Nasopharyngeal carcinoma - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main nasopharyngeal carcinoma page for current regimens.


Locally advanced disease, induction

No induction

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Chua et al. 1998 (AOCOA) 1989-1993 Phase III (C) Cisplatin & Epirubicin Might have inferior OS1
Ma et al. 2001 1993-1994 Phase III (C) Bleomycin, Cisplatin, 5-FU Might have inferior OS1
Hong et al. 2018 (TCOG 1303) 2003-2009 Phase III (C) MEPFL Seems to have inferior DFS
Cao et al. 2017 (RDDA2017000111) 2008-2015 Phase III (C) CF Seems to have inferior OS2
Sun et al. 2016 (YP2010171) 2011-2013 Phase III (C) TPF Seems to have inferior OS3

1Reported efficacy for AOCOA and Ma et al. 2001 is based on the 2005 pooled update.
2Reported efficacy for RDDA2017000111 is based on the 2019 update.
3Reported efficacy for YP2010171 is based on the 2019 update.
No therapy given prior to definitive therapy.

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. AOCOA: Chua DT, Sham JS, Choy D, Lorvidhaya V, Sumitsawan Y, Thongprasert S, Vootiprux V, Cheirsilpa A, Azhar T, Reksodiputro AH; Asian-Oceanian Clinical Oncology Association Nasopharynx Cancer Study Group. Preliminary report of the Asian-Oceanian Clinical Oncology Association randomized trial comparing cisplatin and epirubicin followed by radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 1998 Dec 1;83(11):2270-83. link to original article PubMed
    1. Pooled Update: Chua DT, Ma J, Sham JS, Mai HQ, Choy DT, Hong MH, Lu TX, Min HQ. Long-term survival after cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a pooled data analysis of two phase III trials. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 20;23(6):1118-24. Epub 2005 Jan 18. link to original article PubMed
  2. Ma J, Mai HQ, Hong MH, Min HQ, Mao ZD, Cui NJ, Lu TX, Mo HY. Results of a prospective randomized trial comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy with radiotherapy alone in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Mar 1;19(5):1350-7. link to original article PubMed
    1. Pooled Update: Chua DT, Ma J, Sham JS, Mai HQ, Choy DT, Hong MH, Lu TX, Min HQ. Long-term survival after cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a pooled data analysis of two phase III trials. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 20;23(6):1118-24. Epub 2005 Jan 18. link to original article PubMed
  3. YP2010171: Sun Y, Li WF, Chen NY, Zhang N, Hu GQ, Xie FY, Sun Y, Chen XZ, Li JG, Zhu XD, Hu CS, Xu XY, Chen YY, Hu WH, Guo L, Mo HY, Chen L, Mao YP, Sun R, Ai P, Liang SB, Long GX, Zheng BM, Feng XL, Gong XC, Li L, Shen CY, Xu JY, Guo Y, Chen YM, Zhang F, Lin L, Tang LL, Liu MZ, Ma J. Induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a phase 3, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Nov;17(11):1509-1520. Epub 2016 Sep 26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01245959
    1. Update: Li WF, Chen NY, Zhang N, Hu GQ, Xie FY, Sun Y, Chen XZ, Li JG, Zhu XD, Hu CS, Xu XY, Chen YY, Hu WH, Guo L, Mo HY, Chen L, Mao YP, Sun R, Ai P, Liang SB, Long GX, Zheng BM, Feng XL, Gong XC, Li L, Shen CY, Xu JY, Guo Y, Chen YM, Zhang F, Lin L, Tang LL, Liu MZ, Ma J, Sun Y. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with/without induction chemotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: long-term results of phase 3 randomized controlled trial. Int J Cancer. 2019 Jul 1;145(1):295-305. Epub 2019 Jan 24. link to original article PubMed
  4. RDDA2017000111: Cao SM, Yang Q, Guo L, Mai HQ, Mo HY, Cao KJ, Qian CN, Zhao C, Xiang YQ, Zhang XP, Lin ZX, Li WX, Liu Q, Qiu F, Sun R, Chen QY, Huang PY, Luo DH, Hua YJ, Wu YS, Lv X, Wang L, Xia WX, Tang LQ, Ye YF, Chen MY, Guo X, Hong MH. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A phase III multicentre randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Apr;75:14-23. Epub 2017 Feb 16. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT00705627
    1. Update: Yang Q, Cao SM, Guo L, Hua YJ, Huang PY, Zhang XL, Lin M, You R, Zou X, Liu YP, Xie YL, Wang ZQ, Mai HQ, Chen QY, Tang LQ, Mo HY, Cao KJ, Qian CN, Zhao C, Xiang YQ, Zhang XP, Lin ZX, Li WX, Liu Q, Li JB, Ling L, Guo X, Hong MH, Chen MY. Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: long-term results of a phase III multicentre randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer. 2019 Sep;119:87-96. Epub 2019 Aug 16. link to original article PubMed
  5. TCOG 1303: Hong RL, Hsiao CF, Ting LL, Ko JY, Wang CW, Chang JTC, Lou PJ, Wang HM, Tsai MH, Lai SC, Liu TW. Final results of a randomized phase III trial of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in patients with stage IVA and IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma-Taiwan Cooperative Oncology Group (TCOG) 1303 Study. Ann Oncol. 2018 Sep 1;29(9):1972-1979. link to original article PubMed NCT00201396

Adjuvant therapy

Observation

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Chi et al. 2002 1994-1999 Phase III (C) Cisplatin, 5-FU, LV Did not meet primary endpoint of OS
Chen et al. 2011 (YP2008004) 2006-2010 Phase III (C) CF Did not meet primary endpoint of FFS
Awaiting publication (CCRT-AC-LAHR-NPC) 2014-2018 Phase 3 (C) Capecitabine Inferior FFS
Chen et al. 2021 (2016-FXY-075) 2017-2018 Phase 3 (C) Capecitabine Inferior FFS

No further treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Chi et al. 2002: RT
  • YP2008004 & CCRT-AC-LAHR-NPC: Cisplatin & RT
  • 2016-FXY-075: Definitive chemoradiotherapy

References

  1. Chi KH, Chang YC, Guo WY, Leung MJ, Shiau CY, Chen SY, Wang LW, Lai YL, Hsu MM, Lian SL, Chang CH, Liu TW, Chin YH, Yen SH, Perng CH, Chen KY. A phase III study of adjuvant chemotherapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Apr 1;52(5):1238-44. link to original article PubMed
  2. YP2008004: Chen L, Hu CS, Chen XZ, Hu GQ, Cheng ZB, Sun Y, Li WX, Chen YY, Xie FY, Liang SB, Chen Y, Xu TT, Li B, Long GX, Wang SY, Zheng BM, Guo Y, Sun Y, Mao YP, Tang LL, Chen YM, Liu MZ, Ma J. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Feb;13(2):163-71. Epub 2011 Dec 7. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT00677118
    1. Update: Chen L, Hu CS, Chen XZ, Hu GQ, Cheng ZB, Sun Y, Li WX, Chen YY, Xie FY, Liang SB, Chen Y, Xu TT, Li B, Long GX, Wang SY, Zheng BM, Guo Y, Sun Y, Mao YP, Tang LL, Chen YM, Liu MZ, Ma J. Adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Long-term results of a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Apr;75:150-158. Epub 2017 Feb 22. link to original article PubMed
  3. 2016-FXY-075: Chen YP, Liu X, Zhou Q, Yang KY, Jin F, Zhu XD, Shi M, Hu GQ, Hu WH, Sun Y, Wu HF, Wu H, Lin Q, Wang H, Tian Y, Zhang N, Wang XC, Shen LF, Liu ZZ, Huang J, Luo XL, Li L, Zang J, Mei Q, Zheng BM, Yue D, Xu J, Wu SG, Shi YX, Mao YP, Chen L, Li WF, Zhou GQ, Sun R, Guo R, Zhang Y, Xu C, Lv JW, Guo Y, Feng HX, Tang LL, Xie FY, Sun Y, Ma J. Metronomic capecitabine as adjuvant therapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021 Jun 4:S0140-6736(21)01123-5. Epub ahead of print. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT02958111
  4. CCRT-AC-LAHR-NPC: NCT02143388

Maintenance after first-line therapy

Observation

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Awaiting publication (2015029) 2015-2020 Phase 3 (C) Capecitabine Inferior PFS

No further antineoplastic treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Induction chemotherapy x 4 to 6 cycles

References

  1. 2015029: NCT02460419