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2 regimens on this page
3 variants on this page


Given the rapid change in evidence in many areas of hematology/oncology, readers are encouraged to consider any article published 5+ years ago to be for historical purposes, only.




All lines of therapy

Cyclophosphamide, Dacarbazine, Vincristine

CVD: Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Dacarbazine


Study Evidence
Averbuch et al. 1988 Pilot, fewer than 20 pts


21-day cycles


  1. Averbuch SD, Steakley CS, Young RC, Gelmann EP, Goldstein DS, Stull R, Keiser HR. Malignant pheochromocytoma: effective treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. Ann Intern Med. 1988 Aug 15;109(4):267-73. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed

Iobenguane I 131 monotherapy

Regimen variant #1

Study Evidence
Rose et al. 2003b Pilot, fewer than 20 pts

Note: Patients underwent stem cell harvest prior to treatment in case autologous stem cell infusion was needed.


Supportive therapy

  • Intravenous fluids started 12 hours before 131I-MIBG administration.
  • Potassium iodide (KI) 6 mg/kg PO once at least 2 hours prior to 131I-MIBG, then potassium iodide (KI) 0.88 mg/kg PO Q4H x 7 days, then potassium iodide (KI) 1 mg/kg PO (frequency not specified) "for 45 days after the infusion."
  • Potassium perchlorate 8 mg/kg once at least 2 hours prior to 131I-MIBG, then potassium perchlorate 2 mg/kg PO every 6 hours x 5 days.

"Repeat 131I-MIBG treatments were administered on a case-by-case basis in an effort to improve the overall response"

Regimen variant #2

Study Evidence
Krempf et al. 1991 Pilot, fewer than 20 pts



  1. Krempf M, Lumbroso J, Mornex R, Brendel AJ, Wemeau JL, Delisle MJ, Aubert B, Carpentier P, Fleury-Goyon MC, Gibold C, Guyot M, Lahneche B, Marchandise X, Schlumberger M, Charbonnel B, Chatal JF. Use of m-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Feb;72(2):455-61. link to original article contains dosing details in abstract PubMed
  2. Rose B, Matthay KK, Price D, Huberty J, Klencke B, Norton JA, Fitzgerald PA. High-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for 12 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma. Cancer. 2003 Jul 15;98(2):239-48. link to original article contains dosing details in manuscript PubMed