Pancreatic NET - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. These references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main pancreatic NET page for regimens that include active anticancer treatment.

All lines of therapy



Study Dates of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy Comparative Toxicity
Rinke et al. 2009 (PROMID) 2001-2008 Phase 3 (C) Octreotide LAR Inferior TTP
Caplin et al. 2014 (CLARINET) 2006-2013 Phase 3 (C) Lanreotide Inferior PFS
Raymond et al. 2011 (A6181111) 2007-2009 Phase 3 (C) Sunitinib Inferior PFS Less diarrhea; Seems to have better insomnia
Yao et al. 2011 (RADIANT-3) 2007-2009 Phase 3 (C) Everolimus Inferior PFS
Xu et al. 2020 (SANET-p) 2016-2019 Phase 3 (C) Surufatinib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Used as a comparator arm and here for reference purposes only. Note: while the initial A6181111 publication seemed to have a significant survival disadvantage for this arm (p=0.02), this finding was no longer significant at the final update (p=0.094). The primary endpoint (PFS) remains significant.


  1. PROMID: Rinke A, Müller HH, Schade-Brittinger C, Klose KJ, Barth P, Wied M, Mayer C, Aminossadati B, Pape UF, Bläker M, Harder J, Arnold C, Gress T, Arnold R; PROMID Study Group. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective, randomized study on the effect of octreotide LAR in the control of tumor growth in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine midgut tumors: a report from the PROMID Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct 1;27(28):4656-63. Epub 2009 Aug 24. link to original article PubMed NCT00171873
  2. A6181111: Raymond E, Dahan L, Raoul JL, Bang YJ, Borbath I, Lombard-Bohas C, Valle J, Metrakos P, Smith D, Vinik A, Chen JS, Hörsch D, Hammel P, Wiedenmann B, Van Cutsem E, Patyna S, Lu DR, Blanckmeister C, Chao R, Ruszniewski P. Sunitinib malate for the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 10;364(6):501-13. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 17;364(11):1082. link to original article PubMed NCT00428597
    1. HRQoL analysis: Vinik A, Bottomley A, Korytowsky B, Bang YJ, Raoul JL, Valle JW, Metrakos P, Hörsch D, Mundayat R, Reisman A, Wang Z, Chao RC, Raymond E. Patient-reported outcomes and quality of life with sunitinib versus placebo for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: results from an international phase III trial. Target Oncol. 2016 Dec;11(6):815-824. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Faivre S, Niccoli P, Castellano D, Valle JW, Hammel P, Raoul JL, Vinik A, Van Cutsem E, Bang YJ, Lee SH, Borbath I, Lombard-Bohas C, Metrakos P, Smith D, Chen JS, Ruszniewski P, Seitz JF, Patyna S, Lu DR, Ishak KJ, Raymond E. Sunitinib in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: updated progression-free survival and final overall survival from a phase III randomized study. Ann Oncol. 2017 Feb 1;28(2):339-343. link to original article PubMed
    3. Update: Fazio N, Kulke M, Rosbrook B, Fernandez K, Raymond E. Updated Efficacy and Safety Outcomes for Patients with Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated with Sunitinib. Target Oncol. 2021 Jan;16(1):27-35. Epub 2021 Jan 7. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  3. RADIANT-3: Yao JC, Shah MH, Ito T, Bohas CL, Wolin EM, Van Cutsem E, Hobday TJ, Okusaka T, Capdevila J, de Vries EG, Tomassetti P, Pavel ME, Hoosen S, Haas T, Lincy J, Lebwohl D, Öberg K; RAD001 in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors Third Trial (RADIANT-3) Study Group. Everolimus for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 10;364(6):514-23. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed NCT00510068
    1. Update: Yao JC, Pavel M, Lombard-Bohas C, Van Cutsem E, Voi M, Brandt U, He W, Chen D, Capdevila J, de Vries EGE, Tomassetti P, Hobday T, Pommier R, Öberg K. Everolimus for the treatment of advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: overall survival and circulating biomarkers from the randomized, phase III RADIANT-3 study. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Nov 10;34(32):3906-3913. Epub 2016 Sep 30. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. CLARINET: Caplin ME, Pavel M, Ćwikła JB, Phan AT, Raderer M, Sedláčková E, Cadiot G, Wolin EM, Capdevila J, Wall L, Rindi G, Langley A, Martinez S, Blumberg J, Ruszniewski P; CLARINET Investigators. Lanreotide in metastatic enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 17;371(3):224-33. link to original article PubMed NCT00353496
  5. SANET-p: Xu J, Shen L, Bai C, Wang W, Li J, Yu X, Li Z, Li E, Yuan X, Chi Y, Yin Y, Lou W, Xu N, Bai Y, Zhang T, Xiu D, Wang X, Yuan Y, Chen J, Qin S, Jia R, Lu M, Cheng Y, Zhou Z, Li J, He J, Su W. Surufatinib in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (SANET-p): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Nov;21(11):1489-1499. Epub 2020 Sep 20. link to original article PubMed NCT02589821