Gastrointestinal stromal tumor - null regimens

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The purpose of this page is to provide references to "null therapy" such as placebo and observation. While not clinically relevant, these references provide further insight into the historical development of the treatment landscape. See the main GIST page for current regimens.


Adjuvant therapy

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Dematteo et al. 2009 (ACOSOG Z9001) 2002-2007 Phase III (C) Imatinib x 12 mos Inferior RFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Used as a comparator arm and here for reference purposes only.

Preceding treatment

References

  1. ACOSOG Z9001: Dematteo RP, Ballman KV, Antonescu CR, Maki RG, Pisters PW, Demetri GD, Blackstein ME, Blanke CD, von Mehren M, Brennan MF, Patel S, McCarter MD, Polikoff JA, Tan BR, Owzar K; American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Intergroup Adjuvant GIST Study Team. Adjuvant imatinib mesylate after resection of localised, primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 Mar 28;373(9669):1097-104. Epub 2009 Mar 18. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Metastatic or unresectable disease

Best supportive care

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Reichardt et al. 2012 (ENEST g3) 2007-2008 Phase III (C) Nilotinib Did not meet primary endpoint of PFS
Mir et al. 2016 (PAZOGIST) 2011-2013 Randomized Phase II (C) Pazopanib Seems to have inferior PFS

No active treatment. Used as a comparator arm and here for reference purposes only.

References

  1. ENEST g3: Reichardt P, Blay JY, Gelderblom H, Schlemmer M, Demetri GD, Bui-Nguyen B, McArthur GA, Yazji S, Hsu Y, Galetic I, Rutkowski P. Phase III study of nilotinib versus best supportive care with or without a TKI in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and sunitinib. Ann Oncol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1680-7. Epub 2012 Feb 21. link to original article PubMed
  2. PAZOGIST: Mir O, Cropet C, Toulmonde M, Cesne AL, Molimard M, Bompas E, Cassier P, Ray-Coquard I, Rios M, Adenis A, Italiano A, Bouché O, Chauzit E, Duffaud F, Bertucci F, Isambert N, Gautier J, Blay JY, Pérol D; PAZOGIST study group of the French Sarcoma Groupe-Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs Osseuses (GSF-GETO). Pazopanib plus best supportive care versus best supportive care alone in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours resistant to imatinib and sunitinib (PAZOGIST): a randomised, multicentre, open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 May;17(5):632-41. Epub 2016 Apr 5. link to original article contains protocol PubMed NCT01323400

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Years of enrollment Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Demetri et al. 2006 (A6181004) 2003-2005 Phase III (C) Sunitinib Inferior TTP
Kang et al. 2013 (RIGHT) 2010-2013 Phase III (C) Imatinib Inferior PFS
Demetri et al. 2012 (GRID) 2011 Phase III (C) Regorafenib Inferior PFS

No active antineoplastic treatment. Used as a comparator arm and here for reference purposes only.

References

  1. A6181004: Demetri GD, van Oosterom AT, Garrett CR, Blackstein ME, Shah MH, Verweij J, McArthur G, Judson IR, Heinrich MC, Morgan JA, Desai J, Fletcher CD, George S, Bello CL, Huang X, Baum CM, Casali PG. Efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after failure of imatinib: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Oct 14;368(9544):1329-38. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Demetri GD, Garrett CR, Schöffski P, Shah MH, Verweij J, Leyvraz S, Hurwitz HI, Pousa AL, Le Cesne A, Goldstein D, Paz-Ares L, Blay JY, McArthur GA, Xu QC, Huang X, Harmon CS, Tassell V, Cohen DP, Casali PG. Complete longitudinal analyses of the randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of sunitinib in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor following imatinib failure. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Jun 1;18(11):3170-9. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. GRID: Demetri GD, Reichardt P, Kang YK, Blay JY, Rutkowski P, Gelderblom H, Hohenberger P, Leahy M, von Mehren M, Joensuu H, Badalamenti G, Blackstein M, Le Cesne A, Schöffski P, Maki RG, Bauer S, Nguyen BB, Xu J, Nishida T, Chung J, Kappeler C, Kuss I, Laurent D, Casali PG; GRID study investigators. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib (GRID): an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013 Jan 26;381(9863):295-302. Epub 2012 Nov 22. contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. RIGHT: Kang YK, Ryu MH, Yoo C, Ryoo BY, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Nam BH, Ramaiya N, Jagannathan J, Demetri GD. Resumption of imatinib to control metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib (RIGHT): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Nov;14(12):1175-82. Epub 2013 Oct 18. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed NCT01151852