Breast cancer, HER2-positive

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Section editor
Fernandes Hermina WEB160x200.jpg
Hermina Fernandes, MD
Bismarck, ND

Note: these are biomarker-specific regimens, please see the main breast cancer page for other regimens.

48 regimens on this page
82 variants on this page

Contents


Guidelines

ASCO

ESMO

NCCN

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy

FEC & H

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FEC & H: Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Variant #1, IV trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ismael et al. 2012 (HannaH) Randomized See link See link
Pivot et al. 2018 (SB3-G31-BC) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, SC trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ismael et al. 2012 (HannaH) Randomized See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

Variant #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Buzdar et al. 2005 Randomized See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

References

  1. Buzdar AU, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Booser DJ, Thomas ES, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Arun BK, Giordano SH, Cristofanilli M, Frye DK, Smith TL, Hunt KK, Singletary SE, Sahin AA, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Berry D, Hortobagyi GN. Significantly higher pathologic complete remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and epirubicin chemotherapy: results of a randomized trial in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3676-85. Epub 2005 Feb 28. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Buzdar AU, Valero V, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Broglio KR, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Singletary SE, Hunt KK, Sahin AA, Esteva F, Symmans WF, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Hortobagyi GN. Neoadjuvant therapy with paclitaxel followed by 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and concurrent trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer: an update of the initial randomized study population and data of additional patients treated with the same regimen. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 1;13(1):228-33. link to original article PubMed
  2. HannaH: Ismael G, Hegg R, Muehlbauer S, Heinzmann D, Lum B, Kim SB, Pienkowski T, Lichinitser M, Semiglazov V, Melichar B, Jackisch C. Subcutaneous versus intravenous administration of (neo)adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive, clinical stage I-III breast cancer (HannaH study): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Sep;13(9):869-78. Epub 2012 Aug 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. SB3-G31-BC: Pivot X, Bondarenko I, Nowecki Z, Dvorkin M, Trishkina E, Ahn JH, Vinnyk Y, Im SA, Sarosiek T, Chatterjee S, Wojtukiewicz MZ, Moiseyenko V, Shparyk Y, Bello M 3rd, Semiglazov V, Song S, Lim J. Phase III, randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SB3 (trastuzumab biosimilar) and reference trastuzumab in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 1;36(10):968-974. Epub 2018 Jan 26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Lapatinib & Trastuzumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

6-week course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed

Neratinib & Paclitaxel

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Park et al. 2016 (I-SPY 2) Adaptively Randomized Phase II TH Seems to have superior pCR rate

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

12-week course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Park JW, Liu MC, Yee D, Yau C, van 't Veer LJ, Symmans WF, Paoloni M, Perlmutter J, Hylton NM, Hogarth M, DeMichele A, Buxton MB, Chien AJ, Wallace AM, Boughey JC, Haddad TC, Chui SY, Kemmer KA, Kaplan HG, Isaacs C, Nanda R, Tripathy D, Albain KS, Edmiston KK, Elias AD, Northfelt DW, Pusztai L, Moulder SL, Lang JE, Viscusi RK, Euhus DM, Haley BB, Khan QJ, Wood WC, Melisko M, Schwab R, Helsten T, Lyandres J, Davis SE, Hirst GL, Sanil A, Esserman LJ, Berry DA; I-SPY 2 Investigators. Adaptive randomization of neratinib in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 7;375(1):11-22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

TCHP (Taxotere)

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TCHP: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Carboplatin, Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Pertuzumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Schneeweiss et al. 2013 (TRYPHAENA) Randomized Phase II FEC & HP, then THP Not reported
FEC, then THP Not reported
Hurvitz et al. 2017 (KRISTINE) Phase III Pertuzumab & T-DM1 Seems to have superior pCR rate

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • TRYPHAENA: Surgery, then adjuvant trastuzumab; further adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment) according to local guidelines
  • KRISTINE: Surgery

References

  1. TRYPHAENA: Schneeweiss A, Chia S, Hickish T, Harvey V, Eniu A, Hegg R, Tausch C, Seo JH, Tsai YF, Ratnayake J, McNally V, Ross G, Cortés J. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a randomized phase II cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA). Ann Oncol. 2013 Sep;24(9):2278-84. Epub 2013 May 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. KRISTINE: Hurvitz SA, Martin M, Symmans WF, Jung KH, Huang CS, Thompson AM, Harbeck N, Valero V, Stroyakovskiy D, Wildiers H, Campone M, Boileau JF, Beckmann MW, Afenjar K, Fresco R, Helms HJ, Xu J, Lin YG, Sparano J, Slamon D. Neoadjuvant trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and chemotherapy versus trastuzumab emtansine plus pertuzumab in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (KRISTINE): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Jan;19(1):115-126. Epub 2017 Nov 23. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

TH (Taxol)

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TH: Taxol (Paclitaxel) & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)
T-T: Taxol (Paclitaxel) & Trastuzumab

Variant #1, weekly paclitaxel x 12

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Phase III See link See link
Buzdar et al. 2013 (ACOSOG Z1041) Phase III See link See link
Park et al. 2016 (I-SPY 2) Adaptively Randomized Phase II Neratinib & Paclitaxel Seems to have inferior pCR rate

Note: patients in NeoALTTO had already undergone trastuzumab loading so would continue at the 2 mg/kg weekly dose.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

12-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • NeoALTTO: Surgery, then adjuvant FEC x 3
  • ACOSOG Z1041: Surgery
  • I-SPY 2: AC or ddAC, then surgery

Variant #2, weekly paclitaxel x 16

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Carey et al. 2015 (CALGB 40601) Phase III (C) THL Seems not superior
TL Might have superior pCR rate

Chemotherapy

16-week course

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery

Variant #3, paclitaxel 3 out of 4 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robidoux et al. 2013 (NSABP B-41) Phase III THL Might have inferior pCR rate
TL Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 80 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8, 15, 22
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #4, CI paclitaxel

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Buzdar et al. 2005 Randomized See link See link

Chemotherapy

  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 225 mg/m2 IV continuous infusion over 24 hours on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1 prior to first dose of paclitaxel, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Buzdar AU, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Booser DJ, Thomas ES, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Arun BK, Giordano SH, Cristofanilli M, Frye DK, Smith TL, Hunt KK, Singletary SE, Sahin AA, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Berry D, Hortobagyi GN. Significantly higher pathologic complete remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and epirubicin chemotherapy: results of a randomized trial in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3676-85. Epub 2005 Feb 28. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Buzdar AU, Valero V, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Broglio KR, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Singletary SE, Hunt KK, Sahin AA, Esteva F, Symmans WF, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Hortobagyi GN. Neoadjuvant therapy with paclitaxel followed by 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and concurrent trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer: an update of the initial randomized study population and data of additional patients treated with the same regimen. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 1;13(1):228-33. link to original article PubMed
  2. NeoALTTO: Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed
  3. NSABP B-41: Robidoux A, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Azar CA, Atkins JN, Fehrenbacher L, Bear HD, Baez-Diaz L, Sarwar S, Margolese RG, Farrar WB, Brufsky AM, Shibata HR, Bandos H, Paik S, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Lapatinib as a component of neoadjuvant therapy for HER2-positive operable breast cancer (NSABP protocol B-41): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Nov;14(12):1183-92. Epub 2013 Oct 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. ACOSOG Z1041: Buzdar AU, Suman VJ, Meric-Bernstam F, Leitch AM, Ellis MJ, Boughey JC, Unzeitig G, Royce M, McCall LM, Ewer MS, Hunt KK; American College of Surgeons Oncology Group investigators. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC-75) followed by paclitaxel plus trastuzumab versus paclitaxel plus trastuzumab followed by FEC-75 plus trastuzumab as neoadjuvant treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (Z1041): a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Dec;14(13):1317-25. Epub 2013 Nov 13. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. CALGB 40601: Carey LA, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Barry WT, Pitcher BN, Harris LN, Ollila DW, Krop IE, Henry NL, Weckstein DJ, Anders CK, Singh B, Hoadley KA, Iglesia M, Cheang MC, Perou CM, Winer EP, Hudis CA. Molecular heterogeneity and response to neoadjuvant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 targeting in CALGB 40601, a randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel plus trastuzumab with or without lapatinib. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 20;34(6):542-9. Epub 2015 Nov 2. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  6. I-SPY 2: Park JW, Liu MC, Yee D, Yau C, van 't Veer LJ, Symmans WF, Paoloni M, Perlmutter J, Hylton NM, Hogarth M, DeMichele A, Buxton MB, Chien AJ, Wallace AM, Boughey JC, Haddad TC, Chui SY, Kemmer KA, Kaplan HG, Isaacs C, Nanda R, Tripathy D, Albain KS, Edmiston KK, Elias AD, Northfelt DW, Pusztai L, Moulder SL, Lang JE, Viscusi RK, Euhus DM, Haley BB, Khan QJ, Wood WC, Melisko M, Schwab R, Helsten T, Lyandres J, Davis SE, Hirst GL, Sanil A, Esserman LJ, Berry DA; I-SPY 2 Investigators. Adaptive Randomization of Neratinib in Early Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 7;375(1):11-22. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

TH (Taxotere)

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TH: Taxotere (Docetaxel) & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Variant #1, IV trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ismael et al. 2012 (HannaH) Randomized See link See link
Pivot et al. 2018 (SB3-G31-BC) Randomized See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, SC trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Ismael et al. 2012 (HannaH) Randomized See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #3, 5 cycles

Study Evidence Efficacy
Van Pelt et al. 2003 Phase II OCR: 77%

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 5 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • Surgery, then AC x 4, then H x 52 wk

References

  1. Van Pelt AE, Mohsin S, Elledge RM, Hilsenbeck SG, Gutierrez MC, Lucci A Jr, Kalidas M, Granchi T, Scott BG, Allred DC, Chang JC. Neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel in breast cancer: preliminary results. Clin Breast Cancer. 2003 Dec;4(5):348-53. contains protocol PubMed
  2. HannaH: Ismael G, Hegg R, Muehlbauer S, Heinzmann D, Lum B, Kim SB, Pienkowski T, Lichinitser M, Semiglazov V, Melichar B, Jackisch C. Subcutaneous versus intravenous administration of (neo)adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive, clinical stage I-III breast cancer (HannaH study): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Sep;13(9):869-78. Epub 2012 Aug 9. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. SB3-G31-BC: Pivot X, Bondarenko I, Nowecki Z, Dvorkin M, Trishkina E, Ahn JH, Vinnyk Y, Im SA, Sarosiek T, Chatterjee S, Wojtukiewicz MZ, Moiseyenko V, Shparyk Y, Bello M 3rd, Semiglazov V, Song S, Lim J. Phase III, randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SB3 (trastuzumab biosimilar) and reference trastuzumab in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 1;36(10):968-974. Epub 2018 Jan 26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

THL (Taxol)

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THL: Taxol (Paclitaxel), Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Lapatinib

Variant #1, weekly paclitaxel x 12

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Phase III See link See link

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

12-week course

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, paclitaxel 3 out of 4 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robidoux et al. 2013 (NSABP B-41) Phase III TH Might have superior pCR rate
TL Might have superior pCR rate

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NeoALTTO: Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-41: Robidoux A, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Azar CA, Atkins JN, Fehrenbacher L, Bear HD, Baez-Diaz L, Sarwar S, Margolese RG, Farrar WB, Brufsky AM, Shibata HR, Bandos H, Paik S, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Lapatinib as a component of neoadjuvant therapy for HER2-positive operable breast cancer (NSABP protocol B-41): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Nov;14(12):1183-92. Epub 2013 Oct 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. CALGB 40601: Carey LA, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Barry WT, Pitcher BN, Harris LN, Ollila DW, Krop IE, Henry NL, Weckstein DJ, Anders CK, Singh B, Hoadley KA, Iglesia M, Cheang MC, Perou CM, Winer EP, Hudis CA. Molecular heterogeneity and response to neoadjuvant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 targeting in CALGB 40601, a randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel plus trastuzumab with or without lapatinib. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 20;34(6):542-9. Epub 2015 Nov 2. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

THP (Taxotere)

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THP: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Pertuzumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gianni et al. 2011 (NeoSphere) Randomized Phase II Docetaxel & Pertuzumab Seems not superior
Pertuzumab & Trastuzumab Seems not superior
TH Seems to have superior pCR rate

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 75 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
    • Based on tolerability, investigators could increase dose to 100 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV once on day 1
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1
  • Pertuzumab (Perjeta) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 840 mg IV once on day 1
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 420 mg IV once on day 1

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NeoSphere: Gianni L, Pienkowski T, Im YH, Roman L, Tseng LM, Liu MC, Lluch A, Staroslawska E, de la Haba-Rodriguez J, Im SA, Pedrini JL, Poirier B, Morandi P, Semiglazov V, Srimuninnimit V, Bianchi G, Szado T, Ratnayake J, Ross G, Valagussa P. Efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in women with locally advanced, inflammatory, or early HER2-positive breast cancer (NeoSphere): a randomised multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jan;13(1):25-32. Epub 2011 Dec 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Gianni L, Pienkowski T, Im YH, Tseng LM, Liu MC, Lluch A, Starosławska E, de la Haba-Rodriguez J, Im SA, Pedrini JL, Poirier B, Morandi P, Semiglazov V, Srimuninnimit V, Bianchi GV, Magazzù D, McNally V, Douthwaite H, Ross G, Valagussa P. 5-year analysis of neoadjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in patients with locally advanced, inflammatory, or early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer (NeoSphere): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jun;17(6):791-800. Epub 2016 May 11. link to original article PubMed
  2. TRYPHAENA: Schneeweiss A, Chia S, Hickish T, Harvey V, Eniu A, Hegg R, Tausch C, Seo JH, Tsai YF, Ratnayake J, McNally V, Ross G, Cortés J. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a randomized phase II cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA). Ann Oncol. 2013 Sep;24(9):2278-84. Epub 2013 May 22. link to original article PubMed
  3. BERENICE: Swain SM, Ewer MS, Viale G, Delaloge S, Ferrero JM, Verrill M, Colomer R, Vieira C, Werner TL, Douthwaite H, Bradley D, Waldron-Lynch M, Kiermaier A, Eng-Wong J, Dang C; BERENICE Study Group. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and standard anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy for the neoadjuvant treatment of patients with HER2-positive localized breast cancer (BERENICE): a phase II, open-label, multicenter, multinational cardiac safety study. Ann Oncol. 2018 Mar 1;29(3):646-653. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed

TL (Taxol)

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TL: Taxol (Paclitaxel) & Lapatinib

Variant #1, weekly paclitaxel x 12

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Phase III See link See link

Preceding treatment

  • Lapatinib x 6 wk

Chemotherapy

12-week course

Subsequent treatment

Variant #2, paclitaxel 3 out of 4 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robidoux et al. 2013 (NSABP B-41) Phase III TH Seems not superior
THL Might have inferior pCR rate

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

28-day cycle for 4 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. NeoALTTO: Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed
  2. NSABP B-41: Robidoux A, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Azar CA, Atkins JN, Fehrenbacher L, Bear HD, Baez-Diaz L, Sarwar S, Margolese RG, Farrar WB, Brufsky AM, Shibata HR, Bandos H, Paik S, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Lapatinib as a component of neoadjuvant therapy for HER2-positive operable breast cancer (NSABP protocol B-41): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Nov;14(12):1183-92. Epub 2013 Oct 4. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  3. CALGB 40601: Carey LA, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Barry WT, Pitcher BN, Harris LN, Ollila DW, Krop IE, Henry NL, Weckstein DJ, Anders CK, Singh B, Hoadley KA, Iglesia M, Cheang MC, Perou CM, Winer EP, Hudis CA. Molecular heterogeneity and response to neoadjuvant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 targeting in CALGB 40601, a randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel plus trastuzumab with or without lapatinib. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 20;34(6):542-9. Epub 2015 Nov 2. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

T-DM1 monotherapy

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T-DM1: Trastuzumab-DM1 (ado-Trastuzumab emtansine)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Harbeck et al. 2017 (WGSG ADAPT) Randomized Phase II T-DM1 & ET Not reported
Trastuzumab & ET Superior pCR rate

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Surgery was performed within 3 weeks of the end of therapy. Adjuvant therapy consisted of EC, then TH (Taxol), unless the patient had pCR in which case adjuvant therapy was optional.

References

  1. Harbeck N, Gluz O, Christgen M, Kates RE, Braun M, Küemmel S, Schumacher C, Potenberg J, Kraemer S, Kleine-Tebbe A, Augustin D, Aktas B, Forstbauer H, Tio J, von Schumann R, Liedtke C, Grischke EM, Schumacher J, Wuerstlein R, Kreipe HH, Nitz UA. De-escalation strategies in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer (BC): Final analysis of the West German Study Group Adjuvant Dynamic marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy trial optimizing risk assessment and therapy response prediction in early BC HER2- and hormone receptor-positive phase II randomized trial-efficacy, safety, and predictive markers for 12 weeks of neoadjuvant trastuzumab emtansine with or without endocrine therapy (ET) versus trastuzumab plus ET. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 10;35(26):3046-3054. Epub 2017 Jul 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

T-DM1 & ET

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T-DM1 & ET: Trastuzumab-DM1 (ado-Trastuzumab emtansine) & Endocrine Therapy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Harbeck et al. 2017 (WGSG ADAPT) Randomized Phase II (E) T-DM1 Not reported
Trastuzumab & ET Superior pCR rate

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Surgery was performed within 3 weeks of the end of therapy. Adjuvant therapy consisted of EC, then TH (Taxol), unless the patient had pCR in which case adjuvant therapy was optional.

References

  1. Harbeck N, Gluz O, Christgen M, Kates RE, Braun M, Küemmel S, Schumacher C, Potenberg J, Kraemer S, Kleine-Tebbe A, Augustin D, Aktas B, Forstbauer H, Tio J, von Schumann R, Liedtke C, Grischke EM, Schumacher J, Wuerstlein R, Kreipe HH, Nitz UA. De-escalation strategies in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer (BC): Final analysis of the West German Study Group Adjuvant Dynamic marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy trial optimizing risk assessment and therapy response prediction in early BC HER2- and hormone receptor-positive phase II randomized trial-efficacy, safety, and predictive markers for 12 weeks of neoadjuvant trastuzumab emtansine with or without endocrine therapy (ET) versus trastuzumab plus ET. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 10;35(26):3046-3054. Epub 2017 Jul 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Trastuzumab monotherapy

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Chemotherapy

6-week course

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed

Trastuzumab & ET

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ET: Endocrine Therapy

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Harbeck et al. 2017 (WGSG ADAPT) Randomized Phase II (C) T-DM1
T-DM1 & ET
Inferior pCR rate

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 4 cycles

Surgery was performed within 3 weeks of the end of therapy. Adjuvant therapy consisted of EC, then TH (Taxol), unless the patient had pCR in which case adjuvant therapy was optional.

References

  1. Harbeck N, Gluz O, Christgen M, Kates RE, Braun M, Küemmel S, Schumacher C, Potenberg J, Kraemer S, Kleine-Tebbe A, Augustin D, Aktas B, Forstbauer H, Tio J, von Schumann R, Liedtke C, Grischke EM, Schumacher J, Wuerstlein R, Kreipe HH, Nitz UA. De-escalation strategies in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer (BC): Final analysis of the West German Study Group Adjuvant Dynamic marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy trial optimizing risk assessment and therapy response prediction in early BC HER2- and hormone receptor-positive phase II randomized trial-efficacy, safety, and predictive markers for 12 weeks of neoadjuvant trastuzumab emtansine with or without endocrine therapy (ET) versus trastuzumab plus ET. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 10;35(26):3046-3054. Epub 2017 Jul 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Adjuvant chemotherapy

ddTH (Taxol)

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ddTH: dose-dense Taxol (Paclitaxel) & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Regimen

Study Evidence
Dang et al. 2008 Phase II

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 175 mg/m2 IV over 3 hours once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Week 1: 4 mg/kg IV once with first dose of paclitaxel
    • Weeks 2 to 8: 2 mg/kg IV once per week
    • Weeks 9 to 52: 6 mg/kg IV once every 3 weeks

Supportive medications

14-day cycle for 4 cycles (paclitaxel), 52 weeks of trastuzumab

References

  1. Dang C, Fornier M, Sugarman S, Troso-Sandoval T, Lake D, D'Andrea G, Seidman A, Sklarin N, Dickler M, Currie V, Gilewski T, Moynahan ME, Drullinsky P, Robson M, Wasserheit-Leiblich C, Mills N, Steingart R, Panageas K, Norton L, Hudis C. The safety of dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with trastuzumab in HER-2/neu overexpressed/amplified breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 10;26(8):1216-22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

FEC & H

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Gianni et al. 2011 (NeoSphere) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 18 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Gianni L, Pienkowski T, Im YH, Roman L, Tseng LM, Liu MC, Lluch A, Staroslawska E, de la Haba-Rodriguez J, Im SA, Pedrini JL, Poirier B, Morandi P, Semiglazov V, Srimuninnimit V, Bianchi G, Szado T, Ratnayake J, Ross G, Valagussa P. Efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in women with locally advanced, inflammatory, or early HER2-positive breast cancer (NeoSphere): a randomised multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jan;13(1):25-32. Epub 2011 Dec 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Gianni L, Pienkowski T, Im YH, Tseng LM, Liu MC, Lluch A, Starosławska E, de la Haba-Rodriguez J, Im SA, Pedrini JL, Poirier B, Morandi P, Semiglazov V, Srimuninnimit V, Bianchi GV, Magazzù D, McNally V, Douthwaite H, Ross G, Valagussa P. 5-year analysis of neoadjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in patients with locally advanced, inflammatory, or early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer (NeoSphere): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jun;17(6):791-800. Epub 2016 May 11. link to original article PubMed

Lapatinib & Trastuzumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 12 cycles (34-week course)

References

  1. NeoALTTO: Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed
  2. ALTTO: Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Baselga J, de Azambuja E, Dueck AC, Viale G, Zujewski JA, Goldhirsch A, Armour A, Pritchard KI, McCullough AE, Dolci S, McFadden E, Holmes AP, Tonghua L, Eidtmann H, Dinh P, Di Cosimo S, Harbeck N, Tjulandin S, Im YH, Huang CS, Diéras V, Hillman DW, Wolff AC, Jackisch C, Lang I, Untch M, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Gomez H, Suter T, Gelber RD, Perez EA. Adjuvant lapatinib and trastuzumab for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 1;34(10):1034-42. Epub 2015 Nov 23. link to original article link to protocol contains verified protocol in supplement link to PMC article PubMed

Neratinib monotherapy

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Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Chan et al. 2016 (ExteNET) Phase III (E) Placebo Superior invasive DFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery and trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy (neoadjuvant or adjuvant)

Chemotherapy

Supportive medications

  • (per FDA package insert)
  • Loperamide (Imodium) as follows:
    • Weeks 1 & 2: 4 mg PO TID
    • Weeks 3 to 8: 4 mg PO BID
    • Weeks 9 to 52: 4 mg PO as needed for diarrhea, not to exceed 16 mg/d

12-month course

References

  1. ExteNET: Chan A, Delaloge S, Holmes FA, Moy B, Iwata H, Harvey VJ, Robert NJ, Silovski T, Gokmen E, von Minckwitz G, Ejlertsen B, Chia SK, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Buyse M, Gore I, Smith J 2nd, Harker G, Masuda N, Petrakova K, Zotano AG, Iannotti N, Rodriguez G, Tassone P, Wong A, Bryce R, Ye Y, Yao B, Martin M; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Mar;17(3):367-77. Epub 2016 Feb 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Martin M, Holmes FA, Ejlertsen B, Delaloge S, Moy B, Iwata H, von Minckwitz G, Chia SKL, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Tomašević Z, Denduluri N, Šeparović R, Gokmen E, Bashford A, Ruiz Borrego M, Kim SB, Jakobsen EH, Ciceniene A, Inoue K, Overkamp F, Heijns JB, Armstrong AC, Link JS, Joy AA, Bryce R, Wong A, Moran S, Yao B, Xu F, Auerbach A, Buyse M, Chan A; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Dec;18(12):1688-1700. Epub 2017 Nov 13. link to original article PubMed

Placebo

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Chan et al. 2016 (ExteNET) Phase III Neratinib Inferior invasive DFS

No further treatment after surgery and trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy (neoadjuvant or adjuvant).

References

  1. Chan A, Delaloge S, Holmes FA, Moy B, Iwata H, Harvey VJ, Robert NJ, Silovski T, Gokmen E, von Minckwitz G, Ejlertsen B, Chia SK, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Buyse M, Gore I, Smith J 2nd, Harker G, Masuda N, Petrakova K, Zotano AG, Iannotti N, Rodriguez G, Tassone P, Wong A, Bryce R, Ye Y, Yao B, Martin M; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Mar;17(3):367-77. Epub 2016 Feb 10. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Martin M, Holmes FA, Ejlertsen B, Delaloge S, Moy B, Iwata H, von Minckwitz G, Chia SKL, Mansi J, Barrios CH, Gnant M, Tomašević Z, Denduluri N, Šeparović R, Gokmen E, Bashford A, Ruiz Borrego M, Kim SB, Jakobsen EH, Ciceniene A, Inoue K, Overkamp F, Heijns JB, Armstrong AC, Link JS, Joy AA, Bryce R, Wong A, Moran S, Yao B, Xu F, Auerbach A, Buyse M, Chan A; ExteNET Study Group. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Dec;18(12):1688-1700. Epub 2017 Nov 13. link to original article PubMed

TCH (Taxotere, Carboplatin)

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TCH: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Carboplatin, Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Variant #1, capped carboplatin

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III TCHP (Taxotere) Seems to have inferior invasive DFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

Variant #2, no cap

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Slamon et al. 2011 (BCIRG 006) Phase III AC, then T (Taxotere) Seems to have superior OS
AC, then TH (Taxotere) Seems not superior
Piccart-Gebhart et al. 2015 (ALTTO) Phase III (C) TCL (Taxotere)
TCH (Taxotere), then Lapatinib
TCHL (Taxotere)
Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 6: 75 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Carboplatin (Paraplatin) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 6: AUC 6 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 to 6: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycles 7 to 18: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1

Supportive medications

  • ALTTO: G-CSF use is mandatory (details not provided)

21-day cycle for 18 cycles

References

  1. BCIRG 006: Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, Pienkowski T, Martin M, Press M, Mackey J, Glaspy J, Chan A, Pawlicki M, Pinter T, Valero V, Liu MC, Sauter G, von Minckwitz G, Visco F, Bee V, Buyse M, Bendahmane B, Tabah-Fisch I, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Crown J; Breast Cancer International Research Group. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6;365(14):1273-83. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed
  3. ALTTO: Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Baselga J, de Azambuja E, Dueck AC, Viale G, Zujewski JA, Goldhirsch A, Armour A, Pritchard KI, McCullough AE, Dolci S, McFadden E, Holmes AP, Tonghua L, Eidtmann H, Dinh P, Di Cosimo S, Harbeck N, Tjulandin S, Im YH, Huang CS, Diéras V, Hillman DW, Wolff AC, Jackisch C, Lang I, Untch M, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Gomez H, Suter T, Gelber RD, Perez EA. Adjuvant lapatinib and trastuzumab for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 1;34(10):1034-42. Epub 2015 Nov 23. link to original article link to protocol contains verified protocol in supplement link to PMC article PubMed

TCH (Taxotere, Cyclophosphamide)

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TCH: Taxotere, Cyclophosphamide, Herceptin

Regimen

Study Evidence
Jones et al. 2013 Phase II

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery, within 84 days

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 4: 75 mg/m2 IV over 60 minutes once on day 1
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 4: 600 mg/m2 IV over 15 to 30 minutes once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV over 30 to 60 minutes once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 2 mg/kg IV over 30 to 60 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycles 6 to 18: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 18 cycles

References

  1. Jones SE, Collea R, Paul D, Sedlacek S, Favret AM, Gore I Jr, Lindquist DL, Holmes FA, Allison MA, Brooks BD, Portillo RM, Vukelja SJ, Steinberg MS, Stokoe C, Crockett MW, Wang Y, Asmar L, Robert NJ, O'Shaughnessy J. Adjuvant docetaxel and cyclophosphamide plus trastuzumab in patients with HER2-amplified early stage breast cancer: a single-group, open-label, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Oct;14(11):1121-8. Epub 2013 Sep 2. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

TCHP (Taxotere)

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TCHP: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Carboplatin, Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Pertuzumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III TCH Seems to have superior invasive DFS

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab & pertuzumab)

References

  1. von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

TH (Taxol)

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TH: Taxol (Paclitaxel) & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)
PH: Paclitaxel & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Variant #1, weekly paclitaxel, weekly trastuzumab

Study Evidence
Tolaney et al. 2015 (APT) Phase II

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

12 weeks of paclitaxel, 52 weeks of trastuzumab

Variant #2, weekly paclitaxel, weekly then q3wk trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Tolaney et al. 2015 (APT) Phase II
Piccart-Gebhart et al. 2015 (ALTTO) Phase III (C) TH (Taxol), then Lapatinib
THL (Taxol)
TL (Taxol)
Seems not superior

Preceding treatment

  • APT: Surgery
  • ALTTO: Surgery, then anthracycline-based chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 80 mg/m2 IV once per week on weeks 1 to 12
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Week 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1 with the first dose of paclitaxel
    • Weeks 2 to 12: 2 mg/kg IV once per week
    • Weeks 13 to 52: 6 mg/kg IV once every 3 weeks

12 weeks of paclitaxel, 52 weeks of trastuzumab

Variant #3, weekly paclitaxel, q3wk trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III THP (Taxol) Seems to have inferior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

Variant #4, q3wk paclitaxel, weekly trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy Toxicity
Romond et al. 2005 (NSABP B-31) Phase III weekly T (Taxol)
q3wk T (Taxol)
Superior OS Might have superior DASI score
Romond et al. 2005 (NCCTG N9831) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

4 cycles of paclitaxel, 52 weeks of trastuzumab

References

  1. NSABP B-31/NCCTG N9831: Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE Jr, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, Fehrenbacher L, Kutteh LA, Vogel VG, Visscher DW, Yothers G, Jenkins RB, Brown AM, Dakhil SR, Mamounas EP, Lingle WL, Klein PM, Ingle JN, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1673-84. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Gralow JR, Kaufman PA, Visscher DW, Chen B, Ingle JN, Dakhil SR, Zujewski J, Moreno-Aspitia A, Pisansky TM, Jenkins RB. Sequential versus concurrent trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4491-7. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Sledge G, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Rastogi P, Gralow J, Swain SM, Winer EP, Colon-Otero G, Davidson NE, Mamounas E, Zujewski JA, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: planned joint analysis of overall survival from NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 20;32(33):3744-52. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    3. Update and HRQoL analysis: Ganz PA, Romond EH, Cecchini RS, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Swain SM, Jeong JH, Fehrenbacher L, Gross HM, Brufsky AM, Flynn PJ, Wahl TA, Seay TE, Wade JL 3rd, Biggs DD, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Zapas JL, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Long-term follow-up of cardiac function and quality of life for patients in NSABP protocol B-31/NRG Oncology: a randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by paclitaxel with AC followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with node-positive breast cancer with tumors overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Dec 10;35(35):3942-3948. Epub 2017 Oct 26. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. CALGB 40101: Shulman LN, Cirrincione CT, Berry DA, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Atkins JN, Mayer E, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Norton L, Muss H, Winer EP, Hudis C. Six Cycles of Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide or Paclitaxel Are Not Superior to Four Cycles As Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in Women With Zero to Three Positive Axillary Nodes: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40101. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 20;30(33):4071-6. Epub 2012 Jul 23. link to original article does not contain protocol link to study protocol PDF link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Shulman LN, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Shapiro CL, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Burstein HJ, Norton L, Muss H, Hudis CA, Winer EP. Comparison of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus single-agent paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in women with 0 to 3 positive axillary nodes: CALGB 40101 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2014 Aug 1;32(22):2311-7. link to PMC article PubMed
  3. APT: Tolaney SM, Barry WT, Dang CT, Yardley DA, Moy B, Marcom PK, Albain KS, Rugo HS, Ellis M, Shapira I, Wolff AC, Carey LA, Overmoyer BA, Partridge AH, Guo H, Hudis CA, Krop IE, Burstein HJ, Winer EP. Adjuvant paclitaxel and trastuzumab for node-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 8;372(2):134-41. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2015 Nov 12;373(20):1989. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. ALTTO: Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Baselga J, de Azambuja E, Dueck AC, Viale G, Zujewski JA, Goldhirsch A, Armour A, Pritchard KI, McCullough AE, Dolci S, McFadden E, Holmes AP, Tonghua L, Eidtmann H, Dinh P, Di Cosimo S, Harbeck N, Tjulandin S, Im YH, Huang CS, Diéras V, Hillman DW, Wolff AC, Jackisch C, Lang I, Untch M, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Gomez H, Suter T, Gelber RD, Perez EA. Adjuvant lapatinib and trastuzumab for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 1;34(10):1034-42. Epub 2015 Nov 23. link to original article link to protocol contains verified protocol in supplement link to PMC article PubMed
  5. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

TH (Taxotere)

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TH: Taxotere (Docetaxel) & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III THP (Taxotere) Seems to have inferior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

Variant #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III (C) THP (Taxotere) Seems to have inferior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 75 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
    • Cycles 2 & 3: 100 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV once on day 1
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

Variant #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III THP (Taxotere) Seems to have inferior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

Variant #4

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Piccart-Gebhart et al. 2015 (ALTTO) Phase III (C) TH (Taxotere), then Lapatinib
THL (Taxotere)
TL (Taxotere)
Seems not superior

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery, then anthracycline-based chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 4: 75 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycles 5 to 18: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1

21-day cycle for 18 cycles

Variant #5

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Slamon et al. 2011 (BCIRG 006) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 4: 100 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 to 4: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15
    • Cycles 5 to 18: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1

21-day cycle for 18 cycles

Variant #6, 9 wk of trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Joensuu et al. 2006 (FinHer) Phase III T
V
Seems not superior
VH Not reported

Preceding treatment

  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 100 mg/m2 IV over 60 minutes once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 & 3: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. FinHer: Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Bono P, Alanko T, Kataja V, Asola R, Utriainen T, Kokko R, Hemminki A, Tarkkanen M, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Flander M, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Johansson K, Jääskeläinen AS, Pajunen M, Rauhala M, Kaleva-Kerola J, Salminen T, Leinonen M, Elomaa I, Isola J; FinHer Study Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):809-20. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Bono P, Kataja V, Alanko T, Kokko R, Asola R, Utriainen T, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Möykkynen K, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Pajunen M, Huusko M, Salminen T, Auvinen P, Leinonen H, Leinonen M, Isola J, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide with either docetaxel or vinorelbine, with or without trastuzumab, as adjuvant treatments of breast cancer: Final results of the FinHer trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Dec 1;27(34):5685-92. link to original article PubMed
  2. BCIRG 006: Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, Pienkowski T, Martin M, Press M, Mackey J, Glaspy J, Chan A, Pawlicki M, Pinter T, Valero V, Liu MC, Sauter G, von Minckwitz G, Visco F, Bee V, Buyse M, Bendahmane B, Tabah-Fisch I, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Crown J; Breast Cancer International Research Group. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6;365(14):1273-83. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. ALTTO: Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Baselga J, de Azambuja E, Dueck AC, Viale G, Zujewski JA, Goldhirsch A, Armour A, Pritchard KI, McCullough AE, Dolci S, McFadden E, Holmes AP, Tonghua L, Eidtmann H, Dinh P, Di Cosimo S, Harbeck N, Tjulandin S, Im YH, Huang CS, Diéras V, Hillman DW, Wolff AC, Jackisch C, Lang I, Untch M, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Gomez H, Suter T, Gelber RD, Perez EA. Adjuvant lapatinib and trastuzumab for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 1;34(10):1034-42. Epub 2015 Nov 23. link to original article link to protocol contains verified protocol in supplement link to PMC article PubMed
  4. APHINITY: von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

THP (Taxol)

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THP: Taxol (Paclitaxel), Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Pertuzumab

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III TH (Taxol) Seems to have superior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

References

  1. von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

THP (Taxotere)

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THP: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Pertuzumab

Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III TH (Taxotere) Seems to have superior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

Variant #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III TH (Taxotere) Seems to have superior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 75 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
    • Cycles 2 & 3: 100 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV once on day 1
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1
  • Pertuzumab (Perjeta) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 840 mg IV once on day 1
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 420 mg IV once on day 1

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

Variant #3

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2017 (APHINITY) Phase III TH (Taxotere) Seems to have superior invasive DFS

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for up to 1 year of therapy (18 doses of trastuzumab)

References

  1. von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, Suter T, Arahmani A, Rouchet N, Clark E, Knott A, Lang I, Levy C, Yardley DA, Bines J, Gelber RD, Piccart M, Baselga J; APHINITY Steering Committee and Investigators. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. Epub 2017 Jun 5. link to original article link to supplementary protocol contains verified protocol in supplementary protocol link to PMC article PubMed

VH

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VH: Vinorelbine & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Joensuu et al. 2006 (FinHer) Phase III T
V
Seems not superior
TH (Taxotere) Not reported

Chemotherapy

  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine) 24 mg/m2 IV over 5 to 10 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 & 3: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15

21-day cycle for 3 cycles

Subsequent treatment

References

  1. Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Bono P, Alanko T, Kataja V, Asola R, Utriainen T, Kokko R, Hemminki A, Tarkkanen M, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Flander M, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Johansson K, Jääskeläinen AS, Pajunen M, Rauhala M, Kaleva-Kerola J, Salminen T, Leinonen M, Elomaa I, Isola J; FinHer Study Investigators. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):809-20. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Joensuu H, Bono P, Kataja V, Alanko T, Kokko R, Asola R, Utriainen T, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Jyrkkiö S, Möykkynen K, Helle L, Ingalsuo S, Pajunen M, Huusko M, Salminen T, Auvinen P, Leinonen H, Leinonen M, Isola J, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide with either docetaxel or vinorelbine, with or without trastuzumab, as adjuvant treatments of breast cancer: final results of the FinHer Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Dec 1;27(34):5685-92. link to original article PubMed

Trastuzumab monotherapy

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Variant #1, 30-week course, q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pivot et al. 2018 (SB3-G31-BC) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 10 cycles (30-week course)

Variant #2, 34-week course, q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2012 (NeoALTTO) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment.

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 1
    • Cycles 2 to 12: 6 mg/kg IV over 30 minutes once on day 1

21-day cycle for 12 cycles (34-week course)

Variant #3, 1-year course, weekly

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Van Pelt et al. 2003 Phase II
Romond et al. 2005 (NCCTG N9831) Phase III See link See link

Note: this is a component of a sequential treatment protocol; to our knowledge there are no references to support using it as a stand-alone treatment. Van Pelt et al. 2003 does not describe a loading dose (in the abstract).

Preceding treatment

  • Van Pelt et al. 2003: AC x 4
  • NCCTG N9831: weekly T x 12

Chemotherapy

52-week course

Variant #4, 1-year course, q3wk

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Piccart-Gebhart et al. 2005 (HERA) Phase III (E) No trastuzumab after (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy Superior OS
Trastuzumab x 2 y Seems not superior
Pivot et al. 2013 (PHARE) Phase III (C) Trastuzumab x 6 mo Inconclusive whether non-inferior
Piccart-Gebhart et al. 2015 (ALTTO) Phase III (C) Lapatinib
Trastuzumab, then Lapatinib
Lapatinib & Trastuzumab
Seems not superior

Participants had already received at least four courses of an approved (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy regimen.

Chemotherapy

  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 1
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 6 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 1

21-day cycles for 1 year

Variant #5, 2-year course

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Piccart-Gebhart et al. 2005 (HERA) Phase III (E) No trastuzumab after (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy Not reported
Trastuzumab x 1 y Seems not superior

Participants had already received at least four courses of an approved (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy regimen.

Chemotherapy

  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 1
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 6 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 1

21-day cycles for 2 years

References

  1. Van Pelt AE, Mohsin S, Elledge RM, Hilsenbeck SG, Gutierrez MC, Lucci A Jr, Kalidas M, Granchi T, Scott BG, Allred DC, Chang JC. Neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel in breast cancer: preliminary results. Clin Breast Cancer. 2003 Dec;4(5):348-53. PubMed
  2. HERA: Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, Goldhirsch A, Untch M, Smith I, Gianni L, Baselga J, Bell R, Jackisch C, Cameron D, Dowsett M, Barrios CH, Steger G, Huang CS, Andersson M, Inbar M, Lichinitser M, Láng I, Nitz U, Iwata H, Thomssen C, Lohrisch C, Suter TM, Rüschoff J, Suto T, Greatorex V, Ward C, Straehle C, McFadden E, Dolci MS, Gelber RD; Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) Trial Study Team. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1659-72. link to original article contains verified protocol link to data supplement] PubMed
    1. Update: Smith I, Procter M, Gelber RD, Guillaume S, Feyereislova A, Dowsett M, Goldhirsch A, Untch M, Mariani G, Baselga J, Kaufmann M, Cameron D, Bell R, Bergh J, Coleman R, Wardley A, Harbeck N, Lopez RI, Mallmann P, Gelmon K, Wilcken N, Wist E, Sánchez Rovira P, Piccart-Gebhart MJ; HERA study team. 2-year follow-up of trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 6;369(9555):29-36. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    2. Update: Gianni L, Dafni U, Gelber RD, Azambuja E, Muehlbauer S, Goldhirsch A, Untch M, Smith I, Baselga J, Jackisch C, Cameron D, Mano M, Pedrini JL, Veronesi A, Mendiola C, Pluzanska A, Semiglazov V, Vrdoljak E, Eckart MJ, Shen Z, Skiadopoulos G, Procter M, Pritchard KI, Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Bell R; Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) Trial Study Team. Treatment with trastuzumab for 1 year after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a 4-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Mar;12(3):236-44. Epub 2011 Feb 25. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    3. Update: Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart MJ, de Azambuja E, Procter M, Suter TM, Jackisch C, Cameron D, Weber HA, Heinzmann D, Dal Lago L, McFadden E, Dowsett M, Untch M, Gianni L, Bell R, Köhne CH, Vindevoghel A, Andersson M, Brunt AM, Otero-Reyes D, Song S, Smith I, Leyland-Jones B, Baselga J; Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) Trial Study Team. 2 years versus 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer (HERA): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013 Sep 21;382(9897):1021-8. link to original article PubMed
    4. Update: Cameron D, Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Gelber RD, Procter M, Goldhirsch A, de Azambuja E, Castro G Jr, Untch M, Smith I, Gianni L, Baselga J, Al-Sakaff N, Lauer S, McFadden E, Leyland-Jones B, Bell R, Dowsett M, Jackisch C; Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) Trial Study Team. 11 years' follow-up of trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive early breast cancer: final analysis of the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial. Lancet. 2017 Mar 25;389(10075):1195-1205. Epub 2017 Feb 17. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  3. NCCTG N9831: Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE Jr, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, Fehrenbacher L, Kutteh LA, Vogel VG, Visscher DW, Yothers G, Jenkins RB, Brown AM, Dakhil SR, Mamounas EP, Lingle WL, Klein PM, Ingle JN, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 20;353(16):1673-84. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Gralow JR, Kaufman PA, Visscher DW, Chen B, Ingle JN, Dakhil SR, Zujewski J, Moreno-Aspitia A, Pisansky TM, Jenkins RB. Sequential versus concurrent trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 1;29(34):4491-7. Epub 2011 Oct 31. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong JH, Sledge G, Geyer CE Jr, Martino S, Rastogi P, Gralow J, Swain SM, Winer EP, Colon-Otero G, Davidson NE, Mamounas E, Zujewski JA, Wolmark N. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: planned joint analysis of overall survival from NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 20;32(33):3744-52. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  4. NeoALTTO: Baselga J, Bradbury I, Eidtmann H, Di Cosimo S, de Azambuja E, Aura C, Gómez H, Dinh P, Fauria K, Van Dooren V, Aktan G, Goldhirsch A, Chang TW, Horváth Z, Coccia-Portugal M, Domont J, Tseng LM, Kunz G, Sohn JH, Semiglazov V, Lerzo G, Palacova M, Probachai V, Pusztai L, Untch M, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart M; NeoALTTO Study Team. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):633-40. Epub 2012 Jan 17. Erratum in: Lancet. 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):616. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: de Azambuja E, Holmes AP, Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Di Cosimo S, Swaby RF, Untch M, Jackisch C, Lang I, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Barrios CH, Perez EA, Azim HA Jr, Kim SB, Kuemmel S, Huang CS, Vuylsteke P, Hsieh RK, Gorbunova V, Eniu A, Dreosti L, Tavartkiladze N, Gelber RD, Eidtmann H, Baselga J. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): survival outcomes of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial and their association with pathological complete response. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1137-46. Epub 2014 Aug 14. link to original article PubMed
  5. CALGB 40101: Shulman LN, Cirrincione CT, Berry DA, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Atkins JN, Mayer E, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Norton L, Muss H, Winer EP, Hudis C. Six Cycles of Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide or Paclitaxel Are Not Superior to Four Cycles As Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in Women With Zero to Three Positive Axillary Nodes: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40101. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 20;30(33):4071-6. Epub 2012 Jul 23. link to original article contains verified protocol link to study protocol PDF link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Shulman LN, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, Becker HP, Perez EA, O'Regan R, Martino S, Shapiro CL, Schneider CJ, Kimmick G, Burstein HJ, Norton L, Muss H, Hudis CA, Winer EP. Comparison of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus single-agent paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in women with 0 to 3 positive axillary nodes: CALGB 40101 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2014 Aug 1;32(22):2311-7. link to PMC article PubMed
  6. TRYPHAENA: Schneeweiss A, Chia S, Hickish T, Harvey V, Eniu A, Hegg R, Tausch C, Seo JH, Tsai YF, Ratnayake J, McNally V, Ross G, Cortés J. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a randomized phase II cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA). Ann Oncol. Epub 2013 May 22.2013 Sep;24(9):2278-84. Epub 2013 May 22. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. PHARE: Pivot X, Romieu G, Debled M, Pierga JY, Kerbrat P, Bachelot T, Lortholary A, Espié M, Fumoleau P, Serin D, Jacquin JP, Jouannaud C, Rios M, Abadie-Lacourtoisie S, Tubiana-Mathieu N, Cany L, Catala S, Khayat D, Pauporté I, Kramar A; PHARE trial investigators. 6 months versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer (PHARE): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Jul;14(8):741-8. Epub 2013 Jun 11. link to original article PubMed
  8. NSABP B-41: Robidoux A, Tang G, Rastogi P, Geyer CE Jr, Azar CA, Atkins JN, Fehrenbacher L, Bear HD, Baez-Diaz L, Sarwar S, Margolese RG, Farrar WB, Brufsky AM, Shibata HR, Bandos H, Paik S, Costantino JP, Swain SM, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Lapatinib as a component of neoadjuvant therapy for HER2-positive operable breast cancer (NSABP protocol B-41): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Nov;14(12):1183-92. Epub 2013 Oct 4. link to original article PubMed
  9. ALTTO: Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Baselga J, de Azambuja E, Dueck AC, Viale G, Zujewski JA, Goldhirsch A, Armour A, Pritchard KI, McCullough AE, Dolci S, McFadden E, Holmes AP, Tonghua L, Eidtmann H, Dinh P, Di Cosimo S, Harbeck N, Tjulandin S, Im YH, Huang CS, Diéras V, Hillman DW, Wolff AC, Jackisch C, Lang I, Untch M, Smith I, Boyle F, Xu B, Gomez H, Suter T, Gelber RD, Perez EA. Adjuvant lapatinib and trastuzumab for early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 1;34(10):1034-42. Epub 2015 Nov 23. link to original article link to protocol contains verified protocol in supplement link to PMC article PubMed
  10. SB3-G31-BC: Pivot X, Bondarenko I, Nowecki Z, Dvorkin M, Trishkina E, Ahn JH, Vinnyk Y, Im SA, Sarosiek T, Chatterjee S, Wojtukiewicz MZ, Moiseyenko V, Shparyk Y, Bello M 3rd, Semiglazov V, Song S, Lim J. Phase III, randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SB3 (trastuzumab biosimilar) and reference trastuzumab in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 1;36(10):968-974. Epub 2018 Jan 26. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Metastatic or unresectable disease, first-line

Note: some patients in these trials were pre-treated with non-HER2-targeted therapies.

ACH

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ACH: Adriamycin (Doxorubicin), Cyclophosphamide, Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Slamon et al. 2001 Phase III AC Seems to have superior OS

Note: patients had not previously received adjuvant (postoperative) therapy with an anthracycline. Not commonly used; here for reference purposes only.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eiermann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J, Norton L. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 15;344(11):783-92. link to original article PubMed

T-DM1 monotherapy

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T-DM1: Trastuzumab-DM1 (ado-Trastuzumab emtansine)

Example orders

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Hurvitz et al. 2013 Randomized Phase II TH Seems to have superior PFS
Perez et al. 2016 (MARIANNE) Phase III T-DM1 & Pertuzumab Non-inferior PFS
TH (Taxotere)
TH (Taxol)
Non-inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Hurvitz SA, Dirix L, Kocsis J, Bianchi GV, Lu J, Vinholes J, Guardino E, Song C, Tong B, Ng V, Chu YW, Perez EA. Phase II randomized study of trastuzumab emtansine versus trastuzumab plus docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Mar 20;31(9):1157-63. Epub 2013 Feb 4. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2977. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. MARIANNE: Perez EA, Barrios C, Eiermann W, Toi M, Im YH, Conte P, Martin M, Pienkowski T, Pivot X, Burris H 3rd, Petersen JA, Stanzel S, Strasak A, Patre M, Ellis P. Trastuzumab emtansine with or without pertuzumab versus trastuzumab plus taxane for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, advanced breast cancer: primary results from the phase III MARIANNE study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jan 10;35(2):141-148. Epub 2016 Nov 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine, Bevacizumab, Trastuzumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Martín et al. 2012 Phase II ORR: 73% (95% CI 62-82)

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Martín M, Makhson A, Gligorov J, Lichinitser M, Lluch A, Semiglazov V, Scotto N, Mitchell L, Tjulandin S. Phase II study of bevacizumab in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine as first-line treatment for HER-2-positive locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Oncologist. 2012;17(4):469-75. Epub 2012 Mar 30. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Capecitabine & Lapatinib

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pivot et al. 2015 (CEREBEL) Phase III Capecitabine & Trastuzumab Seems not superior

Note: the primary endpoint of CEREBEL was incidence of CNS as site of first relapse; this was very low in both arms, with no statistically significant difference.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Pivot X, Manikhas A, Żurawski B, Chmielowska E, Karaszewska B, Allerton R, Chan S, Fabi A, Bidoli P, Gori S, Ciruelos E, Dank M, Hornyak L, Margolin S, Nusch A, Parikh R, Nagi F, DeSilvio M, Santillana S, Swaby RF, Semiglazov V. CEREBEL (EGF111438): A phase III, randomized, open-label study of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus trastuzumab plus capecitabine in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1564-73. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Trastuzumab

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XH: Xeloda (Capecitabine) & Herceptin

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Pivot et al. 2015 (CEREBEL) Phase III Capecitabine & Lapatanib Seems not superior

Note: the primary endpoint of CEREBEL was incidence of CNS as site of first relapse; this was very low in both arms, with no statistically significant difference.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Pivot X, Manikhas A, Żurawski B, Chmielowska E, Karaszewska B, Allerton R, Chan S, Fabi A, Bidoli P, Gori S, Ciruelos E, Dank M, Hornyak L, Margolin S, Nusch A, Parikh R, Nagi F, DeSilvio M, Santillana S, Swaby RF, Semiglazov V. CEREBEL (EGF111438): A phase III, randomized, open-label study of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus trastuzumab plus capecitabine in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1564-73. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article contains protocol PubMed

ECH

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ECH: Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Slamon et al. 2001 Phase III EC Seems to have superior OS

Not commonly used; here for reference purposes only.

Chemotherapy

References

  1. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eiermann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J, Norton L. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 15;344(11):783-92. link to original article PubMed

Pertuzumab & T-DM1

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Pertuzumab & T-DM1: Pertuzumab & Trastuzumab-DM1 (ado-Trastuzumab emtansine)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Perez et al. 2016 (MARIANNE) Phase III T-DM1 Non-inferior PFS
TH (Taxotere)
TH (Taxol)
Non-inferior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. MARIANNE: Perez EA, Barrios C, Eiermann W, Toi M, Im YH, Conte P, Martin M, Pienkowski T, Pivot X, Burris H 3rd, Petersen JA, Stanzel S, Strasak A, Patre M, Ellis P. Trastuzumab emtansine with or without pertuzumab versus trastuzumab plus taxane for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, advanced breast cancer: primary results from the phase III MARIANNE study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jan 10;35(2):141-148. Epub 2016 Nov 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

TCH (Taxotere, Carboplatin)

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TCH: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Carboplatin, Herceptin (Trastuzumab)

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Valero et al. 2011 (BCIRG 007) Phase III TH Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Treatment followed by trastuzumab maintenance.

References

  1. Valero V, Forbes J, Pegram MD, Pienkowski T, Eiermann W, von Minckwitz G, Roche H, Martin M, Crown J, Mackey JR, Fumoleau P, Rolski J, Mrsic-Krmpotic Z, Jagiello-Gruszfeld A, Riva A, Buyse M, Taupin H, Sauter G, Press MF, Slamon DJ. Multicenter phase III randomized trial comparing docetaxel and trastuzumab with docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab as first-line chemotherapy for patients with HER2-gene-amplified metastatic breast cancer (BCIRG 007 study): two highly active therapeutic regimens. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jan 10;29(2):149-56. Epub 2010 Nov 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

TCH (Taxol)

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TCH: Taxol (Paclitaxel), Carboplatin, Herceptin (Trastuzumab)
TPC: Trastuzumab, Paclitaxel, Carboplatin

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Robert et al. 2006 Phase III TP Seems to have superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for at least 6 cycles, followed by:

21-day cycles until progression or intolerance

References

  1. Perez EA, Suman VJ, Rowland KM, Ingle JN, Salim M, Loprinzi CL, Flynn PJ, Mailliard JA, Kardinal CG, Krook JE, Thrower AR, Visscher DW, Jenkins RB. Two concurrent phase II trials of paclitaxel/carboplatin/trastuzumab (weekly or every-3-week schedule) as first-line therapy in women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: NCCTG study 983252. Clin Breast Cancer. 2005 Dec;6(5):425-32. link to original article PubMed
  2. Robert N, Leyland-Jones B, Asmar L, Belt R, Ilegbodu D, Loesch D, Raju R, Valentine E, Sayre R, Cobleigh M, Albain K, McCullough C, Fuchs L, Slamon D. Randomized phase III study of trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and carboplatin compared with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in women with HER-2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jun 20;24(18):2786-92. link to original article PubMed

TH (Taxotere)

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TH: Taxotere (Docetaxel) & Herceptin (Trastuzumab)
HT: Herceptin (Trastuzumab) & Taxotere (Docetaxel)

Variant #1, 75 mg/m2 docetaxel, q3wk trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2011 (CLEOPATRA) Phase III (C) THP Inferior OS (*)
Hurvitz et al. 2013 (TDM4450g) Randomized Phase II T-DM1 Seems to have inferior PFS
Gelmon et al. 2015 (NCIC CTG MA.31) Phase III (C) Docetaxel & Lapatinib Superior PFS
Perez et al. 2016 (MARIANNE) Phase III T-DM1 Non-inferior PFS
Pertuzumab & T-DM1 Non-inferior PFS
TH (Taxol) Not reported

Note: Dose of docetaxel in Hurvitz et al. 2013 and MARIANNE was per investigator's discretion. CLEOPATRA has an unusual schedule with both medications being given on day 2 of cycle 1, due to this regimen being the control arm, in which patients in one arm received a placebo instead of pertuzumab on day 1. It is reasonable to assume that in practice, drugs in this regimen will be given on day 1 from the beginning. Efficacy for CLEOPATRA is based on the 2013 update.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycle for at least 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • CLEOPATRA: If it is decided to no longer administer docetaxel with this regimen, then patients could continue to receive trastuzumab maintenance
  • NCIC CTG MA.31: Trastuzumab maintenance, after 8 cycles

Variant #2, 100 mg/m2 docetaxel, weekly trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Marty et al. 2005 (M77001) Randomized Phase II Docetaxel Seems to have superior OS
Valero et al. 2010 (BCIRG 007) Phase III TCH Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 100 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycles 2 to 8: 2 mg/kg IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15

Supportive medications

21-day cycle for 6 cycles (M77001) or 8 cycles (BCIRG 007)

Subsequent treatment

  • M77001: Patients could receive docetaxel beyond six cycles at the discretion of the investigator. Otherwise, patients proceeded to trastuzumab maintenance.
  • BCIRG 007: Trastuzumab maintenance

Variant #3, 100 mg/m2 docetaxel, q3wk trastuzumab

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Andersson et al. 2010 (HERNATA)) Phase III Vinorelbine & Trastuzumab Seems not superior
Hurvitz et al. 2013 (TDM4450g) Randomized Phase II T-DM1 Seems to have inferior PFS
Gianni et al. 2013 (AVAREL) Randomized Phase II BTH Might have inferior PFS
Perez et al. 2016 (MARIANNE) Phase III T-DM1 Non-inferior PFS
Pertuzumab & T-DM1 Non-inferior PFS
TH (Taxol) Not reported

Note: In HERNATA, the day of docetaxel and trastuzumab were reversed in cycle 1. Dose of docetaxel in Hurvitz et al. 2013 and MARIANNE was per investigator's discretion.

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 100 mg/m2 IV over 60 minutes once on day 1 (see note)
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 2 (see note)
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 6 mg/kg IV over 30 minutes once on day 1

21-day cycles

Variant #4, 3 out of 4 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Esteva et al. 2002 Phase II
Burstein et al. 2007 (TRAVIOTA) Phase III Vinorelbine & Trastuzumab Might have inferior TTP

Esteva et al. 2002 described the day before the start of a cycle as "day 0," which is not the typical convention, so day -1 is being used instead.

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) 35 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15, given first
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) given second as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day -1, then 2 mg/kg IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 2 mg/kg IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1, 8, 15

Supportive medications

  • Dexamethasone (Decadron) 4 mg PO every 12 hours x 3 doses on cycles 1 & 2, starting the night before Docetaxel (Taxotere). Patients who did not have "hypersensitivity reactions and no significant fluid retention during the first 8 weeks" received 4 mg PO BID on day 1 for at least the next two cycles. Patients who "remained free of fluid retention after 8 additional weeks" then received 4 mg PO once on day 1 prior to Docetaxel (Taxotere) in subsequent cycles.

28-day cycles

References

  1. Esteva FJ, Valero V, Booser D, Guerra LT, Murray JL, Pusztai L, Cristofanilli M, Arun B, Esmaeli B, Fritsche HA, Sneige N, Smith TL, Hortobagyi GN. Phase II study of weekly docetaxel and trastuzumab for patients with HER-2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Apr 1;20(7):1800-8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. M77001: Marty M, Cognetti F, Maraninchi D, Snyder R, Mauriac L, Tubiana-Hulin M, Chan S, Grimes D, Antón A, Lluch A, Kennedy J, O'Byrne K, Conte P, Green M, Ward C, Mayne K, Extra JM. Randomized phase II trial of the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab combined with docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer administered as first-line treatment: the M77001 study group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jul 1;23(19):4265-74. Epub 2005 May 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. TRAVIOTA: Burstein HJ, Keshaviah A, Baron AD, Hart RD, Lambert-Falls R, Marcom PK, Gelman R, Winer EP. Trastuzumab plus vinorelbine or taxane chemotherapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: the trastuzumab and vinorelbine or taxane study. Cancer. 2007 Sep 1;110(5):965-72. link to original article PubMed
  4. BCIRG 007: Valero V, Forbes J, Pegram MD, Pienkowski T, Eiermann W, von Minckwitz G, Roche H, Martin M, Crown J, Mackey JR, Fumoleau P, Rolski J, Mrsic-Krmpotic Z, Jagiello-Gruszfeld A, Riva A, Buyse M, Taupin H, Sauter G, Press MF, Slamon DJ. Multicenter phase III randomized trial comparing docetaxel and trastuzumab with docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab as first-line chemotherapy for patients with HER2-gene-amplified metastatic breast cancer (BCIRG 007 study): two highly active therapeutic regimens. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jan 10;29(2):149-56. Epub 2010 Nov 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  5. HERNATA: Andersson M, Lidbrink E, Bjerre K, Wist E, Enevoldsen K, Jensen AB, Karlsson P, Tange UB, Sørensen PG, Møller S, Bergh J, Langkjer ST. Phase III randomized study comparing docetaxel plus trastuzumab with vinorelbine plus trastuzumab as first-line therapy of metastatic or locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: the HERNATA study. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jan 20;29(3):264-71. Epub 2010 Dec 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  6. CLEOPATRA: Baselga J, Cortés J, Kim SB, Im SA, Hegg R, Im YH, Roman L, Pedrini JL, Pienkowski T, Knott A, Clark E, Benyunes MC, Ross G, Swain SM; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 12;366(2):109-19. Epub 2011 Dec 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Swain SM, Kim SB, Cortés J, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Knott A, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Baselga J. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (CLEOPATRA study): overall survival results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):461-71. Epub 2013 Apr 18. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Swain SM, Baselga J, Kim SB, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Heeson S, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Cortés J; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 19;372(8):724-34. link to original article PubMed
  7. TDM4450g: Hurvitz SA, Dirix L, Kocsis J, Bianchi GV, Lu J, Vinholes J, Guardino E, Song C, Tong B, Ng V, Chu YW, Perez EA. Phase II randomized study of trastuzumab emtansine versus trastuzumab plus docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Mar 20;31(9):1157-63. Epub 2013 Feb 4. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2977. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  8. AVAREL: Gianni L, Romieu GH, Lichinitser M, Serrano SV, Mansutti M, Pivot X, Mariani P, Andre F, Chan A, Lipatov O, Chan S, Wardley A, Greil R, Moore N, Prot S, Pallaud C, Semiglazov V. AVEREL: a randomized phase III trial evaluating bevacizumab in combination with docetaxel and trastuzumab as first-line therapy for HER2-positive locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 May 10;31(14):1719-25. Epub 2013 Apr 8. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. NCIC CTG MA.31: Gelmon KA, Boyle FM, Kaufman B, Huntsman DG, Manikhas A, Di Leo A, Martin M, Schwartzberg LS, Lemieux J, Aparicio S, Shepherd LE, Dent S, Ellard SL, Tonkin K, Pritchard KI, Whelan TJ, Nomikos D, Nusch A, Coleman RE, Mukai H, Tjulandin S, Khasanov R, Rizel S, Connor AP, Santillana SL, Chapman JA, Parulekar WR. Lapatinib or trastuzumab plus taxane therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: final results of NCIC CTG MA.31. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1574-83. Epub 2015 Mar 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  10. MARIANNE: Perez EA, Barrios C, Eiermann W, Toi M, Im YH, Conte P, Martin M, Pienkowski T, Pivot X, Burris H 3rd, Petersen JA, Stanzel S, Strasak A, Patre M, Ellis P. Trastuzumab emtansine with or without pertuzumab versus trastuzumab plus taxane for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, advanced breast cancer: primary results from the phase III MARIANNE study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jan 10;35(2):141-148. Epub 2016 Nov 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed

TH (Taxol)

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TH: Taxol (Paclitaxel), Herceptin (Trastuzumab)
TP: Trastuzumab, Paclitaxel

Variant #1, weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2)

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Burstein et al. 2007 (TRAVIOTA) Phase III Vinorelbine & Trastuzumab Might have inferior TTP
Seidman et al. 2008 (CALGB 9840) Phase III TH, q3wk paclitaxel Superior OS
Perez et al. 2016 (MARIANNE) Phase III T-DM1 Non-inferior PFS
Pertuzumab & T-DM1 Non-inferior PFS
TH (Taxotere) Not reported

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

Variant #2, weekly paclitaxel (90 mg/m2)

Study Evidence
Seidman et al. 2001 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Continued indefinitely

Variant #3, paclitaxel 3 weeks out of 4, 6 cycles

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Gelmon et al. 2015 (NCIC CTG MA.31) Phase III (C) Lapatinib & Paclitaxel Superior PFS

Chemotherapy

  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 80 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8, 15, 22
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22

28-day cycle for 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

Variant #4, paclitaxel 3 weeks out of 4, indefinite

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Hurvitz et al. 2015 (BOLERO-1) Phase III (C) Everolimus, Paclitaxel, Trastuzumab Seems not superior
Awada et al. 2016 (NEfERT-T) Phase III (C) Neratinib & Paclitaxel Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) 80 mg/m2 IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8, 15, 22
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15, 22

28-day cycles

Variant #5, q3wk paclitaxel

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Slamon et al. 2001 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Seems to have superior OS
Robert et al. 2006 Phase III TPC Seems to have inferior PFS
Seidman et al. 2008 (CALGB 9840) Phase III TH, weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) Inferior OS

Chemotherapy

  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) as follows:
    • Cycles 1 to 6: 175 mg/m2 IV once on day 2
    • Cycle 7 onwards: continued at investigator's discretion
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 4 mg/kg IV once on day 1, then 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 8 & 15
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 2 mg/kg IV once per day on days 1, 8, 15

21-day cycle for at least 6 cycles

References

  1. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eiermann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J, Norton L. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 15;344(11):783-92. link to original article PubMed
  2. Seidman AD, Fornier MN, Esteva FJ, Tan L, Kaptain S, Bach A, Panageas KS, Arroyo C, Valero V, Currie V, Gilewski T, Theodoulou M, Moynahan ME, Moasser M, Sklarin N, Dickler M, D'Andrea G, Cristofanilli M, Rivera E, Hortobagyi GN, Norton L, Hudis CA. Weekly trastuzumab and paclitaxel therapy for metastatic breast cancer with analysis of efficacy by HER2 immunophenotype and gene amplification. J Clin Oncol. 2001 May 15;19(10):2587-95. link to original article PubMed
  3. Robert N, Leyland-Jones B, Asmar L, Belt R, Ilegbodu D, Loesch D, Raju R, Valentine E, Sayre R, Cobleigh M, Albain K, McCullough C, Fuchs L, Slamon D. Randomized phase III study of trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and carboplatin compared with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in women with HER-2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jun 20;24(18):2786-92. link to original article PubMed
  4. TRAVIOTA: Burstein HJ, Keshaviah A, Baron AD, Hart RD, Lambert-Falls R, Marcom PK, Gelman R, Winer EP. Trastuzumab plus vinorelbine or taxane chemotherapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: the trastuzumab and vinorelbine or taxane study. Cancer. 2007 Sep 1;110(5):965-72. link to original article PubMed
  5. CALGB 9840: Seidman AD, Berry D, Cirrincione C, Harris L, Muss H, Marcom PK, Gipson G, Burstein H, Lake D, Shapiro CL, Ungaro P, Norton L, Winer E, Hudis C. Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1642-9. link to original article PubMed
  6. NCIC CTG MA.31: Gelmon KA, Boyle FM, Kaufman B, Huntsman DG, Manikhas A, Di Leo A, Martin M, Schwartzberg LS, Lemieux J, Aparicio S, Shepherd LE, Dent S, Ellard SL, Tonkin K, Pritchard KI, Whelan TJ, Nomikos D, Nusch A, Coleman RE, Mukai H, Tjulandin S, Khasanov R, Rizel S, Connor AP, Santillana SL, Chapman JA, Parulekar WR. Lapatinib or trastuzumab plus taxane therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: final results of NCIC CTG MA.31. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1574-83. Epub 2015 Mar 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  7. BOLERO-1: Hurvitz SA, Andre F, Jiang Z, Shao Z, Mano MS, Neciosup SP, Tseng LM, Zhang Q, Shen K, Liu D, Dreosti LM, Burris HA, Toi M, Buyse ME, Cabaribere D, Lindsay MA, Rao S, Pacaud LB, Taran T, Slamon D. Combination of everolimus with trastuzumab plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (BOLERO-1): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jul;16(7):816-29. Epub 2015 Jun 16. link to original article PubMed
  8. MARIANNE: Perez EA, Barrios C, Eiermann W, Toi M, Im YH, Conte P, Martin M, Pienkowski T, Pivot X, Burris H 3rd, Petersen JA, Stanzel S, Strasak A, Patre M, Ellis P. Trastuzumab emtansine with or without pertuzumab versus trastuzumab plus taxane for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, advanced breast cancer: primary results from the phase III MARIANNE study. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jan 10;35(2):141-148. Epub 2016 Nov 7. link to original article link to PMC article contains verified protocol PubMed
  9. NEfERT-T: Awada A, Colomer R, Inoue K, Bondarenko I, Badwe RA, Demetriou G, Lee SC, Mehta AO, Kim SB, Bachelot T, Goswami C, Deo S, Bose R, Wong A, Xu F, Yao B, Bryce R, Carey LA. neratinib plus paclitaxel vs trastuzumab plus paclitaxel in previously untreated metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer: The NEfERT-T randomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2016 Dec 1;2(12):1557-1564. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

THP (Taxotere)

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THP: Taxotere (Docetaxel), Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Pertuzumab

Regimen

FDA-recommended dose
Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Baselga et al. 2011 (CLEOPATRA) Phase III (E) Docetaxel & Trastuzumab Superior OS (*)

Efficacy is based on the 2013 update.

Chemotherapy

  • Docetaxel (Taxotere) as follows, given last:
    • Cycle 1: 75 mg/m2 IV once on day 2
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 75 mg/m2 IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 8 mg/kg IV over 90 minutes once on day 2
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 6 mg/kg IV over 30 to 90 minutes once on day 1
  • Pertuzumab (Perjeta) as follows:
    • Cycle 1: 840 mg IV over 60 minutes once on day 1
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 420 mg IV over 30 to 60 minutes once on day 1

21-day cycle for at least 6 cycles

Subsequent treatment

  • If it is decided to no longer administer docetaxel, then patients could continue to receive pertuzumab & trastuzumab maintenance.

References

  1. CLEOPATRA: Baselga J, Cortés J, Kim SB, Im SA, Hegg R, Im YH, Roman L, Pedrini JL, Pienkowski T, Knott A, Clark E, Benyunes MC, Ross G, Swain SM; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 12;366(2):109-19. Epub 2011 Dec 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Swain SM, Kim SB, Cortés J, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Knott A, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Baselga J. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (CLEOPATRA study): overall survival results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):461-71. Epub 2013 Apr 18. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Swain SM, Baselga J, Kim SB, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Heeson S, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Cortés J; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 19;372(8):724-34. link to original article PubMed

TL (Taxol)

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TL: Taxol (Paclitaxel) & Lapatinib

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Guan et al. 2013 Phase III (E) Paclitaxel Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

28-day cycles

References

  1. Guan Z, Xu B, DeSilvio ML, Shen Z, Arpornwirat W, Tong Z, Lorvidhaya V, Jiang Z, Yang J, Makhson A, Leung WL, Russo MW, Newstat B, Wang L, Chen G, Oliva C, Gomez H. Randomized trial of lapatinib versus placebo added to paclitaxel in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jun 1;31(16):1947-53. Epub 2013 Mar 18. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. NCIC CTG MA.31: Gelmon KA, Boyle FM, Kaufman B, Huntsman DG, Manikhas A, Di Leo A, Martin M, Schwartzberg LS, Lemieux J, Aparicio S, Shepherd LE, Dent S, Ellard SL, Tonkin K, Pritchard KI, Whelan TJ, Nomikos D, Nusch A, Coleman RE, Mukai H, Tjulandin S, Khasanov R, Rizel S, Connor AP, Santillana SL, Chapman JA, Parulekar WR. Lapatinib or trastuzumab plus taxane therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: final results of NCIC CTG MA.31. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1574-83. Epub 2015 Mar 16. link to original article PubMed

Vinorelbine & Trastuzumab

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Variant #1, vinorelbine 25 mg/m2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Burstein et al. 2007 (TRAVIOTA) Phase III TH (Taxotere)
TH (Taxol)
Might have superior TTP

Chemotherapy

Given until progression, intolerance, or request to discontinue therapy

Variant #2, vinorelbine 30 mg/m2, 2 out of 3 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Andersson et al. 2010 (HERNATA) Phase III TH (Taxotere) Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #3, vinorelbine 35 mg/m2, 2 out of 3 weeks

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Andersson et al. 2010 (HERNATA) Phase III TH (Taxotere) Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. TRAVIOTA: Burstein HJ, Keshaviah A, Baron AD, Hart RD, Lambert-Falls R, Marcom PK, Gelman R, Winer EP. Trastuzumab plus vinorelbine or taxane chemotherapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: the trastuzumab and vinorelbine or taxane study. Cancer. 2007 Sep 1;110(5):965-72. link to original article PubMed
  2. HERNATA: Andersson M, Lidbrink E, Bjerre K, Wist E, Enevoldsen K, Jensen AB, Karlsson P, Tange UB, Sørensen PG, Møller S, Bergh J, Langkjer ST. Phase III randomized study comparing docetaxel plus trastuzumab with vinorelbine plus trastuzumab as first-line therapy of metastatic or locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: the HERNATA study. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jan 20;29(3):264-71. Epub 2010 Dec 13. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Metastatic or unresectable disease, subsequent lines

T-DM1 monotherapy

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T-DM1: Trastuzumab-DM1 (ado-Trastuzumab emtansine)

Example orders

Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Verma et al. 2012 (EMILIA) Phase III Capecitabine & Lapatinib Superior OS
Krop et al. 2014 (TH3RESA) Phase III Physician's choice Superior OS (*)

Note: reported efficacy for TH3RESA is based on the 2017 update.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Verma S, Miles D, Gianni L, Krop IE, Welslau M, Baselga J, Pegram M, Oh DY, Diéras V, Guardino E, Fang L, Lu MW, Olsen S, Blackwell K; EMILIA Study Group. Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 8;367(19):1783-91. Epub 2012 Oct 1. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 20;368(25):2442. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Diéras V, Miles D, Verma S, Pegram M, Welslau M, Baselga J, Krop IE, Blackwell K, Hoersch S, Xu J, Green M, Gianni L. Trastuzumab emtansine versus capecitabine plus lapatinib in patients with previously treated HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (EMILIA): a descriptive analysis of final overall survival results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jun;18(6):732-742. Epub 2017 May 16. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. Krop IE, Kim SB, González-Martín A, LoRusso PM, Ferrero JM, Smitt M, Yu R, Leung AC, Wildiers H; TH3RESA study collaborators. Trastuzumab emtansine versus treatment of physician's choice for pretreated HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (TH3RESA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Jun;15(7):689-99. Epub 2014 May 2. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Krop IE, Kim SB, Martin AG, LoRusso PM, Ferrero JM, Badovinac-Crnjevic T, Hoersch S, Smitt M, Wildiers H. Trastuzumab emtansine versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with previously treated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (TH3RESA): final overall survival results from a randomised open-label phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jun;18(6):743-754. Epub 2017 May 16. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Lapatinib

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Geyer et al. 2006 Phase III Capecitabine Superior TTP
Verma et al. 2012 (EMILIA) Phase III T-DM1 Inferior OS
Pivot et al. 2015 (CEREBEL) Phase III Capecitabine & Trastuzumab Seems not superior

Note: the primary endpoint of CEREBEL was incidence of CNS as site of first relapse; this was very low in both arms, with no statistically significant difference.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Geyer CE, Forster J, Lindquist D, Chan S, Romieu CG, Pienkowski T, Jagiello-Gruszfeld A, Crown J, Chan A, Kaufman B, Skarlos D, Campone M, Davidson N, Berger M, Oliva C, Rubin SD, Stein S, Cameron D. Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 28;355(26):2733-43. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Cameron D, Casey M, Press M, Lindquist D, Pienkowski T, Romieu CG, Chan S, Jagiello-Gruszfeld A, Kaufman B, Crown J, Chan A, Campone M, Viens P, Davidson N, Gorbounova V, Raats JI, Skarlos D, Newstat B, Roychowdhury D, Paoletti P, Oliva C, Rubin S, Stein S, Geyer CE. A phase III randomized comparison of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in women with advanced breast cancer that has progressed on trastuzumab: updated efficacy and biomarker analyses. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Dec;112(3):533-43. link to original article PubMed
    2. Update: Cameron D, Casey M, Oliva C, Newstat B, Imwalle B, Geyer CE. Lapatinib plus capecitabine in women with HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer: final survival analysis of a phase III randomized trial. Oncologist. 2010;15(9):924-34. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  2. EMILIA: Verma S, Miles D, Gianni L, Krop IE, Welslau M, Baselga J, Pegram M, Oh DY, Diéras V, Guardino E, Fang L, Lu MW, Olsen S, Blackwell K; EMILIA Study Group. Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 8;367(19):1783-91. Epub 2012 Oct 1. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 20;368(25):2442. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    1. Update: Diéras V, Miles D, Verma S, Pegram M, Welslau M, Baselga J, Krop IE, Blackwell K, Hoersch S, Xu J, Green M, Gianni L. Trastuzumab emtansine versus capecitabine plus lapatinib in patients with previously treated HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (EMILIA): a descriptive analysis of final overall survival results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jun;18(6):732-742. Epub 2017 May 16. link to original article link to PMC article PubMed
  3. CEREBEL: Pivot X, Manikhas A, Żurawski B, Chmielowska E, Karaszewska B, Allerton R, Chan S, Fabi A, Bidoli P, Gori S, Ciruelos E, Dank M, Hornyak L, Margolin S, Nusch A, Parikh R, Nagi F, DeSilvio M, Santillana S, Swaby RF, Semiglazov V. CEREBEL (EGF111438): A phase III, randomized, open-label study of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus trastuzumab plus capecitabine in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1564-73. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article PubMed

Capecitabine & Neratinib

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Regimen

Study Evidence Efficacy
Saura et al. 2014 Phase I/II ORR: 64%

Note: this is the MTD dose from the phase II portion.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Saura C, Garcia-Saenz JA, Xu B, Harb W, Moroose R, Pluard T, Cortés J, Kiger C, Germa C, Wang K, Martin M, Baselga J, Kim SB. Safety and efficacy of neratinib in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 10;32(32):3626-33. Epub 2014 Oct 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine, Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Urruticoechea et al. 2017 (PHEREXA) Phase III Capecitabine & Trastuzumab Might have superior PFS

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Urruticoechea A, Rizwanullah M, Im SA, Ruiz ACS, Láng I, Tomasello G, Douthwaite H, Badovinac Crnjevic T, Heeson S, Eng-Wong J, Muñoz M. Randomized phase III trial of trastuzumab plus capecitabine with or without pertuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer who experienced disease progression during or after trastuzumab-based therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 10;35(26):3030-3038. Epub 2017 Apr 24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Capecitabine & Trastuzumab

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XH: Xeloda (Capecitabine) & Herceptin

Variant #1

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Bartsch et al. 2007 Phase II ORR: 20%
Pivot et al. 2015 (CEREBEL) Phase III Capecitabine & Lapatanib Seems not superior
Urruticoechea et al. 2017 (PHEREXA) Phase III Capecitabine, Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab Might have inferior PFS

Note: the only difference between this and variant #2 is the use of a loading dose of trastuzumab. The primary endpoint of CEREBEL was incidence of CNS as site of first relapse; this was very low in both arms, with no statistically significant difference.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
von Minckwitz et al. 2009 (GBG 26/BIG 3-05) Phase III Capecitabine Seems to have superior TTP

This is a continuation of trastuzumab so there is no loading dose.

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Bartsch R, Wenzel C, Altorjai G, Pluschnig U, Rudas M, Mader RM, Gnant M, Zielinski CC, Steger GG. Capecitabine and trastuzumab in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep 1;25(25):3853-8. Epub 2007 Aug 6. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. GBG 26/BIG 3-05: von Minckwitz G, du Bois A, Schmidt M, Maass N, Cufer T, de Jongh FE, Maartense E, Zielinski C, Kaufmann M, Bauer W, Baumann KH, Clemens MR, Duerr R, Uleer C, Andersson M, Stein RC, Nekljudova V, Loibl S. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 study. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Apr 20;27(12):1999-2006. Epub 2009 Mar 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: von Minckwitz G, Schwedler K, Schmidt M, Barinoff J, Mundhenke C, Cufer T, Maartense E, de Jongh FE, Baumann KH, Bischoff J, Harbeck N, Lück HJ, Maass N, Zielinski C, Andersson M, Stein RC, Nekljudova V, Loibl S; GBG 26/BIG 03-05 study group and participating investigators. Trastuzumab beyond progression: overall survival analysis of the GBG 26/BIG 3-05 phase III study in HER2-positive breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2011 Oct;47(15):2273-81. Epub 2011 Jul 7. link to original article PubMed
  3. CEREBEL: Pivot X, Manikhas A, Żurawski B, Chmielowska E, Karaszewska B, Allerton R, Chan S, Fabi A, Bidoli P, Gori S, Ciruelos E, Dank M, Hornyak L, Margolin S, Nusch A, Parikh R, Nagi F, DeSilvio M, Santillana S, Swaby RF, Semiglazov V. CEREBEL (EGF111438): A phase III, randomized, open-label study of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus trastuzumab plus capecitabine in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1564-73. Epub 2015 Jan 20. link to original article contains protocol PubMed
  4. PHEREXA: Urruticoechea A, Rizwanullah M, Im SA, Ruiz ACS, Láng I, Tomasello G, Douthwaite H, Badovinac Crnjevic T, Heeson S, Eng-Wong J, Muñoz M. Randomized phase III trial of trastuzumab plus capecitabine with or without pertuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer who experienced disease progression during or after trastuzumab-based therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 10;35(26):3030-3038. Epub 2017 Apr 24. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Lapatinib & Trastuzumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
Blackwell et al. 2010 (EGF104900) Phase III Lapatinib Seems to have superior OS

Chemotherapy

(presumably) given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. Blackwell KL, Burstein HJ, Storniolo AM, Rugo H, Sledge G, Koehler M, Ellis C, Casey M, Vukelja S, Bischoff J, Baselga J, O'Shaughnessy J. Randomized study of Lapatinib alone or in combination with trastuzumab in women with ErbB2-positive, trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1124-30. Epub 2010 Feb 1. link to original article PubMed
    1. Update: Blackwell KL, Burstein HJ, Storniolo AM, Rugo HS, Sledge G, Aktan G, Ellis C, Florance A, Vukelja S, Bischoff J, Baselga J, O'Shaughnessy J. Overall survival benefit with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer: final results from the EGF104900 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 20;30(21):2585-92. Epub 2012 Jun 11. link to original article PubMed

Pertuzumab & Trastuzumab

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Variant #1, q3wk trastuzumab

Study Evidence
Baselga et al. 2010 Phase II

Chemotherapy

  • Pertuzumab (Perjeta) as follows, given second:
    • Cycle 1: 840 mg IV once on day 2
    • Cycle 2 onwards: 420 mg IV once on day 1
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) as follows:
    • Loading dose: 8 mg/kg IV once on day -28 (that is, 28 days before the start of cycle 1)
    • Cycle 1 onwards: 6 mg/kg IV once on day 1, given first

21-day cycle for 8 cycles

Treatment can be continued if there is no progressive disease.

Variant #2, weekly trastuzumab

Study Evidence
Baselga et al. 2010 Phase II

Chemotherapy

Loading dose:

Cycles 1 to 8:

21-day cycle for 8 cycles; treatment can be continued if there is no progressive disease

References

  1. Baselga J, Gelmon KA, Verma S, Wardley A, Conte P, Miles D, Bianchi G, Cortes J, McNally VA, Ross GA, Fumoleau P, Gianni L. Phase II trial of pertuzumab and trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer that progressed during prior trastuzumab therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1138-44. Epub 2010 Feb 1. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed

Vinorelbine & Trastuzumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence Comparator Efficacy
André et al. 2014 (BOLERO-3) Phase III (C) Everolimus, Trastuzumab, Vinorelbine Inferior PFS
Harbeck et al. 2016 (LUX-Breast 1) Phase III (C) Afatinib & Vinorelbine Seems not superior

Chemotherapy

Given until progression, intolerance, or request to discontinue therapy

References

  1. André F, O'Regan R, Ozguroglu M, Toi M, Xu B, Jerusalem G, Masuda N, Wilks S, Arena F, Isaacs C, Yap YS, Papai Z, Lang I, Armstrong A, Lerzo G, White M, Shen K, Litton J, Chen D, Zhang Y, Ali S, Taran T, Gianni L. Everolimus for women with trastuzumab-resistant, HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer (BOLERO-3): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 May;15(6):580-91. Epub 2014 Apr 14. link to original article PubMed
  2. Harbeck N, Huang CS, Hurvitz S, Yeh DC, Shao Z, Im SA, Jung KH, Shen K, Ro J, Jassem J, Zhang Q, Im YH, Wojtukiewicz M, Sun Q, Chen SC, Goeldner RG, Uttenreuther-Fischer M, Xu B, Piccart-Gebhart M; LUX-Breast 1 study group. Afatinib plus vinorelbine versus trastuzumab plus vinorelbine in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer who had progressed on one previous trastuzumab treatment (LUX-Breast 1): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Mar;17(3):357-66. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

Maintenance for metastatic or unresectable disease

Pertuzumab & Trastuzumab

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Regimen

Study Evidence
Baselga et al. 2011 (CLEOPATRA) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

References

  1. Baselga J, Cortés J, Kim SB, Im SA, Hegg R, Im YH, Roman L, Pedrini JL, Pienkowski T, Knott A, Clark E, Benyunes MC, Ross G, Swain SM; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 12;366(2):109-19. Epub 2011 Dec 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Swain SM, Kim SB, Cortés J, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Knott A, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Baselga J. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (CLEOPATRA study): overall survival results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):461-71. Epub 2013 Apr 18. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Swain SM, Baselga J, Kim SB, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Heeson S, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Cortés J; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 19;372(8):724-34. link to original article PubMed

Trastuzumab monotherapy

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Variant #1, q3wk dosing

Study Evidence
Valero et al. 2010 (BCIRG 007) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Baselga et al. 2011 (CLEOPATRA) Non-randomized portion of RCT
Gelmon et al. 2015 (NCIC CTG MA.31) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

21-day cycles

Variant #2, weekly dosing

Study Evidence
Marty et al. 2005 (M77001) Non-randomized portion of RCT

Preceding treatment

Chemotherapy

Given until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity

References

  1. M77001: Marty M, Cognetti F, Maraninchi D, Snyder R, Mauriac L, Tubiana-Hulin M, Chan S, Grimes D, Antón A, Lluch A, Kennedy J, O'Byrne K, Conte P, Green M, Ward C, Mayne K, Extra JM. Randomized phase II trial of the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab combined with docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer administered as first-line treatment: the M77001 study group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jul 1;23(19):4265-74. Epub 2005 May 23. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  2. BCIRG 007: Valero V, Forbes J, Pegram MD, Pienkowski T, Eiermann W, von Minckwitz G, Roche H, Martin M, Crown J, Mackey JR, Fumoleau P, Rolski J, Mrsic-Krmpotic Z, Jagiello-Gruszfeld A, Riva A, Buyse M, Taupin H, Sauter G, Press MF, Slamon DJ. Multicenter phase III randomized trial comparing docetaxel and trastuzumab with docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab as first-line chemotherapy for patients with HER2-gene-amplified metastatic breast cancer (BCIRG 007 study): two highly active therapeutic regimens. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jan 10;29(2):149-56. Epub 2010 Nov 29. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
  3. CLEOPATRA: Baselga J, Cortés J, Kim SB, Im SA, Hegg R, Im YH, Roman L, Pedrini JL, Pienkowski T, Knott A, Clark E, Benyunes MC, Ross G, Swain SM; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 12;366(2):109-19. Epub 2011 Dec 7. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed
    1. Update: Swain SM, Kim SB, Cortés J, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Knott A, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Baselga J. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (CLEOPATRA study): overall survival results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 May;14(6):461-71. Epub 2013 Apr 18. link to original article contains verified protocol link to PMC article PubMed
    2. Update: Swain SM, Baselga J, Kim SB, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Heeson S, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Cortés J; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 19;372(8):724-34. link to original article PubMed
  4. NCIC CTG MA.31: Gelmon KA, Boyle FM, Kaufman B, Huntsman DG, Manikhas A, Di Leo A, Martin M, Schwartzberg LS, Lemieux J, Aparicio S, Shepherd LE, Dent S, Ellard SL, Tonkin K, Pritchard KI, Whelan TJ, Nomikos D, Nusch A, Coleman RE, Mukai H, Tjulandin S, Khasanov R, Rizel S, Connor AP, Santillana SL, Chapman JA, Parulekar WR. Lapatinib or trastuzumab plus taxane therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: final results of NCIC CTG MA.31. J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 10;33(14):1574-83. Epub 2015 Mar 16. link to original article contains verified protocol PubMed

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