CNS carcinoma

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Seema Nagpal, MD
Stanford University
Palo Alto, CA
9 regimens on this page
10 variants on this page


Guidelines

ASCO

Older

EANO/ESMO

NCCN

Breast cancer, HER2-positive, all lines of therapy

Capecitabine & Lapatinib

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Pivot et al. 2015 (CEREBEL) Phase III (E) Capecitabine & Trastuzumab Seems not superior

Note: the primary endpoint of CEREBEL was incidence of CNS as site of first relapse; this was very low in both arms, with no statistically significant difference.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. CEREBEL: Pivot X, Manikhas A, Żurawski B, Chmielowska E, Karaszewska B, Allerton R, Chan S, Fabi A, Bidoli P, Gori S, Ciruelos E, Dank M, Hornyak L, Margolin S, Nusch A, Parikh R, Nagi F, DeSilvio M, Santillana S, Swaby RF, Semiglazov V. CEREBEL (EGF111438): A phase III, randomized, open-label study of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus trastuzumab plus capecitabine in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1564-73. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Trastuzumab

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XH: Xeloda (Capecitabine) & Herceptin

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Pivot et al. 2015 (CEREBEL) Phase III (C) Capecitabine & Lapatanib Seems not superior

Note: the primary endpoint of CEREBEL was incidence of CNS as site of first relapse; this was very low in both arms, with no statistically significant difference.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. CEREBEL: Pivot X, Manikhas A, Żurawski B, Chmielowska E, Karaszewska B, Allerton R, Chan S, Fabi A, Bidoli P, Gori S, Ciruelos E, Dank M, Hornyak L, Margolin S, Nusch A, Parikh R, Nagi F, DeSilvio M, Santillana S, Swaby RF, Semiglazov V. CEREBEL (EGF111438): A phase III, randomized, open-label study of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus trastuzumab plus capecitabine in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1564-73. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Non-small cell lung cancer, all lines of therapy

Dexamethasone monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy Comparative Toxicity
Mulvenna et al. 2016 (QUARTZ) Phase III (E) Dexamethasone & WBRT Seems not superior Inconclusive whether non-inferior

Supportive therapy

References

  1. QUARTZ: Mulvenna P, Nankivell M, Barton R, Faivre-Finn C, Wilson P, McColl E, Moore B, Brisbane I, Ardron D, Holt T, Morgan S, Lee C, Waite K, Bayman N, Pugh C, Sydes B, Stephens R, Parmar MK, Langley RE. Dexamethasone and supportive care with or without whole brain radiotherapy in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases unsuitable for resection or stereotactic radiotherapy (QUARTZ): results from a phase 3, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Lancet. 2016 Oct 22;388(10055):2004-2014. Epub 2016 Sep 4. link to SD article link to PMC article PubMed

Dexamethasone & WBRT

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy Comparative Toxicity
Mulvenna et al. 2016 (QUARTZ) Phase III (C) Dexamethasone Seems not superior Inconclusive whether non-inferior

Radiotherapy

  • WBRT, 20 Gy in 5 fractions

Supportive medications

References

  1. QUARTZ: Mulvenna P, Nankivell M, Barton R, Faivre-Finn C, Wilson P, McColl E, Moore B, Brisbane I, Ardron D, Holt T, Morgan S, Lee C, Waite K, Bayman N, Pugh C, Sydes B, Stephens R, Parmar MK, Langley RE. Dexamethasone and supportive care with or without whole brain radiotherapy in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases unsuitable for resection or stereotactic radiotherapy (QUARTZ): results from a phase 3, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Lancet. 2016 Oct 22;388(10055):2004-2014. Epub 2016 Sep 4. link to SD article link to PMC article PubMed

Non-small cell lung cancer, ALK-mutated, all lines of therapy

Alectinib monotherapy

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Variant #1, 300 mg twice per day

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Hida et al. 2017 (J-ALEX) Phase III (E) Crizotinib Superior TTP (*)

This is the PMDA-approved dose in Japan. CNS efficacy is based on the 2018 update.

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

Variant #2, 600 mg twice per day

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Peters et al. 2017 (ALEX) Phase III (E) Crizotinib Superior TTP (*)

CNS efficacy is based on the 2018 update.

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. J-ALEX: Hida T, Nokihara H, Kondo M, Kim YH, Azuma K, Seto T, Takiguchi Y, Nishio M, Yoshioka H, Imamura F, Hotta K, Watanabe S, Goto K, Satouchi M, Kozuki T, Shukuya T, Nakagawa K, Mitsudomi T, Yamamoto N, Asakawa T, Asabe R, Tanaka T, Tamura T. Alectinib versus crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (J-ALEX): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2017 Jul 1;390(10089):29-39. Epub 2017 May 10. link to original articlecontains protocolPubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Nishio M, Nakagawa K, Mitsudomi T, Yamamoto N, Tanaka T, Kuriki H, Zeaiter A, Tamura T. Analysis of central nervous system efficacy in the J-ALEX study of alectinib versus crizotinib in ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2018 Jul;121:37-40. Epub 2018 Apr 17. link to SD article PubMed
  2. ALEX: Peters S, Camidge DR, Shaw AT, Gadgeel S, Ahn JS, Kim DW, Ou SI, Pérol M, Dziadziuszko R, Rosell R, Zeaiter A, Mitry E, Golding S, Balas B, Noe J, Morcos PN, Mok T; ALEX Trial Investigators. Alectinib versus crizotinib in untreated ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 31;377(9):829-838. Epub 2017 Jun 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Gadgeel S, Peters S, Mok T, Shaw AT, Kim DW, Ou SI, Pérol M, Wrona A, Novello S, Rosell R, Zeaiter A, Liu T, Nüesch E, Balas B, Camidge DR. Alectinib versus crizotinib in treatment-naive anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer: CNS efficacy results from the ALEX study. Ann Oncol. 2018 Nov 1;29(11):2214-2222. link to original article PubMed

Ceritinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Shaw et al. 2014 (ASCEND-1) Phase I, >20 pts in this dosing cohort

Note: CNS efficacy is based on the 2016 update.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Phase I: Shaw AT, Kim DW, Mehra R, Tan DS, Felip E, Chow LQ, Camidge DR, Vansteenkiste J, Sharma S, De Pas T, Riely GJ, Solomon BJ, Wolf J, Thomas M, Schuler M, Liu G, Santoro A, Lau YY, Goldwasser M, Boral AL, Engelman JA. Ceritinib in ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014 Mar 27;370(13):1189-97. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Kim DW, Mehra R, Tan DSW, Felip E, Chow LQM, Camidge DR, Vansteenkiste J, Sharma S, De Pas T, Riely GJ, Solomon BJ, Wolf J, Thomas M, Schuler M, Liu G, Santoro A, Sutradhar S, Li S, Szczudlo T, Yovine A, Shaw AT. Activity and safety of ceritinib in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-1): updated results from the multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Apr;17(4):452-463. Epub 2016 Mar 11. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

Non-small cell lung cancer, EGFR-mutated, all lines of therapy

Afatinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Sequist et al. 2013 (LUX-Lung 3) Phase III (E) Cisplatin & Pemetrexed Seems to have superior PFS (*)
Wu et al. 2014 (LUX-Lung 6) Phase III (E) Cisplatin & Gemcitabine Seems to have superior PFS (*)

Note: CNS-specific efficacy is based on the 2016 subgroup analysis.

Chemotherapy

  • Afatinib (Gilotrif) 40 mg PO once per day, given 1 hour before eating food (LUX-Lung 2: "no food intake immediately before or after afatinib")
    • In LUX-Lung 3, patients could be increased to 50 mg PO once per day if they did not experience any grade 2 or higher rash, diarrhea, mucositis, or other drug-related adverse event.

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. LUX-Lung 3: Sequist LV, Yang JC, Yamamoto N, O'Byrne K, Hirsh V, Mok T, Geater SL, Orlov S, Tsai CM, Boyer M, Su WC, Bennouna J, Kato T, Gorbunova V, Lee KH, Shah R, Massey D, Zazulina V, Shahidi M, Schuler M. Phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin plus pemetrexed in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 20;31(27):3327-34. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Yang JC, Hirsh V, Schuler M, Yamamoto N, O'Byrne KJ, Mok TS, Zazulina V, Shahidi M, Lungershausen J, Massey D, Palmer M, Sequist LV. Symptom control and quality of life in LUX-Lung 3: a phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin/pemetrexed in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 20;31(27):3342-50. Epub 2013 Jul 1. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    2. Pooled update: Yang JC, Wu YL, Schuler M, Sebastian M, Popat S, Yamamoto N, Zhou C, Hu CP, O'Byrne K, Feng J, Lu S, Huang Y, Geater SL, Lee KY, Tsai CM, Gorbunova V, Hirsh V, Bennouna J, Orlov S, Mok T, Boyer M, Su WC, Lee KH, Kato T, Massey D, Shahidi M, Zazulina V, Sequist LV. Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6): analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):141-51. link to original article PubMed
    3. Subgroup analysis: Schuler M, Wu YL, Hirsh V, O'Byrne K, Yamamoto N, Mok T, Popat S, Sequist LV, Massey D, Zazulina V, Yang JC. First-line afatinib versus chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and common epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and brain metastases. J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Mar;11(3):380-90. link to original article PubMed
  2. LUX-Lung 6: Wu YL, Zhou C, Hu CP, Feng J, Lu S, Huang Y, Li W, Hou M, Shi JH, Lee KY, Xu CR, Massey D, Kim M, Shi Y, Geater SL. Afatinib versus cisplatin plus gemcitabine for first-line treatment of Asian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring EGFR mutations (LUX-Lung 6): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Feb;15(2):213-22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Pooled update: Yang JC, Wu YL, Schuler M, Sebastian M, Popat S, Yamamoto N, Zhou C, Hu CP, O'Byrne K, Feng J, Lu S, Huang Y, Geater SL, Lee KY, Tsai CM, Gorbunova V, Hirsh V, Bennouna J, Orlov S, Mok T, Boyer M, Su WC, Lee KH, Kato T, Massey D, Shahidi M, Zazulina V, Sequist LV. Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6): analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):141-51. link to original article PubMed
    2. Subgroup analysis: Schuler M, Wu YL, Hirsh V, O'Byrne K, Yamamoto N, Mok T, Popat S, Sequist LV, Massey D, Zazulina V, Yang JC. First-line afatinib versus chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and common epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and brain metastases. J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Mar;11(3):380-90. link to original article PubMed

Icotinib monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Yang et al. 2017 (BRAIN) Phase III (E) WB-XRT Seems to have superior intracranial PFS

Note: this drug is only approved in China.

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. BRAIN: Yang JJ, Zhou C, Huang Y, Feng J, Lu S, Song Y, Huang C, Wu G, Zhang L, Cheng Y, Hu C, Chen G, Zhang L, Liu X, Yan HH, Tan FL, Zhong W, Wu YL. Icotinib versus whole-brain irradiation in patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer and multiple brain metastases (BRAIN): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 Sep;5(9):707-716. Epub 2017 Jul 19. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

Osimertinib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Comparative Efficacy
Mok et al. 2016 (AURA3) Phase III (E) 1. Carboplatin & Pemetrexed
2. Cisplatin & Pemetrexed
Seems to have superior ORR (*)
Goss et al. 2018 (AURA extension; AURA2) Phase II
Soria et al. 2017 (FLAURA) Phase III (E) 1. Erlotinib
2. Gefitinib
Seems to have superior PFS (*)

Patients enrolled in AURA3 had locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with progression after first-line EGFR TKI therapy, and were required to have presence of an EGFR p.T790M mutation. Efficacy reported for AURA3 is based on the 2018 subgroup analysis. Efficacy reported for FLAURA is based on the 2018 subgroup analysis.

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

References

  1. AURA3: Mok TS, Wu YL, Ahn MJ, Garassino MC, Kim HR, Ramalingam SS, Shepherd FA, He Y, Akamatsu H, Theelen WS, Lee CK, Sebastian M, Templeton A, Mann H, Marotti M, Ghiorghiu S, Papadimitrakopoulou VA; AURA3 Investigators. Osimertinib or platinum-pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 16;376(7):629-640. Epub 2016 Dec 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Wu YL, Ahn MJ, Garassino MC, Han JY, Katakami N, Kim HR, Hodge R, Kaur P, Brown AP, Ghiorghiu D, Papadimitrakopoulou VA, Mok TSK. CNS efficacy of osimertinib in patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: data from a randomized phase III trial (AURA3). J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 10;36(26):2702-2709. Epub 2018 Jul 30. link to original article PubMed
  2. Pooled analysis: Goss G, Tsai CM, Shepherd FA, Ahn MJ, Bazhenova L, Crinò L, de Marinis F, Felip E, Morabito A, Hodge R, Cantarini M, Johnson M, Mitsudomi T, Jänne PA, Yang JC. CNS response to osimertinib in patients with T790M-positive advanced NSCLC: pooled data from two phase II trials. Ann Oncol. 2018 Mar 1;29(3):687-693. link to original article PubMed
  3. FLAURA: Soria JC, Ohe Y, Vansteenkiste J, Reungwetwattana T, Chewaskulyong B, Lee KH, Dechaphunkul A, Imamura F, Nogami N, Kurata T, Okamoto I, Zhou C, Cho BC, Cheng Y, Cho EK, Voon PJ, Planchard D, Su WC, Gray JE, Lee SM, Hodge R, Marotti M, Rukazenkov Y, Ramalingam SS; FLAURA Investigators. Osimertinib in untreated EGFR-mutated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan 11;378(2):113-125. Epub 2017 Nov 18. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Subgroup analysis: Reungwetwattana T, Nakagawa K, Cho BC, Cobo M, Cho EK, Bertolini A, Bohnet S, Zhou C, Lee KH, Nogami N, Okamoto I, Leighl N, Hodge R, McKeown A, Brown AP, Rukazenkov Y, Ramalingam SS, Vansteenkiste J. CNS response to osimertinib versus standard epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with untreated EGFR-mutated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Nov 20;36(33):3290-7. Epub 2018 Aug 28. link to original article PubMed