Renal cell carcinoma - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main RCC page for current regimens.


Adjuvant therapy

Observation

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Messing et al. 2003 (INT-0079) 1987-1992 Phase III (C) Interferon alfa-NL Might have superior OS
Passalacqua et al. 2014 (POLAR-01) 1994-2006 Phase III (C) IFN & IL-2 Did not meet primary endpoint of RFS
Clark et al. 2003 1997-2002 Phase III (C) High-dose IL-2 Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS24
Jocham et al. 2004 1997-1998 Phase III (C) Renal tumor cell vaccine Seems to have inferior TTP
Wood et al. 2008 (C-100-12 Part I) NR Phase III (C) Vitespen Did not meet primary endpoint of RFS
Aitchison et al. 2013 (EORTC 30955) 1998-2007 Phase III (C) 5-FU, IFN, IL-2 Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS36

No treatment after surgery.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. INT-0079: Messing EM, Manola J, Wilding G, Propert K, Fleischmann J, Crawford ED, Pontes JE, Hahn R, Trump D; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Phase III study of interferon alfa-NL as adjuvant treatment for resectable renal cell carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/Intergroup trial. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 1;21(7):1214-22. link to original article PubMed
  2. Clark JI, Atkins MB, Urba WJ, Creech S, Figlin RA, Dutcher JP, Flaherty L, Sosman JA, Logan TF, White R, Weiss GR, Redman BG, Tretter CP, McDermott D, Smith JW, Gordon MS, Margolin KA. Adjuvant high-dose bolus interleukin-2 for patients with high-risk renal cell carcinoma: a cytokine working group randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Aug 15;21(16):3133-40. Epub 2003 Jun 16. link to original article PubMed
  3. Jocham D, Richter A, Hoffmann L, Iwig K, Fahlenkamp D, Zakrzewski G, Schmitt E, Dannenberg T, Lehmacher W, von Wietersheim J, Doehn C. Adjuvant autologous renal tumour cell vaccine and risk of tumour progression in patients with renal-cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy: phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Feb 21;363(9409):594-9. link to original article PubMed
  4. C-100-12 Part I: Wood C, Srivastava P, Bukowski R, Lacombe L, Gorelov AI, Gorelov S, Mulders P, Zielinski H, Hoos A, Teofilovici F, Isakov L, Flanigan R, Figlin R, Gupta R, Escudier B; C-100-12 RCC Study Group. An adjuvant autologous therapeutic vaccine (HSPPC-96; vitespen) versus observation alone for patients at high risk of recurrence after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III trial. Lancet. 2008 Jul 12;372(9633):145-54. Epub 2008 Jul 3. link to original article PubMed NCT00033904
  5. EORTC 30955: Aitchison M, Bray CA, Van Poppel H, Sylvester R, Graham J, Innes C, McMahon L, Vasey PA. Adjuvant 5-flurouracil, alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 versus observation in patients at high risk of recurrence after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: results of a phase III randomised European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (Genito-Urinary Cancers Group)/National Cancer Research Institute trial. Eur J Cancer. 2014 Jan;50(1):70-7. Epub 2013 Sep 25. link to original article PubMed
  6. POLAR-01: Passalacqua R, Caminiti C, Buti S, Porta C, Camisa R, Braglia L, Tomasello G, Vaglio A, Labianca R, Rondini E, Sabbatini R, Nastasi G, Artioli F, Prati A, Potenzoni M, Pezzuolo D, Oliva E, Alberici F, Buzio C; POLAR-01 Trial Investigators; GOIRC. Adjuvant low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus interferon-α (IFN-α) in operable renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a phase III, randomized, multicentre trial of the Italian Oncology Group for Clinical Research (GOIRC). J Immunother. 2014 Nov-Dec;37(9):440-7. Erratum in: J Immunother. 2015 Jun;38(5):216. link to original article PubMed NCT00502034

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy Comparative Toxicity
Chamie et al. 2017 (ARISER) 2004-2013 Phase III (C) Girentuximab Did not meet primary endpoints of DFS/OS
Haas et al. 2016 (ECOG-ACRIN E2805) 2006-2010 Phase III (C) 1. Sorafenib Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
2. Sunitinib Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Ravaud et al. 2016 (S-TRAC) 2007-2011 Phase III (C) Sunitinib Seems to have inferior DFS Less toxicity
Motzer et al. 2017 (PROTECT) 2010-2013 Phase III (C) Pazopanib Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS
Gross-Goupil et al. 2018 (ATLAS-RCC) 2012-2016 Phase III (C) Axitinib Did not meet primary endpoint of DFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Note that ATLAS should not be confused with the trials with the same name in breast cancer and in NSCLC.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. ECOG-ACRIN E2805: Haas NB, Manola J, Uzzo RG, Flaherty KT, Wood CG, Kane C, Jewett M, Dutcher JP, Atkins MB, Pins M, Wilding G, Cella D, Wagner L, Matin S, Kuzel TM, Sexton WJ, Wong YN, Choueiri TK, Pili R, Puzanov I, Kohli M, Stadler W, Carducci M, Coomes R, DiPaola RS. Adjuvant sunitinib or sorafenib for high-risk, non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (ECOG-ACRIN E2805): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2016 May 14;387(10032):2008-16. Epub 2016 Mar 9. Erratum in: Lancet. 2016 May 14;387(10032):1998. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00326898
  2. S-TRAC: Ravaud A, Motzer RJ, Pandha HS, George DJ, Pantuck AJ, Patel A, Chang YH, Escudier B, Donskov F, Magheli A, Carteni G, Laguerre B, Tomczak P, Breza J, Gerletti P, Lechuga M, Lin X, Martini JF, Ramaswamy K, Casey M, Staehler M, Patard JJ; S-TRAC Investigators. Adjuvant sunitinib in high-risk renal-cell carcinoma after nephrectomy. N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 8;375(23):2246-2254. Epub 2016 Oct 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Motzer RJ, Ravaud A, Patard JJ, Pandha HS, George DJ, Patel A, Chang YH, Escudier B, Donskov F, Magheli A, Carteni G, Laguerre B, Tomczak P, Breza J, Gerletti P, Lechuga M, Lin X, Casey M, Serfass L, Pantuck AJ, Staehler M. Adjuvant sunitinib for high-risk renal cell carcinoma after nephrectomy: subgroup analyses and updated overall survival results. Eur Urol. 2018 Jan;73(1):62-68. Epub 2017 Sep 26. link to original article PubMed
  3. ARISER: Chamie K, Donin NM, Klöpfer P, Bevan P, Fall B, Wilhelm O, Störkel S, Said J, Gambla M, Hawkins RE, Jankilevich G, Kapoor A, Kopyltsov E, Staehler M, Taari K, Wainstein AJA, Pantuck AJ, Belldegrun AS. Adjuvant weekly girentuximab following nephrectomy for high-risk renal cell carcinoma: The ARISER randomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2017 Jul 1;3(7):913-920. link to original article PubMed NCT00087022
  4. PROTECT: Motzer RJ, Haas NB, Donskov F, Gross-Goupil M, Varlamov S, Kopyltsov E, Lee JL, Melichar B, Rini BI, Choueiri TK, Zemanova M, Wood LA, Reaume MN, Stenzl A, Chowdhury S, Lim HY, McDermott R, Michael A, Bao W, Carrasco-Alfonso MJ, Aimone P, Voi M, Doehn C, Russo P, Sternberg CN; PROTECT investigators. Randomized phase III trial of adjuvant pazopanib versus placebo after nephrectomy in patients with localized or locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Dec 10;35(35):3916-3923. Epub 2017 Sep 13. link to original article PubMed NCT01235962
  5. ATLAS: Gross-Goupil M, Kwon TG, Eto M, Ye D, Miyake H, Seo SI, Byun SS, Lee JL, Master V, Jin J, DeBenedetto R, Linke R, Casey M, Rosbrook B, Lechuga M, Valota O, Grande E, Quinn DI. Axitinib versus placebo as an adjuvant treatment of renal cell carcinoma: results from the phase III, randomized ATLAS trial. Ann Oncol. 2018 Dec 1;29(12):2371-2378. Epub 2018 Oct 20. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Metastatic disease, first-line

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Gleave et al. 1998 1993-1995 Phase III (C) Interferon gamma-1b Did not meet primary endpoint of ORR
Sternberg et al. 2010 (VEG105192) 2006-2007 Phase III (C) Pazopanib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Used as a comparator arm and here for reference purposes only.

References

  1. Gleave ME, Elhilali M, Fradet Y, Davis I, Venner P, Saad F, Klotz LH, Moore MJ, Paton V, Bajamonde A; Canadian Urologic Oncology Group. Interferon gamma-1b compared with placebo in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1998 Apr 30;338(18):1265-71. link to original article PubMed
  2. VEG105192: Sternberg CN, Davis ID, Mardiak J, Szczylik C, Lee E, Wagstaff J, Barrios CH, Salman P, Gladkov OA, Kavina A, Zarbá JJ, Chen M, McCann L, Pandite L, Roychowdhury DF, Hawkins RE. Pazopanib in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 20;28(6):1061-8. Epub 2010 Jan 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Sternberg CN, Hawkins RE, Wagstaff J, Salman P, Mardiak J, Barrios CH, Zarba JJ, Gladkov OA, Lee E, Szczylik C, McCann L, Rubin SD, Chen M, Davis ID. A randomised, double-blind phase III study of pazopanib in patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: final overall survival results and safety update. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Apr;49(6):1287-96. Epub 2013 Jan 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Metastatic disease, second-line

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Yang et al. 2003 1998-2001 Randomized Phase II (C) Bevacizumab Inferior TTP
Escudier et al. 2007 (TARGETRCC) 2003-2005 Phase III (C) Sorafenib Did not meet primary endpoint of OS (*)
Motzer et al. 2008 (RECORD-1) 2006-2007 Phase III (C) Everolimus Inferior PFS
Sternberg et al. 2010 (VEG105192) 2006-2007 Phase III (C) Pazopanib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Note that TARGET should not be confused with the study by the same name in breast cancer. Reported efficacy for TARGET is based on the 2009 update.

References

  1. Yang JC, Haworth L, Sherry RM, Hwu P, Schwartzentruber DJ, Topalian SL, Steinberg SM, Chen HX, Rosenberg SA. A randomized trial of bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, for metastatic renal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 31;349(5):427-34. link to original article contains protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  2. TARGET: Escudier B, Eisen T, Stadler WM, Szczylik C, Oudard S, Siebels M, Negrier S, Chevreau C, Solska E, Desai AA, Rolland F, Demkow T, Hutson TE, Gore M, Freeman S, Schwartz B, Shan M, Simantov R, Bukowski RM; TARGET Study Group. Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 11;356(2):125-34. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 12;357(2):203. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Escudier B, Eisen T, Stadler WM, Szczylik C, Oudard S, Staehler M, Negrier S, Chevreau C, Desai AA, Rolland F, Demkow T, Hutson TE, Gore M, Anderson S, Hofilena G, Shan M, Pena C, Lathia C, Bukowski RM. Sorafenib for treatment of renal cell carcinoma: final efficacy and safety results of the phase III treatment approaches in renal cancer global evaluation trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jul 10;27(20):3312-8. Epub 2009 May 18. link to original article PubMed
    2. Subgroup analysis: Hutson TE, Bellmunt J, Porta C, Szczylik C, Staehler M, Nadel A, Anderson S, Bukowski R, Eisen T, Escudier B; Sorafenib TARGET Clinical Trial Group. Long-term safety of sorafenib in advanced renal cell carcinoma: follow-up of patients from phase III TARGET. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Sep;46(13):2432-40. Epub 2010 Jul 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. RECORD-1: Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S, Hutson TE, Porta C, Bracarda S, Grünwald V, Thompson JA, Figlin RA, Hollaender N, Urbanowitz G, Berg WJ, Kay A, Lebwohl D, Ravaud A; RECORD-1 Study Group. Efficacy of everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Lancet. 2008 Aug 9;372(9637):449-56. Epub 2008 Jul 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S, Hutson TE, Porta C, Bracarda S, Grünwald V, Thompson JA, Figlin RA, Hollaender N, Kay A, Ravaud A; RECORD-1 Study Group. Phase 3 trial of everolimus for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: final results and analysis of prognostic factors. Cancer. 2010 Sep 15;116(18):4256-65. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  4. VEG105192: Sternberg CN, Davis ID, Mardiak J, Szczylik C, Lee E, Wagstaff J, Barrios CH, Salman P, Gladkov OA, Kavina A, Zarbá JJ, Chen M, McCann L, Pandite L, Roychowdhury DF, Hawkins RE. Pazopanib in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 20;28(6):1061-8. Epub 2010 Jan 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Sternberg CN, Hawkins RE, Wagstaff J, Salman P, Mardiak J, Barrios CH, Zarba JJ, Gladkov OA, Lee E, Szczylik C, McCann L, Rubin SD, Chen M, Davis ID. A randomised, double-blind phase III study of pazopanib in patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: final overall survival results and safety update. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Apr;49(6):1287-96. Epub 2013 Jan 12. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed