Azacitidine (Vidaza)

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General information

Class/mechanism: Pyrimidine nucleoside analog of cytidine, causes hypomethylation of DNA and direct cytotoxicity on abnormal hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Hypomethylation may restore normal function to genes that are critical for differentiation and proliferation.[1][2]
Route: IV, SC
Extravasation: inflammitant

For conciseness and simplicity, currently will focus on treatment regimens and not list information such as: renal/hepatic dose adjustments, metabolism (including CYP450), excretion, monitoring parameters (although this will be considered for checklists), or manufacturer. Instead, for the most current information, please refer to your preferred pharmacopeias such as Micromedex, Lexicomp, Medscape, UpToDate (courtesy of Lexicomp), or the prescribing information.[1]

Diseases for which it is established (work in progress)

Patient drug information

History of changes in FDA indication

  • 5/19/2004: Initial approval for treatment of patients with the following myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes: refractory anemia or refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (if accompanied by neutropenia or thrombocytopenia or requiring transfusions), refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. (Based on CALGB 9221)
  • 8/20/2008: Approval for myelodysplastic syndrome updated to include overall survival benefit from AZA-001 study. (Based on AZA-001)
  • 5/20/2022: Approved for pediatric patients with newly diagnosed juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). (Based on AZA-JMML-001)

History of changes in EMA indication

  • 12/17/2008: Initial authorization

Also known as

  • Generic names: 5-azacitidine, 5-azacytidine
  • Brand names: Azacitidina, Azacytin, Azadine, Azafect, Azaplast, Citaza, MyAza, Myelotex, Vidaza, Xpreza