Sickle cell anemia

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Tillman Benjamin-2.jpg
Benjamin Tillman, MD
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, TN
3 regimens on this page
3 variants on this page


Guidelines

ASH

NHLBI

All lines of therapy

Crizanlizumab monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Ataga et al. 2016 (SUSTAIN) Randomized Phase II (E-RT-esc) Placebo Superior annual rate of crises
Crizanlizumab; 2.5 mg/kg Not reported

Chemotherapy

14-day cycle for 26 cycles (1 year)

References

  1. SUSTAIN: Ataga KI, Kutlar A, Kanter J, Liles D, Cancado R, Friedrisch J, Guthrie TH, Knight-Madden J, Alvarez OA, Gordeuk VR, Gualandro S, Colella MP, Smith WR, Rollins SA, Stocker JW, Rother RP. Crizanlizumab for the prevention of pain crises in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 2;376(5):429-439. Epub 2016 Dec 3. link to original article link to PMC article contains protocol PubMed

Hydroxyurea monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Charache et al. 1995 (MSH) Phase III (E-esc) Placebo Superior annual rate of crises

Chemotherapy

Doses were subsequently adjusted, see article for details.

References

  1. Charache S, Terrin ML, Moore RD, Dover GJ, Barton FB, Eckert SV, McMahon RP, Bonds DR; Investigators of the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia. Effect of hydroxyurea on the frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. N Engl J Med. 1995 May 18;332(20):1317-22. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Steinberg MH, Barton F, Castro O, Pegelow CH, Ballas SK, Kutlar A, Orringer E, Bellevue R, Olivieri N, Eckman J, Varma M, Ramirez G, Adler B, Smith W, Carlos T, Ataga K, DeCastro L, Bigelow C, Saunthararajah Y, Telfer M, Vichinsky E, Claster S, Shurin S, Bridges K, Waclawiw M, Bonds D, Terrin M. Effect of hydroxyurea on mortality and morbidity in adult sickle cell anemia: risks and benefits up to 9 years of treatment. JAMA. 2003 Apr 2;289(13):1645-51. Erratum in: JAMA. 2003 Aug 13;290(6):756. link to original article PubMed
  2. QoL analysis: Ballas SK, Barton FB, Waclawiw MA, Swerdlow P, Eckman JR, Pegelow CH, Koshy M, Barton BA, Bonds DR. Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006 Aug 31;4:59. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

L-glutamine monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Niihara et al. 2018 (GLUSCC09-01) Phase III (E-switch-ooc) Placebo +/- Hydroxyurea Superior reduction in the number of sickle cell crises through week 48

Supportive therapy

48-week course

References

  1. GLUSCC09-01: Niihara Y, Miller ST, Kanter J, Lanzkron S, Smith WR, Hsu LL, Gordeuk VR, Viswanathan K, Sarnaik S, Osunkwo I, Guillaume E, Sadanandan S, Sieger L, Lasky JL, Panosyan EH, Blake OA, New TN, Bellevue R, Tran LT, Razon RL, Stark CW, Neumayr LD, Vichinsky EP; Investigators of the Phase 3 Trial of l-Glutamine in Sickle Cell Disease. A phase 3 trial of l-glutamine in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3):226-235. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

RBC transfusions

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
DeBaun et al. 2014 (SIT) Phase III (E-esc) Observation Seems to have fewer cerebral infarcts

To be completed

Supportive therapy

  • RBC transfusions

References

  1. SIT: DeBaun MR, Gordon M, McKinstry RC, Noetzel MJ, White DA, Sarnaik SA, Meier ER, Howard TH, Majumdar S, Inusa BP, Telfer PT, Kirby-Allen M, McCavit TL, Kamdem A, Airewele G, Woods GM, Berman B, Panepinto JA, Fuh BR, Kwiatkowski JL, King AA, Fixler JM, Rhodes MM, Thompson AA, Heiny ME, Redding-Lallinger RC, Kirkham FJ, Dixon N, Gonzalez CE, Kalinyak KA, Quinn CT, Strouse JJ, Miller JP, Lehmann H, Kraut MA, Ball WS Jr, Hirtz D, Casella JF. Controlled trial of transfusions for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia. N Engl J Med. 2014 Aug 21;371(8):699-710. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed