PubMed
  3. Haak HR, Hermans J, van de Velde CJ, Lentjes EG, Goslings BM, Fleuren GJ, Krans HM. Optimal treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma with mitotane: results in a consecutive series of 96 patients. Br J Cancer. 1994 May;69(5):947-51. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed content property of HemOnc.org
  4. Retrospective: Terzolo M, Angeli A, Fassnacht M, Daffara F, Tauchmanova L, Conton PA, Rossetto R, Buci L, Sperone P, Grossrubatscher E, Reimondo G, Bollito E, Papotti M, Saeger W, Hahner S, Koschker AC, Arvat E, Ambrosi B, Loli P, Lombardi G, Mannelli M, Bruzzi P, Mantero F, Allolio B, Dogliotti L, Berruti A. Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80. link to original article PubMed
  5. Review: Veytsman I, Nieman L, Fojo T. Management of endocrine manifestations and the use of mitotane as a chemotherapeutic agent for adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Sep 20;27(27):4619-29. Epub 2009 Aug 10. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  6. Wängberg B, Khorram-Manesh A, Jansson S, Nilsson B, Nilsson O, Jakobsson CE, Lindstedt S, Odén A, Ahlman H. The long-term survival in adrenocortical carcinoma with active surgical management and use of monitored mitotane. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010 Feb 18;17(1):265-72. Print 2010 Mar. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

Mitotane & Streptozocin

Protocol

Study Evidence
Khan et al. 2010 Phase 2

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy, Induction course

5-day course, followed by main regimen

Chemotherapy, Main regimen

Supportive medications

21-day cycles; duration of therapy not clearly specified

References

  1. Khan TS, Imam H, Juhlin C, Skogseid B, Gröndal S, Tibblin S, Wilander E, Oberg K, Eriksson B. Streptozocin and o,p'DDD in the treatment of adrenocortical cancer patients: long-term survival in its adjuvant use. Ann Oncol. 2000 Oct;11(10):1281-7. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed

Recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic disease

Cisplatin & Mitotane

Regimen

Study Evidence
Bukowski et al. 1993 Phase 2

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Bukowski RM, Wolfe M, Levine HS, Crawford DE, Stephens RL, Gaynor E, Harker WG. Phase II trial of mitotane and cisplatin in patients with adrenal carcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Jan;11(1):161-5. link to original article PubMed

Doxorubicin monotherapy

Regimen

Study Evidence
Decker et al. 1991 (ECOG E1879) Non-randomized

Dosing instructions here are from the 2009 review article.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. ECOG E1879: Decker RA, Elson P, Hogan TF, Citrin DL, Westring DW, Banerjee TK, Gilchrist KW, Horton J. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study 1879: mitotane and adriamycin in patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Surgery. 1991 Dec;110(6):1006-13. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed

Mitotane monotherapy

Regimen

Study Evidence
Lubitz et al. 1973 Non-randomized

Dosing instructions here are from the 2009 review article.

Chemotherapy

  • Mitotane (Lysodren) 1000 to 2000 mg/day PO (frequency not specified), then increase dose by 1000 to 2000 mg every 1 to 2 weeks to the maximum tolerated dose, not to exceed 6000 mg ("never greater than 6 to 10 g/d").
    • Target mitotane drug level is 10 to 14 mg/L.

References

  1. Lubitz JA, Freeman L, Okun R. Mitotane use in inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma. JAMA. 1973 Mar 5;223(10):1109-12. link to original article PubMed
  2. Review: Veytsman I, Nieman L, Fojo T. Management of endocrine manifestations and the use of mitotane as a chemotherapeutic agent for adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Sep 20;27(27):4619-29. Epub 2009 Aug 10. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript link to PMC article PubMed

Mitotane & EDP

Mitotane & EDP: Mitotane, Etoposide, Doxorubicin, Platinol (Cisplatin)

Regimen variant #1

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fassnacht et al. 2012 (FIRM-ACT) 2004-2009 Phase 3 (E-esc) Mitotane & Streptozocin Superior PFS

Mitotane is started at least 1 week before the other chemotherapy; the rest of the therapy is as described below.

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • Glucocorticoid replacement was recommended in all patients except those with persistent Cushing's syndrome.

28-day cycles

Regimen variant #2

Study Evidence
Berruti et al. 1998 Phase 2
Berruti et al. 2005 Phase 2

Chemotherapy

  • Mitotane (Lysodren) 1000 mg/day PO (frequency not specified, such as whether the total daily dose was divided into a few doses throughout the day) on days 1 to 28; then dose is increased as tolerated up to 4000 mg/day or maximum tolerated dose
  • Etoposide (Vepesid) 100 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 5 to 7
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) 20 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1 & 8
  • Cisplatin (Platinol) 40 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1 or 2 & 9 (2 doses per cycle)

28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles

References

  1. Berruti A, Terzolo M, Pia A, Angeli A, Dogliotti L; Italian Group for the Study of Adrenal Cancer. Mitotane associated with etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer. 1998 Nov 15;83(10):2194-200. link to original article PubMed
  2. Berruti A, Terzolo M, Sperone P, Pia A, Della Casa S, Gross DJ, Carnaghi C, Casali P, Porpiglia F, Mantero F, Reimondo G, Angeli A, Dogliotti L. Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005 Sep;12(3):657-66. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed
  3. FIRM-ACT: Fassnacht M, Terzolo M, Allolio B, Baudin E, Haak H, Berruti A, Welin S, Schade-Brittinger C, Lacroix A, Jarzab B, Sorbye H, Torpy DJ, Stepan V, Schteingart DE, Arlt W, Kroiss M, Leboulleux S, Sperone P, Sundin A, Hermsen I, Hahner S, Willenberg HS, Tabarin A, Quinkler M, de la Fouchardière C, Schlumberger M, Mantero F, Weismann D, Beuschlein F, Gelderblom H, Wilmink H, Sender M, Edgerly M, Kenn W, Fojo T, Müller HH, Skogseid B; FIRM-ACT Study Group. Combination chemotherapy in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jun 7;366(23):2189-97. Epub 2012 May 2. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00094497

Mitotane & Streptozocin

Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Fassnacht et al. 2012 (FIRM-ACT) 2004-2009 Phase 3 (E-de-esc) Mitotane & EDP Inferior PFS

Mitotane is started at least 1 week before the other chemotherapy; the rest of the therapy is as described below.

Chemotherapy

  • Mitotane (Lysodren) PO on days 1 to 21 (initial dose and frequency not specified)
    • Target mitotane trough of 14 to 20 mg/L
  • Streptozocin (Zanosar) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 1000 mg IV once per day on days 1 to 5
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 2000 mg IV once on day 1

Supportive medications

  • Glucocorticoid replacement was recommended in all patients except those with persistent Cushing's syndrome.

21-day cycles

References

  1. FIRM-ACT: Fassnacht M, Terzolo M, Allolio B, Baudin E, Haak H, Berruti A, Welin S, Schade-Brittinger C, Lacroix A, Jarzab B, Sorbye H, Torpy DJ, Stepan V, Schteingart DE, Arlt W, Kroiss M, Leboulleux S, Sperone P, Sundin A, Hermsen I, Hahner S, Willenberg HS, Tabarin A, Quinkler M, de la Fouchardière C, Schlumberger M, Mantero F, Weismann D, Beuschlein F, Gelderblom H, Wilmink H, Sender M, Edgerly M, Kenn W, Fojo T, Müller HH, Skogseid B; FIRM-ACT Study Group. Combination chemotherapy in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jun 7;366(23):2189-97. Epub 2012 May 2. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed NCT00094497