Pancreatic cancer - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main pancreatic cancer page for current regimens.


Neoadjuvant therapy

No neoadjuvant therapy

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Versteijne et al. 2020 (PREOPANC) 2013-2017 Phase 3 (C) Gemcitabine & RT, then Gemcitabine Might have inferior OS

No treatment prior to surgery.

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. PREOPANC: Versteijne E, Suker M, Groothuis K, Akkermans-Vogelaar JM, Besselink MG, Bonsing BA, Buijsen J, Busch OR, Creemers GM, van Dam RM, Eskens FALM, Festen S, de Groot JWB, Groot Koerkamp B, de Hingh IH, Homs MYV, van Hooft JE, Kerver ED, Luelmo SAC, Neelis KJ, Nuyttens J, Paardekooper GMRM, Patijn GA, van der Sangen MJC, de Vos-Geelen J, Wilmink JW, Zwinderman AH, Punt CJ, van Eijck CH, van Tienhoven G; Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Versus Immediate Surgery for Resectable and Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: Results of the Dutch Randomized Phase III PREOPANC Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Jun 1;38(16):1763-1773. Epub 2020 Feb 27. link to original article PubMed

Adjuvant therapy

Observation

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Klinkenbijl et al. 1999 (EORTC 40891) 1987-1995 Phase 3 (C) 5-FU & RT Did not meet primary endpoint of OS24
Neoptolemos et al. 2001 (ESPAC-1) 1994-2000 Phase 3 (C) 1. FULV Inferior OS
2. 5-FU/5-FU & RT
3. 5-FU & RT, then FULV
Seems to have superior OS
Oettle et al. 2007 (CONKO-001) 1998-2004 Phase 3 (C) Gemcitabine Seems to have inferior OS
Ueno et al. 2009 (JSAP-02) 2002-2005 Phase 3 (C) Gemcitabine Inferior DFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Reported efficacy for ESPAC-1 is based on the 2004 update and efficacy for CONKO-001 is based on 2013 update.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. EORTC 40891: Klinkenbijl JH, Jeekel J, Sahmoud T, van Pel R, Couvreur ML, Veenhof CH, Arnaud JP, Gonzalez DG, de Wit LT, Hennipman A, Wils J. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group. Ann Surg. 1999 Dec;230(6):776-82. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Smeenk HG, van Eijck CH, Hop WC, Erdmann J, Tran KC, Debois M, van Cutsem E, van Dekken H, Klinkenbijl JH, Jeekel J. Long-term survival and metastatic pattern of pancreatic and periampullary cancer after adjuvant chemoradiation or observation: long-term results of EORTC trial 40891. Ann Surg. 2007 Nov;246(5):734-40. link to original article PubMed
  2. ESPAC-1: Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, Almond J, Link K, Beger H, Bassi C, Falconi M, Pederzoli P, Dervenis C, Fernandez-Cruz L, Lacaine F, Pap A, Spooner D, Kerr DJ, Friess H, Büchler MW; European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2001 Nov 10;358(9293):1576-85. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Friess H, Bassi C, Dunn JA, Hickey H, Beger H, Fernandez-Cruz L, Dervenis C, Lacaine F, Falconi M, Pederzoli P, Pap A, Spooner D, Kerr DJ, Büchler MW; European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer. A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 18;350(12):1200-10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. CONKO-001: Oettle H, Post S, Neuhaus P, Gellert K, Langrehr J, Ridwelski K, Schramm H, Fahlke J, Zuelke C, Burkart C, Gutberlet K, Kettner E, Schmalenberg H, Weigang-Koehler K, Bechstein WO, Niedergethmann M, Schmidt-Wolf I, Roll L, Doerken B, Riess H. Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine vs observation in patients undergoing curative-intent resection of pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007 Jan 17;297(3):267-77. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Oettle H, Neuhaus P, Hochhaus A, Hartmann JT, Gellert K, Ridwelski K, Niedergethmann M, Zülke C, Fahlke J, Arning MB, Sinn M, Hinke A, Riess H. Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and long-term outcomes among patients with resected pancreatic cancer: the CONKO-001 randomized trial. JAMA. 2013 Oct 9;310(14):1473-81. link to original article PubMed
  4. JSAP-02: Ueno H, Kosuge T, Matsuyama Y, Yamamoto J, Nakao A, Egawa S, Doi R, Monden M, Hatori T, Tanaka M, Shimada M, Kanemitsu K. A randomised phase III trial comparing gemcitabine with surgery-only in patients with resected pancreatic cancer: Japanese Study Group of Adjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009 Sep 15;101(6):908-15. Epub 2009 Aug 18. link to original article link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Metastatic disease, refractory

Best supportive care

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Gilliam et al. 2012 (PC6) 2001-2002 Phase 3 (C) G17DT Did not meet primary endpoint of OS
Pelzer et al. 2011 (CONKO-003) 2002-2003 Phase 3 (C) OFF Inferior OS
Ciuleanu et al. 2009 (TH-CR-302) 2004-2006 Phase 3 (C) Glufosfamide Did not meet primary endpoint of OS

Best supportive care. Placed here because one or more randomized clinical trials included a best supportive care arm in this disease context.

References

  1. PC6: Gilliam AD, Broome P, Topuzov EG, Garin AM, Pulay I, Humphreys J, Whitehead A, Takhar A, Rowlands BJ, Beckingham IJ. An international multicenter randomized controlled trial of G17DT in patients with pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 2012 Apr;41(3):374-9. link to original article PubMed NCT02118077
  2. TH-CR-302: Ciuleanu TE, Pavlovsky AV, Bodoky G, Garin AM, Langmuir VK, Kroll S, Tidmarsh GT. A randomised Phase III trial of glufosfamide compared with best supportive care in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma previously treated with gemcitabine. Eur J Cancer. 2009 Jun;45(9):1589-96. Epub 2009 Jan 31. link to original article PubMed NCT00099294
  3. CONKO-003: Pelzer U, Schwaner I, Stieler J, Adler M, Seraphin J, Dörken B, Riess H, Oettle H. Best supportive care (BSC) versus oxaliplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (OFF) plus BSC in patients for second-line advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase III-study from the German CONKO-study group. Eur J Cancer. 2011 Jul;47(11):1676-81. Epub 2011 May 10. link to original article contains verified protocol--with error as noted above PubMed NCT00786058