Thyroid cancer, medullary - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. These references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main MTC page for regimens that include active anticancer treatment.

Locally advanced or metastatic disease, subsequent lines of therapy



Study Dates of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Wells et al. 2011 (ZETA) 2006-12 to 2007-11 Phase 3 (C) Vandetanib Inferior PFS
Elisei et al. 2013 (EXAM) 2008-2011 Phase 3 (C) Cabozantinib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Included for reference purposes only.


  1. ZETA: Wells SA Jr, Robinson BG, Gagel RF, Dralle H, Fagin JA, Santoro M, Baudin E, Elisei R, Jarzab B, Vasselli JR, Read J, Langmuir P, Ryan AJ, Schlumberger MJ. Vandetanib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a randomized, double-blind phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jan 10;30(2):134-41. Epub 2011 Oct 24. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00410761
  2. EXAM: Elisei R, Schlumberger MJ, Müller SP, Schöffski P, Brose MS, Shah MH, Licitra L, Jarzab B, Medvedev V, Kreissl MC, Niederle B, Cohen EE, Wirth LJ, Ali H, Hessel C, Yaron Y, Ball D, Nelkin B, Sherman SI. Cabozantinib in progressive medullary thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Oct 10;31(29):3639-46. Epub 2013 Sep 3. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jun 10;32(17):1864. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00704730