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(Per Wiktionary): "A chemical treatment to kill or halt the replication and/or spread of cancerous cells in a patient."

Sometimes the term chemotherapy is used to more generally describe any drug with an effect on cellular processes (including non-cancerous cells). However for our intent, drug classes on this page are specifically active directly against human cancer cells. Note that many drugs may exert an antineoplastic effect indirectly, such as immunotherapy and endocrine therapy (hormonotherapy).

The mechanism of action of a drug is usually analogous to the modality in which it used in a specific treatment scenario. For example, nearly all chemotherapeutics are used in a chemotherapy modality. There are a few important ambiguities. For example, steroids can be chemotherapy when used in the setting of lymphoid malignancy, hormonotherapy when used in the context of hormone-dependent cancers (e.g., prostate cancer), and supportive medications when used in other contexts (e.g., to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting).