Clear cell renal cell carcinoma - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. These references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main clear cell RCC page for regimens that include active anticancer treatment.


Adjuvant therapy

Placebo

Regimen

Study Dates of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Choueiri et al. 2021 (KEYNOTE-564) 2017-2019 Phase 3 (C) Pembrolizumab Inferior DFS
Motzer et al. 2023 (CheckMate 914 part A) 2017-08-28 to 2021-03-16 Phase 3 (C) Ipilimumab & Nivolumab Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS

No active antineoplastic treatment.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. KEYNOTE-564: Choueiri TK, Tomczak P, Park SH, Venugopal B, Ferguson T, Chang YH, Hajek J, Symeonides SN, Lee JL, Sarwar N, Thiery-Vuillemin A, Gross-Goupil M, Mahave M, Haas NB, Sawrycki P, Gurney H, Chevreau C, Melichar B, Kopyltsov E, Alva A, Burke JM, Doshi G, Topart D, Oudard S, Hammers H, Kitamura H, Bedke J, Perini RF, Zhang P, Imai K, Willemann-Rogerio J, Quinn DI, Powles T; KEYNOTE-564 Investigators. Adjuvant Pembrolizumab after Nephrectomy in Renal-Cell Carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2021 Aug 19;385(8):683-694. link to original article PubMed NCT03142334
    1. Update: Powles T, Tomczak P, Park SH, Venugopal B, Ferguson T, Symeonides SN, Hajek J, Gurney H, Chang YH, Lee JL, Sarwar N, Thiery-Vuillemin A, Gross-Goupil M, Mahave M, Haas NB, Sawrycki P, Burgents JE, Xu L, Imai K, Quinn DI, Choueiri TK; KEYNOTE-564 Investigators. Pembrolizumab versus placebo as post-nephrectomy adjuvant therapy for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (KEYNOTE-564): 30-month follow-up analysis of a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2022 Sep;23(9):1133-1144. link to original article PubMed
  2. CheckMate 914 part A: Motzer RJ, Russo P, Gruenwald V, Tomita Y, Zurawski B, Parikh O, Buti S, Barthelemy P, Goh JC, Ye D, Lingua A, Lattouf JB, Albiges L, George S, Shuch B, Sosman J, Staehler M, Vazquez Estevez S, Simsek B, Spiridigliozzi J, Chudnovsky A, Bex A. Adjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus placebo for localised renal cell carcinoma after nephrectomy (CheckMate 914): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2023 Mar 11;401(10379):821-832. Epub 2023 Feb 9. link to original article PubMed NCT03138512

Metastatic disease, first-line

Placebo

Regimen

Study Dates of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Sternberg et al. 2010 (VEG105192) 2006-04 to 2007-04 Phase 3 (C) Pazopanib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment.

References

  1. VEG105192: Sternberg CN, Davis ID, Mardiak J, Szczylik C, Lee E, Wagstaff J, Barrios CH, Salman P, Gladkov OA, Kavina A, Zarbá JJ, Chen M, McCann L, Pandite L, Roychowdhury DF, Hawkins RE. Pazopanib in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 20;28(6):1061-8. Epub 2010 Jan 25. link to original article PubMed NCT00334282
    1. Update: Sternberg CN, Hawkins RE, Wagstaff J, Salman P, Mardiak J, Barrios CH, Zarba JJ, Gladkov OA, Lee E, Szczylik C, McCann L, Rubin SD, Chen M, Davis ID. A randomised, double-blind phase III study of pazopanib in patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: final overall survival results and safety update. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Apr;49(6):1287-96. Epub 2013 Jan 12. link to original article PubMed

Metastatic disease, second-line

Placebo

Regimen

Study Dates of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Yang et al. 2003 1998-2001 Randomized Phase 2 (C) Bevacizumab Inferior TTP
Escudier et al. 2007 (TARGETRCC) 2003-2005 Phase 3 (C) Sorafenib Might have inferior OS1
Motzer et al. 2008 (RECORD-1) 2006-04 to 2007-04 Phase 3 (C) Everolimus Inferior PFS

1Reported efficacy for TARGET is based on the 2009 update.
No active antineoplastic treatment. Note that TARGET should not be confused with the study by the same name in breast cancer.

Prior treatment criteria

  • Yang et al. 2003: Previous therapy with IL-2 or contraindication to IL-2
  • RECORD-1: Progression on sunitinib, sorafenib, or both
  • TARGETRCC: Progression after 1 systemic treatment within the previous 8 months

References

  1. Yang JC, Haworth L, Sherry RM, Hwu P, Schwartzentruber DJ, Topalian SL, Steinberg SM, Chen HX, Rosenberg SA. A randomized trial of bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, for metastatic renal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 31;349(5):427-34. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. RECORD-1: Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S, Hutson TE, Porta C, Bracarda S, Grünwald V, Thompson JA, Figlin RA, Hollaender N, Urbanowitz G, Berg WJ, Kay A, Lebwohl D, Ravaud A; RECORD-1 Study Group. Efficacy of everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Lancet. 2008 Aug 9;372(9637):449-56. Epub 2008 Jul 22. link to original article PubMed NCT00410124
    1. Update: Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S, Hutson TE, Porta C, Bracarda S, Grünwald V, Thompson JA, Figlin RA, Hollaender N, Kay A, Ravaud A; RECORD-1 Study Group. Phase 3 trial of everolimus for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: final results and analysis of prognostic factors. Cancer. 2010 Sep 15;116(18):4256-65. link to original article PubMed
  3. TARGETRCC: Escudier B, Eisen T, Stadler WM, Szczylik C, Oudard S, Siebels M, Negrier S, Chevreau C, Solska E, Desai AA, Rolland F, Demkow T, Hutson TE, Gore M, Freeman S, Schwartz B, Shan M, Simantov R, Bukowski RM; TARGET Study Group. Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 11;356(2):125-34. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 12;357(2):203. link to original article PubMed NCT00073307
    1. Update: Escudier B, Eisen T, Stadler WM, Szczylik C, Oudard S, Staehler M, Negrier S, Chevreau C, Desai AA, Rolland F, Demkow T, Hutson TE, Gore M, Anderson S, Hofilena G, Shan M, Pena C, Lathia C, Bukowski RM. Sorafenib for treatment of renal cell carcinoma: final efficacy and safety results of the phase III treatment approaches in renal cancer global evaluation trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jul 10;27(20):3312-8. Epub 2009 May 18. link to original article PubMed
    2. Subgroup analysis: Hutson TE, Bellmunt J, Porta C, Szczylik C, Staehler M, Nadel A, Anderson S, Bukowski R, Eisen T, Escudier B; Sorafenib TARGET Clinical Trial Group. Long-term safety of sorafenib in advanced renal cell carcinoma: follow-up of patients from phase III TARGET. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Sep;46(13):2432-40. Epub 2010 Jul 23. link to original article PubMed